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The Faith Of Islam, The Holy Quran, And It's Attributes Towards 
Military Leadership
CSC AY 1985
                     RESEARCH PAPER
                    PREPARED BY
        Commander Mohammned Jamil S. Al-Muallem
        Saudi Arabian Naval Officer
                    PREPARED FOR
        Command and Staff College, Marine Corps Development
        and Education Command, Quantico, Virginia 22134
                    DATE OF REPORT
                     MAR 25 1985
      A.  Discipline as an Article of Leadership
      B.  Conduct as an Article of Leadership
      C.  Analysis of the Code of Conduct
      A.  The Oneness of Allah (God) and His Attributes
      B.  The Prophet(s) and Their Attributes as Leaders
      C.  The Holy Quran as a Divine Source
      D.  Human Destination After Death
      E.  The Belief in God's Angels
      A.  Man in  Islam
      B.  Devotion to Worship
           1. Declaration of Faith
           2. Meaning of Prayer
           3. Care of the Needy
           4. Essence of Fasting
           5. Performance of Pilgrimage
      A.  The Real Meaning of Jihad (war)
      B.  Islam is Free and Not Compulsory
      C.  The Factors of Moral Concern
                     TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION                                             1-2
DISCIPLINE                                               3-5
A MUSLIM's BELIEF                                        5
    Role of Prophethood & Leadership                     6-13
    The Quran in Islam                                   l3-l4
    Muslim View of Life After Death                      14
    Belief In God's Angel                                15
    Man's Role in Islam                                  16
    Concept of Worship                                   16-19
THE ISLAMIC                                              19-22
    The Meaning of Jihad (war)                           22-24
    No Compulsion in Islam                               24-26
    Moral of Factors                                     26-28
    Conclusion                                           29
    Bibliography                                         30
    It is indeed a blessing that this material will reach those
that would not have had the opportunity of its study, with its
call to inquiry in a field which is central to our lives to come
as individuals and a whole community. Furthermore in our Title,
Faith of Islam, The Holy Quran, and It's Attributes toward Mili-
tary Leadership", there are serveral evident essential components
that vitally supports sound military leadership.
    The two major components of military service personnel in Is-
lam are Discipline and Conduct. Discipline is considered an end
product of education. Conduct on the other hand is considered
acting as a guide or command, and a curtailment of good behavior
educational training that develops self control, character, or
In a much broader sense:  Discipline is further discussed as the
orderliness and efficiency.  Conduct therefore determined as the
prescribed manner through training or contact that one has ap-
plied conformity to the required standards.1
    A paraphrase of the Holy Quran exemplifies that:  "Oh mankind
we created you from a single pair of a mole, and made you into
nations and tribes, that Ye may know each other and not despise
1 - Webster New World Dictionary, College Edition
one another. Truly the most honored of you in the sight of God is
the most righteous of you.  And God is the most righteous of all.
God has full knowledge and is well acquainted with all things".
    Education in Islam is balanced because it stresses the impor-
tance of the development of each facet of the individual's life;
the development of his personality; and fulfillment of spiritual
environmental and material needs in a balanced manner. If each of
the forementioned aspects were fulfilled at the account of the
other, it would result in a misbalanced adjustment. Education
promotes a healthy positive personaliity an one should consider
it as a power which must he developed in a manner conductive to
production of a useful unit of society.2
2 - The Holy Quran, Sura 49:13
                 DISCIPLINE and CONDUCT IN ISLAM
    Discipline and Conduct in Islam are just as important as
faith. The three are almost without exception, and are mentioned
together in the Quran, which is the religious criterion for right
conduct and that which Muslims follow as the guide. The faith in
the heart must lead to good actions and morals in every aspect of
life. In Islam, salvation lies in doing good deeds which require
discipline in following God's commandments, and not merely faith
alone. The fact that Islam is not merely a religion, but a gui-
dance and a way  of life for the fatality of human existence--
spiritual or physical, religious or political, individual or so-
cietal, is the most important factor in shaping Muslim military
personnel. The crucial role of Islam in the Muslim life must be
properly understood by all those who are involved with Muslim mi-
litary personnel in general, and military in particular. Islam,
is not merely a series of rights and rituals, nor a seventh day
of the week event, i.e., something to be kept in its proper place
and not allowed to intrude into the real job or earning a living
and having a "Good Time". The Muslim must understand Islam in the
As Muslims believe, Islam was given not to complicate life but to
make life, Oh yet so simple. But one must not commit any excess
in his religion or life.
