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Combat Support

Section I. General

6-1. Support units.

a. In addition to combat units, reconnaissance and surveillance (R&S), fire support, intelligence, engineer, signal, military police, and air defense artillery forces are integrated into counterguerrilla force operations by the commander. This chapter explains the extent to which these assets are used, depending on their suitability to the situation.

b. The role of reconnaissance and surveillance in counterguerrilla operations at all levels of conflict is of prime importance. Reconnaissance and surveillance units are critical; without them the chance of success in counterguerrilla operations is significantly decreased.

c. The types of reconnaissance and surveillance units the counterguerrilla force may have are its organic scout elements and any long-range surveillance units attached from corps and division. A brigade-size force may also have supporting intelligence collectors from the divisional combat electronic warfare intelligence (CEWI) battalion. These assets may include SIGINT collectors, remote sensors, and ground surveillance radars.

d. The types of fire support units the counterguerrilla force may have are mortar platoons, antitank platoons or companies, field artillery units, tactical air support, naval gunfire support, and air defense artillery units.

6-2. Firepower constraints.

a. In counterinsurgencies, firepower is usually restricted in order to limit damage. The use of fire support depends on its suitability and prevailing restrictions.

b. The same restrictions do not usually exist to the same degree in conventional conflicts. The use of fire support assets in these conflicts is expanded since restrictions are relaxed. Suitability in these conflicts usually depends on the availability of fire support.

Section II. Reconnaissance and Surveillance Units

6-3. Techniques.

a. Reconnaissance and surveillance are important techniques in gaining current and accurate intelligence on guerrilla forces. Current, accurate intelligence on the location, size, composition, equipment, and morale of guerrilla forces is an absolute necessity for successful counterguerrilla operations.

b. While all tactical units have the capability to conduct reconnaissance and surveillance during operations, there are two units that are trained and organized to fulfill these specific tactical missions. These units are the scout platoon and the long-range surveillance unit (detachment or company).

c. The scout platoon is organic to battalions; the long-range surveillance detachment is organic to divisions; and the long-range surveillance company is organic to corps. Each one works directly for its (division, corps) commander. Elements of these units may be attached to subordinate units, when required.

d. If the reconnaissance and surveillance unit has vehicles, their use for purposes other than transportation is determined by the situation. In most cases, vehicles are used for transport to the general area where the operation is to begin. The operation is then conducted dismounted to enhance security.

6-4. Countering the guerrilla force.

a. One method that may be successful in countering guerrilla forces is to divide the reconnaissance and surveillance assets into teams of three or four men. These teams are inserted into the operational area to "saturate" it. Since guerrillas travel in small units and then mass at a predetermined point prior to the attack, this tactic increases the chances of discovering one or more of these guerrilla units before they mass. The chance of this method being successful increases in proportion to the number of teams inserted and operating.

b. The reconnaissance and surveillance element is divided into as many teams of three or four men as possible and deployed to cover an area. Of the seven teams deployed in this situation, only two (three and six) discover enemy units (figure 6-1).

c. This method should be used continuously to provide the counterguerrilla force greater opportunity to act rather than react. Once contact is made, the counterguerrilla commander has three immediate options available (Figure 6-2).

d. In most cases, option 3 presents the best possibility for continued success if the counterguerrilla force commander has time constraints placed on his mission. It enables him to engage a portion of the guerrilla force and weaken its overall capability without losing a vital source of intelligence.

e. Option 1 may be best in situations where the counterguerrilla force does not have constraints placed on it and seeks to decisively engage a larger guerrilla force. In any case, the commander should wait until intelligence indicates that the guerrilla force has reached its assembly area or base camp before he reacts with maneuver forces.

f. He should place his reconnaissance and surveillance elements in positions where they can best discover escaping guerrillas who have slipped through the blocking forces (Figure 6-3).

g. He begins the process again if guerrilla units escape (Figure 6-4).

h. The key to reconnaissance and surveillance units operating successfully in a counterinsurgency environment is the ability to remain undetected. This capability is the result of comprehensive training and experience. Communications equipment suitable for the mission is also a prime factor. It does no good to gather intelligence if the counterguerrilla force cannot use it in a timely manner.

i. In conventional counterguerrilla conflicts, the use of the reconnaissance and surveillance units is more in line with their conventional missions. They can also employ modifications of the tactics described for a counterinsurgency. The mission of the scout platoon is to perform reconnaissance, provide limited security, and assist in controlling movement of the battalion or its elements. The types of operations a scout platoon can perform are route, zone, and area reconnaissance, and screening.

6-5. LRSU.

a. The mission of the long-range surveillance unit {LRSU} (company or detachment) is to observe, record, and report enemy dispositions, facilities, and activities as well as battlefield conditions.

b. The LRSU provides the commander with a dedicated, specially trained and equipped, and highly reliable human intelligence collection capability. A HUMINT collection unit provides the commander with the capability to gather timely, highly reliable information that does not require lengthy processing and analysis. The trained observer augmented with modem sensor and communication systems is a reliable, flexible, and valuable information-gathering asset and is essential to conducting successful operations.

c. The LRSU is organized, trained, and equipped to enter enemy areas to observe and report enemy movements and activities, as well as battlefield conditions. At night, or during other periods of reduced visibility, surveillance teams infiltrate by air, ground, or water to selected areas occupied by enemy forces or to areas where enemy activity is expected.

d. While avoiding contact with the enemy and local civilians, these