following words:
    It is a total and unified way of life, both religious and
    secular; It is a set of beliefs and a way of worship; It
    is a culture and civilization; It is an economic system and
    a way of doing business; It is a special sort of society and
    a way of running a family; It prescribes for inheritance and
    divorce, dress, and etiquette, food and personal hygiene. It
    is a spiritual and human totality, this worldly and the other
    world to come.3
    Islam lays a great stress on the fact that it is not a new
religion and that the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of
Allah be upon him) did not bring a new faith. According to Mu-
slim belief, he was only the last of a series  of Prophets which
included among others, Moses, Jesus, Abraham, and revived and
repeated what they had also preached.4 He cannot be called the
founder of Islam, nor can Islam be call Mohammadism. In fact to
call Islam Mohammadism would be to a Muslim insulting and a sign
of ignorance. Islamic life is based on two solid foundations--
Belief and Action. They are inseparable and complimentary to each
other. Beliefs must be rooted in the heart and expressed in a
simple but comprehensive Code of Conduct. Muslims feel that all
people, their social and cultural expressions, emanate from their
beliefs and Code of Conduct patterns. As one reads about Islamic
beliefs and its practices, many followers of other religions,
3 - The ARAMCO Edition and It's World, 1st Edition
4 - The Holy Quran, Sura 6:83-95
especially Christians and Jews may find an echo in their own
hearts. This is not a surprising fact, for the Quran has stated
that amongst men those that are closest to be called friends are
the Christians, because they have amongst them those that are
learned and are in search of the truth.5
                         A MUSLIM'S BELIEF
    GOD. Belief in the Oneness of Allah (English word God, and
one in which Muslims are demanded to refer to the Almighty in A-
rabic), it is the foundation of Islam. An uncompromising and pure
monothesis;  God is One--Unique. All powerful! What distinguishes
Islam's belief in God from that of other religions are first,that
is has no room for any the compromising in the Oneness of almigh-
ty God (Tawhid) and secondly, that it forms the basis of all
other Islamic beliefs, attitudes, practices and rules. A Muslim
worships or gives his allegiance and loyalty to none apart from
God, or independent of God. He has absolute faith in God and
loves or fears none more than God. The belief in Allah, permeates
every walk of a Muslim's life and finds expression in every cul-
tural or social practice.6
5 - The Holy Quran, Sura 5:50-54
6 - The Holy Quran, Sura 27:84-89, 36-38
    Due to the fact that God is the source of all true guidance
for human life, man must submit to the divine guidance as ulti-
mate and final. Muslims believe that God has revealed his gui-
dance to human chosen by God. By this process, the Prophets. The
Prophets came to all parts of the world, to all nations at vari-
ous times. Adam was the very first of the Prophets and he and
others,  Abrahamn, Issac, Jacob, Moses, Solomon, David, John
and Jesus, to mention only a few, were all human chosen by God
and were given the same message:  That God is One, and his Com-
mandments are to be obeyed! Every Muslim is required to believe
and respect all Prophets as an integral part of his faith.8 Deni-
al of one is a denial of all and is enough to take one outside of
the fold of Islam. Muslims also believe that Prophethood came to
an end with the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be
upon him) whom God made as a seal of all the Prophets and by whom
the religion of Islam, a total way of life, was completed.7 It
was to the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessing of Allah be upon
him) that the words of God were revealed, by the way of the Holy
Angel Gabriel over a period of twenty-three years from the age of
7 - The Holy Quran, Sura 5:157-160; Sura 2:146-147
8 - The Holy Quran, Sura 46:35; Sura 33:7
forty to his death at sixty three. Gabriel was that same Angel,
spirit, or comforter that taught Jesus (peace and blessings of
Allah be upon him) as a child the Gospel of Unity (New Testa-
ment). The Quran is the record of all these words exactly as con-
veyed and arranged by the Prophet himself. During the life of the
Prophet, he was noble and had a spotless character. He was an ab-
solute believer in God, and was thouroughly trustworthy in re-
spect of his companionship, help and guidance. He was affectio-
nate, kind and considerate to his companions; always considerate
and truthful. He was sincere; perfectly faithful in respect to
trust and promises. He kept himself aloft from gambing, drink-
ing, vulgar language, all the vices rampant among people of his
age. He was always fair and honest in all dealings; generous and
obliging to his friends and benefactors. He walked humbly and
thoughtfully in the midst of the arrogant. The Prophet's life,
therefore, became the model and perfect example for all Muslims
and for all the world.
    During the pre-Islamic days, the arabs were a very quarrel-
some people. They fought on many small issues and could only sa-
tisfy their ego after avenging the loss of life on their side.9
Wars broke out every now and then and became a permanent feature
9 - The Central Islamic Trust "Study Guide"
of life. Wars were often started and sometimes continued for
years. There was much unrest and turmoil. However, the Holy Pro-
phet (peace and blessings of Allah upon him) was very kind and
humane from the beginning of his child-hood. During a period of
reconstruction of the Holy Kaabah (Islamic Holy place of worship
in Makkah) a serious conflict arose on the issue of installing
the Sacred Stone in the Kaabah, and a bloody clash appeared emi-
nent. But the Prophet tactifully settled the dispute, and there-
fore averted blood shed. He placed the Sacred Stone on a sheet of
cloth and asked all the Tribal Chiefs to hold on it and together
carry the Sacred Stone to the Kaabah wall. At this point, the
Prophet himself installed it in the proper place of the wall.
This portrayal was a prime example of leadership as well as com-
passion and concern for his brothers.10
    Also following the Holy Prophet's death,(peace and blessings
of Allah upon him), a new and continuing leadership had to be ac-
complished. This succeeding leadership was categorized as the
FOUR RIGHTLY GUIDED KHALIPHS (Islamic leader/successors). Even
with the death of the Prophet, despite the Muslim community being
faced with the problem of successsion, the Four Rightly Guided
marked for leadership arose as a matter of leadership that had to
10 - Ahadith, By Sahih Bukhari
stand. The First, Abu Bakr Al-Siddeeg (blessings upon him(B.U.H.)
accompanied the Prophet to Medina for a period of ten years, and
had been appointed to take the place of him as leader of public
prayer during the Prophets last illness. Umar, Ebin of Al-Khattab
an able trusted companion of the Prophet, by popular public gest-
grasped the hand of Abu Bakr Al-Siddeg (B.U.H.), as a sign of new
leadership. Everyone agreed before dust and Abu Bakr had been re-
cognized as the Khalifah of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings
of Allah upon him). Despite his short reign, Abu Bakr-governed
the people even in their confusion with great firmness and disci-
pline. Logistically, he consolidated the support of all the
tribes within the Arabian penisula and funneled their energies
against the powerful Empires in the East: The Sassanians in Per-
sia; Byzantines in Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. Second, Khalifah
Umar Byn Khattab (B.U.H.) was appointed by  Abu Bakr in a writt-
en testament. Adopting the Title Amir Al-Muminin (Commander of
the Believers), he extended Islam temporal rule over Syria, E-
gypt, Iraq, and Persia in what from a purely military stand point
were astonishing victories. He served for a period of ten years,
and ended his victories over the Persian Empire. He was noted for
his justice, social ideals, administration and statemanship.11 His
11  - The ARAMCO and It's World Edition
innovation left an enduring imprint on social welfare, taxation,
and the financial and administrative fabric of the growing em-
pire. After the death of Umar (B.U.H.) an advisory council com-
posed of companions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings
of Allah upon him) selected a third khaliph. Third, Uthman Ebin
Affan (B.U.H.) achieved much during his reign. He via his cousin
Mu'Awiyah, Governor of Syria, established the first Navy. His
most greatest accomplishment was the compilation of the text of
the Holy Quran as revealed to the Prophet. Because of Uthman's
concern to insure the purification continued within the Holy Qu-
ran, with God's help, it is that text to this date still accepta-
ble throughout the Muslim world. Due to certain unsettlement and
jealousy, Uthman was killed, and the result caused complications
in the community of Islam that have not entirely been at a point
closed. Fourth, the Khaliph Ali, was the Prophet's cousin and
son-in-law. Ali (B.U.H.) leadership moved into difficulty because
the powerful Governor of Syria where Ali's Khaliphat was consid-
ered invalid because the election was supported by those deter-
mined responsible for killing Uthman. As a separation became em-
inent in the Muslim community, Ali was later killed by one of his
previous supporters.12
11 - The ARAMCO and Its World Edition
    Despite certain divisions and unsettlement that surfaced af-
ter the Prophet's death, the FOUR RIGHTLY GUIDED KHALIPHS had all
been companions--pious, sincere men who lived a simple yet dedi-
cated lives. As a quality of Hilm (civilized restraint) the Kha-
liphs and their sucessors agreed on:
    I apply not my sword where my lash sufficed,
    nor my lash where my tongue is enough. And even
    if there be one hair binding me to my fellowmen,
    I do not let it break; When they pull I loosen,
    and if they loosen I pull.l3
    The success of a military operation will naturally
depend on the highest qualities of military leadership and the
way that a leader makes use of his strategy and military opera-
tions thus doing so before and better than his enemies--how he
organizes his offensive as well as maintaining the secrecy of a
plan better and more efficiently than the enemy; how to employ
forces in a situation with consideration of a minimum lost to his
men and their material; how best to employ the element of sur-
prise before it can be used against him; how best he can inspire
his men with the truth of the cause and objective, create confi-
dence in them and prepare them with the will and determination to
fight; and possible above all, how can he make them cooperate and
give their best in fighting against the enemy.
12 - The ARAMCO and It's World Edition
    In light of these principles let us review the leadership ex-
ample of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah upon
him) as a military commander, the example for the Muslim service-
man. Aside from his endearing personality, he was brave and cou-
rageous. He faced a multitude of dangers and calamities all at
once, but never showed any weakness or fearfulness. It is related
that he once said:
                    "By him whose hand my life is! Were it not
                     for some man amongst the believers who dis-
                     liked to be left behind me and whom I can
                     not provide with means of conveyance. I
                     would love to be martyred in Allah's cause
                     and then get resurrected and again then get
                     martyred and then get resurrected again and
                     then get martyred".14
He fought many battles and even under severe attack, never moved
from his place. He was always nearest to enemy lines when the
battle was raging. He was steadfast and fought in his own posi-
tion while others fled. It was evident in the Battle of Uhud and
Hunain, when many soldiers fled from the battlefields that he re-
mained in his position, fighting and calling others back. Self-
control is of great help on and off the battlefield. Many brave
and courageous men lost their heart and paniced under severe strain
of battle and breakdown. But the example of the Prophet had full
14 -Ahadith, By Sahih Bukhari
ontrol of himself under all situations in peace and war. At
Makkah he suffered at the hands of the Quraish Tribes for 13
years and bore all the hardship and suffering with patient per-
servance. At Medina, he faced an entirely different situation.
    All the Prophets of God were given divine guidance through
words in the form of revealed books (revelations). Muslims be-
leive that the Old Testament and New Testament were originally
divine revelations. The Quran is the latest and the last revela-
tion and enshrines and validates all the basic teachings of the
earlier relevations, whose orginal text according to the Quran
were lost and are now found only in revisions and translations.
Therefore, it is the first and fundamental source of guidance and
is believed by Muslims all over the world to be the final and ul-
timate revelation inspite of changing human values and standards
or human opinion as well as desires.15
    In regard to Islam and everything connected with it is con-
cerned, all understanding, all knowledge, all talk and all ac-
tions are hollow if all this is not firmly anchored in an under-
standing of the Quran. To that primary source, we must turn.
15 - The Holy Quran, Sura 2:1-15; 2:86-121
In it we must soak ourselves and emerge dripping wet for our on-
ward journey towards the developing Title Muslim. The Quran is a
book, an entire revelation, whose purpose is one to remove all
doubt, and answer all questions in this life and the one to fol-
low for guidance. But many say:  "I cannot read Arabic? How am I
to learn this obsolute truth"? The Prophet once stated:
    " One who is skilled in the Quran is associated
      with the noble, upright Angels; And he who fal-
      ters when reciting the Quran and finds it diffi-
      cult for him will have a double reward ".16
The Quran, and the whole of Islam with it, is not a matter for
monastic meditation or drawing--room disputation. A full meaning
of the Quran demands its insertion into the stream of life, put-
ting it to the practical test, so the reality that it expounds
may dawn on us in the concrete, even as it suffuses our inner
lives. In spite of all these devices, one cannot grasp the in-
spiring spirit of the Quran by mere lipservice to it, as many re-
ligions and sects have attempted.
                       LIFE AFTER DEATH
    Belief in life after death and the Day of Judgement is fun-
damental to Muslims who see the worldly life as part of the great
16 - Ahadith, By Sahih Bukhari
reality of the hereafter. The life of this world would seem mean-
ingless if it were not followed by an eternal existence in which
punishments are given for individuals in relations to their beha-
vior on earth. Paradise is the reward and hell is the punishment.
On the Day of Judgement each individual will be called to account
for his or her conduct and rewarded accordingly. This belief is
crucial for Muslims and distinguishes their pattern of behavior
from that of others who have no firm convictions in this regard,
and who are prone to modify their conduct in relation to immedi-
ate or foreseeable consequences within the confines of their li-
mited perception of society, of which they are a part.
                      BELIEF IN GOD'S ANGELS  17
    God's Angels are numerous, invisible beings in charge of the
execution of the commands and decrees of God. Their total numbers
are known only to God. The best known to us are:
    JIBRIL(GABRIEL) : Who is by belief the Arch-Angel in charge
                      of revelations delivered to the Prophets
                      and by God's decree to certain men. By En-
                      glish standards, it is Gabriel according to
                      Islamic belief most categorized as the Holy
                      Ghost, Comforter, or Sprit of God.18
    ISCRAFIL(ISCRAFAEL): The Angel who's duty, by God's decree,
                         is to announce the end of life by The
                         Sounding of The Truimph.19
17 - Survey of Islamic Doctrine, By Kamil Y. Avdich, Lesson 2
18 - The Holy Quran, Sura 2:87,253
19 - The Holy Quran, Sura 35:1; 26:193; 74:1-15
    AZRAEL: Angel in charge of Death.
    MIKAEL:Will assist in the weighing of human actions, good and
bad during the Day of Judgement. The Holy Quran has also taught
that two Angels are assigned to each of us, for the recording of
of our deeds that come from our open expression (tongue), and the
the other records our bad ones. Only God can read that which is
in our hearts and minds, and these too are recorded.
                     THE ROLE OF MAN IN ISLAM
    According to Islam, man has been created as the representa-
tive (Khalifah) of God on the earth. He has been given free will
and moral sense. He is responsible for his action. He carries no
stigma of original sin. His maternal urges and desires are not e-
vil. They do not have to be suppressed, only controlled and ful-
filled within the limits set by God. The rules and regulations
for the conduct of  human life have been clearly given in Islam
which God has framed in keeping with human nature and brings them
in harmony with the factors of the universe.20
                         CONCEPT OF WORSHIP 21
    Worship in Islam, denoted by the Arabic word 'Ibadah, is a
much wider concept than in other religions. There is no diety
20 - The Holy Quran, Sura 18:110; Sura 49:13
21 - Survey of Islamic Doctrine, By Kamil Y. Avdich, Chap II
but God, Almighty. It can encompass a whole range of diversities,
sacred actions, and human actions. Consciously and sincerely per-
formed as acts of obediance to Islamic teaching, work, worship,
bathing, cleaning, conversation, helping someone, study and so on
can be a form of worship, if done with the sole intention of ple-
asing God and not merely to promote personal advantage, enhance
status or put someone else under the obligation to reciprocate,
or such, etc.
    The basic and formal structure of worship which enables a Mu-
slim to transform his entire life into an act of worship is con-
tained within the framework of the Five Pillars of Islam which
are as follow: 22
    1 - DECLARATION OF FAITH (Shahadah). Declaring that there is
        no God but God, he is One and has no partners, and that
        the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah upon
        him) is his messenger and servant. For the Muslim this
        declaration goes beyond the recitation. It is the essence
        of the frame and reference which guides the action of the
        Muslim and determines his philosophy. This declaration is
        not solely a prayer, it is the Muslim's Plan of Action.
    2 - PRAYER (Salat). The Muslims are required to pray 5 times
        each day as a mandatory minimum. For Muslims, prayer is a
        regular and disciplined set of worship in which, mentally
        and physically, they humbly submit thenselves to God, to
        praise him, to glorify him, to repent to him and to seek
        his mercy, forgiveness and guidance from him. It takes
        the form of a series of physical obligations which in-
22 - The Holy Quran, Sura 23:1-11
  	clude standing, reciting the Quran, bowing, prostrating,
  	and sitting. Prayer is obligatory at specific periods. At
  	Fajr (dawn), Zuhr (mid-day), Asr (mid-day afternoon), Ma-
  	ghrib (just before sunset), and Isha (after sunset early
  	evening). Prayer is training for the Muslim, as he follows
  	the commandments of Allah and the leader of prayer (Imam)
  	in salat, it will enhance his ability to follow the com-
  	mandments of Allah and the dictates of his superior outside
  	of regular salat.
      3	- WELFARE FOR THE NEEDY (Zakat). Muslims believe that ev-
  	erything they possess have been given to him by God as a
  	trust. They are not the owners, but merely the trustees. In
  	Islam all Muslims with sufficient means are obliged to give
  	two and a half percent of the value of their net wealth
  	each year to the needy. This is a means of purification and
  	spiritual enrichment.
      4 - FASTING IN RAMADAN (Sayam). Muslims are required to fast
  	for one month each year--the month of Ramadan, the ninth
  	month of the Muslim lunar calendar--to obstain from eating,
  	drinking, and sexual intercourse from dawn to sunset. The
  	Holy Quran reflects:
      " The month of Ramadan is the month when the Quran
        was sent down as a guidance for mankind, and with
        a clear expositions of guidance, and as a standard
        let any of you who is at home during this month fast
        in it;  Any one who is ill or on a journey shall set
        a number of other days ".23
  	Fasting is one of the highest forms of worship for a Mu-
  	slim. It is the test of moral chracter, an education and an
  	opportunity to meditate. While most people understand it to
  	be merely refraining from eating, drinking and  smoking at
  	dawn thru sunset during the 29/30 days of the Sacred Month
  	of Ramadan, the Fast, is much more than a physical endur-
  	ance test . It is performed with sincere intention to sa-
  	tisfy and please God, the most fulfilling and enriching act
  	of spiritual dedication. It also should lead to a special
     23 - The Holy Quran, Sura 2:185
      	endeavor to refrain from all evil and sinful acts. Fasting
      	may create physical and economic hardship, but in Islam man
      	has larger needs than the mere physical and economic. His
      	spiritual growth and moral up liftment, so much dependent
      	on self-control and self-discipline, are equally or rather
      	more important.
      5- PILGRIMAGE TO MAKKAH (Hajj). Hajj is a commandment of God
      	and for Muslims to obey this command is the height of a
      	true believer to his creator. Pilgrimage to the Holy House
      	is a duty mankind owes to God, and is imperative if any can
      	find a way to do so. A pilgrimage to Makkah is a once in a
      	lifetime event of great importance and significance in the
      	heart of every Muslim to visit Makkah is to visit The Kaa-
      	bah (Holy House of Allah), built by the Prophet Abraham (
      	Blessing of Allah upon him). Here Muslims demonstrate  Is-
      	lamic  solidarity,brotherhood, and equality. Men and women,
      	black and white, Arab or non-Arab, rich or poor, literate
      	or illiterate, powerful or weak, ruler or ruled, together
      	perform  the same religious rites. One of the features of
      	Hajj also, is the sacrifice of animals made in commemora-
      	tion of the Prophet Abraham (B.U.H.) willingly responding
      	to his Lord's call and who would have sacrificed his son
      	Ismael in submission to the will of God. In performing this
      	sacrafice Muslims demonstrated their own willingness to sa-
      	crifice their lives and their property for the sake of God
      	and the religion of Islam.24
                 THE ISLAMIC LAW (SHARIAH)
    Islamic Law contains the Code of Conduct and behavior in
thought and action which Muslims are required to follow for their
entire life. It comprises the will of God and it is the duty of
Muslims to do their utmost to live by it. It is the Plan of Ac-
24 - Al-Hadith, By Muhammad Abdul Rauf,
tion which the Shahadah, the first pillar, trains and discipline
the Muslims.
    Islamic Law, and the life example of the Holy Prophets are
embodied in the Quran. The Ahadith and the Sunnah (reported say-
ings and traditions of the Prophet),with the Law revealed by God,
are also binding to the Muslims. The Sunnah of the Prophet's life
provides a perfection in every field of activity, and his message
is a source of guidance for mankind. The Quran describes his no-
ble personality in these related words:
The religion of Islam which was perfected with the advent of the
Holy Prophet means peace, and also submission and obedience to
the command of God. The peace is fundamental and basic to life in
Islam and war comes only as a matter of necessity when there are
no other ways of correctivie courses of action. Life in Islam is
sacred and to be respected, and for it's preservation it requires
security. The human society is not composed of Angels but of a
multiplicity of people. Some individuals and groups who are vio-
lent and aggressive do not allow free people to live in peace and
security. Such individuals have to be kept under restraint, so
that other people and societies may live in peace. When there are
24 - Life of The Prophet Muhammad, By M.K. Haykal
such people who will not let others live in peace and practice
their faith as they wish, and are determined to annihilate them,
along with their faith, and create a state of chaos in a country,
then fighting becomes not only justified but obligatory on Mu-
slims. War became part of Islam in order to restore the condi-
tions of peace and order, so that people may live in peace and
practice their faith without fear or compulsion. The Prophet Mu-
hammad (peace and blessings of Allah upon him) had to wage war
to defend his people from aggressors who opposed him and his com-
panions in their efforts to obey the Law of God and invite others
to it. Within Sura (Quranic word for chapter), Al-Hajj (the pil-
grimage), it is reflected:
   "  Permission to fight as protection is granted
      to those who way had been waged and because
      they have been treated unjustly, and God is
      certainly able to help them. These are a peo-
      ple who have been unjustly expelled from their
      homes only for reason that they say--Our Lord
      is only God ".25
This was the first verse of the Quran with regards to fighting.
It allowed the Muslims who were unjustly expelled from their
homes to take up arms to defend themselves against open aggres-
sion. This verse of the Quran not only stresses the importance
and necessity of fighting in defense, but also commands Muslims
25 - The Holy Quran, Sura 9:20
to fight in order to help the weaker men, women, and children who
are being oppressed and persecuted unjustly by others. The Quran
also reflects:
   "  Why should you not fight in the way of God for
      the sake of those helpless men, women, children,
      who being eak, hve been oppressed and are crying
      out--Our Lord, deliver us from this town whose
      inhabitants are unjustly oppressed and raise a
      protector for us by your grace and help from your-
      self ".
                          JIHAD (War) 26
    The Quran refers to the philosophy of Jihad in these reflect-
ed words:
    " Had God not repelled one people by means of another
      people, monasteries, churches, synagogues and mosques
      wherein the name of God is often mentioned, would have
      been demolished ".
This verse explains the wisdom and necessity of war. Different
people, different  nations, And differennt groups in power that
flourish on this earth. They remain in power and control the af-
fairs of people until they start committing excesses and aggress-
ion against them. Gradually they lose their power and other peo-
ple, better and more just, replace them and establish themselves
on earth. This process continues in which the aggressor and ev-
26 - The Holy Quran, Sura 29:69
il-doer is continually replaced by a comparatively better nation
or better people. This verse refers to the Universal Principle of
God, according to which no one is allowed to hold power on earth
forever, for it would have certainly filled the earth with utter
confusion, disorder, and oppression.
    Moreover, Jihad is the last of the basic fundamentals of Is-
lam. The Quran revealed that Almighty God had completed his favor
upon man, and had chosen for him the religion Islam, and the fol-
lowers Muslims. Unfortunately, those held at a distance on clear-
ly understanding Jihad have felt that it was an act of politicial
warfare and aggression. But, anyone who exerts himself physically
and mentally, or spends of his wealth and property in the way of
God is indeed engaged in Jihad.    It should be made clear that
the war in Islam is not a casual phenomenon of violence. It is
one of the phases of man--striving (Jihad) against all that is
evil by the Holy Scriptures, whether in thought, feeling, or ac-
    The word Jihad, is sometimes confused with the word Oyital
(Actual fighting), and these are used in One and the Same sense.
However, the Holy Quran has made a clear distinction between
them. Jihad is an All-Around effort directed to so many paths and
27 - Ahadith, By Sahih Bukhari
and ways, it necessitates the employment of different methods to
acquit oneself creditably of it's wide and varied responsibility.
A Muslim is reqired to struggle (fight) against three foes:
    FIRST: Against himself.
    SECOND: Against the Evil (devil) whispering to his ears.
    THIRD: Against the known and seeable enemy.
                     NO COMPULSION IN ISLAM
    The Holy Prophet invited people to Islam in very persuasive
and effective ways, through example and reason towards the word
of God. He explained to them the simple, yet plain truth about
man, the universe, and God,in a most convincing and appealing ma-
nner. People entered Islam of their own will convinced of the ob-
solute truth. The duty of the Holy Prophet and his followers,were
to deliver the message clearly and effectively in the best possi-
ble manner, so that people may understand it. It is then up to
them to accept or reject it. The Holy Quran reflects:
    " Say the Truth is from your Lord: Them whosoever will
      let him believe, and whosoever will--let him disbelieve".28
    This explains the whole philosophy of faith. It is offered to
the people and they are free to accept or reject it. Both accep-
28 - The Holy Quran, Sura 23:70-90
tance and rejection are based on a voluntary and thoughtful de-
cision of each person. They are under no compulsion to accept
nor reject it. The decision is entirely that of the individual,
and is made after careful consideration, because faith is a mat-
ter of conviction and can not be forced on anyone. At this point
I would like to mention the fact that some non-muslim writers
have taken pain to present Islam as a religion that employed vio-
lent means for it's spread, and have tried desperately to make or
compel others to believe that Islam owes its success to forceful
means. Fanaticism,is their word, but it must be recognized that
even fanaticism is one of the features of all religions or any
ideological system. Islam has always tried to control or get rid
of it. On the other hand though fanaticism may serve as a means
to force an ideological system or doctrine on some people tempo-
rarily, it can never be rationally, and in a scholastic manner be
accepted as a factor or the only means of spreading a doctrine,
especially religious ones,permenantly. We can find forced religi-
on conversions temporarily and superficially, in the history of
any religion, even by inhuman means. But it has never been ap-
proved by authentic Islam sources and had certainly been disap-
proved as mentioned earlier in the Holy Quran. The study of the
life of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah upon
him) proves that not only force achieves our means, but more of
a defense of our purpose as mentioned earlier. The Muslims simply
conquered the land. The people accepted Islam in the course of
time because they were engulfed by it and it's priviledges or be-
cause by accepting Islam they simply could rid themselves from
their oppressive national, religious, political or hedious sys-
tem. Nevertheless, it is more appropriate to state that violent
means have been employed by non-muslims to stop the spread of Is-
lam than the Muslims in spreading it.
                          MORAL FACTORS
    Obedience! Obedience to the command of the leader, especially
in conditions of war, is a necessity for the sucess of military
operations. Without it no military commander can achieve any-
thing. The Holy Prophet was fully aware and conscious of the im-
portance of obedience in such matters and  therefore stressed
the fact that his people should follow the Commandments of their
leader without hesitation. A saying related by Ibn Umar (B.U.H.)
states that the Prophet once stated:29
29 - Ahadith, By Sahih Bukhari
    Hearing and obeying are the duty of
    all Muslims, both regarding what he
    likes and what he does not like.....
    He who obeys me obeys Allah, and he who disobeys
    me disobeys Allah. He who obeys the Chief,obeys
    me, while he who disobeys the Chief, disobeys me.
    The Leader (Imam) is like a shelter for whose safe-
    ty the Muslims should fight and where they should
    seek  protection. If the Leader orders people with
    righteousness and rules justly, then he will be re-
    warded for that, and if he does the opposite he will
    also be responsible for that...30
    Man's actions are governed more by psychological factors than
physical ones. The most effective way of influencing human beha-
vior is to influence his mental and spiritual faculties which are
the power-house of the entire human system. If one is able to in-
fluence the psychic mind of the individual, you will completely
influence his actions. This factor can play a very significant
role in preparing and mobilizing the human factor, which is the
dominant force in warfare. As has been stated before regarding
beliefs of the Muslims Serviceman, his belieifs makes the differ-
ence in his loyalty and attention to duty, and most of all his
service to God, the Almighty.
    The prerequisites for a Muslim preparing for Salat (prayer)
alone, are a deep and vital messge of constant remembrance to the
Muslim conscious. Before prayer, the five basic acts must be per-
30 - Ahadith, By Sahih Bukhari
formed called Abdlution or Wuhdu (purifying one self):
    1st: When he washes his hands, up to elbows, he
         must wash clean of worldliness.
    2nd: When he washes his mouth, he must purify his
         mouth from mention of anything other than Allah.
    3rd: When he washes his face, nostril, he must turn
         from all familiar objects and turn his affairs
         over to Allah.
    4th: When he wipes his head and ears, he must resign
         his affairs to Allah.
    5th: When he washes his feet, he must not form the in-
         tention of taking his stand on anything except
         according to the Command of Allah.
    The Belief in One God, is a psychological factor most effec-
tive, and right, in building up confidence for a person, inspir-
ing him to achieve much greater results than could have been done
other wise (Tawhid). The belief in One God, prepares a Muslim for
strict training to mold his actions in accordance with his Iman
(faith). Another aspect of training which couples both the psych-
ical and physical factors is the institution of prayer as dis-
cussed earlier. This religious exercise five times daily, from
early morning until late night, leaves no weakness in human cha-
racter. This duty is not forgiven under any circumstances. Whe-
ther a person is on a journey, sick, or fighting a war, he must
fulfill the obliigation of prayer.
    This strict regulation and discipline of the Islamic prayer
is unique as an example of a program for preparing the Muslim in-
dividual for serving good and justice in the world. Thus, aids a
Muslim prior to joining the military and prepares himself for the
life of a military person and shapes his conduct to make him a
better soldier.
    The Holy Prophet once reflected when asked one day about his
life style:
            Knowledge is my capital
            Intellect is the basis of my religion
            The love of Allah is my foundation
            The yearning after Him is my vessel
            Remembering Him is my  companion
            Confidence in Him is my treasure
            Science is my armament
            Patience is my garb
            Sa-tisfaction is my booty
            Certitude is my nourishment
            Truth is my intercessor
            Obedience is my love---And
            Striving along the straight path of Allah is my
            ethics, and the delight of my heart lies in prayer
Allah!  There is no god, but One God.  May peace be upon you.
- The Holy Quran, Arabic Text and English Transliteration
- The New Webster Encyclopedia Dictionary of the English
- Islam and The Military, by H. Janen, London Pan Books
- Translation and Meaning of Arabic and English, Sahih
  Al-Bukhari Text, Dr.Muhamed Khan Islamic University
- The Meaning of the Quran, Vol I, by A.A. Maudoodi
- ARAMCO And It's World, by Ismail I. Nawwab, Peter. C. Spears,
  and Paul F. Hoye
- Islam At the Crossroads, By Muhammad Asad
- Islamic Doctrine, By Imam Kamil Avdich
- The Laws of Islam, By Dr. Anwar Majid Eshki
- Al-Hadith Introductory, By Dr. Muhammad A. Rauf
- Striving to Be A Muslim, By Col Abdul Oayyum, Staff College,
  Quetta, and General Muhhamad Zia-Ul-Haq, Chief of Army Staff,
  Abdul Hammed Siddiqui
- The Life of Muhammad, By Muhammad Husayn Haykal, and translated
  by Ismail Ragi A. Al-Faruqi

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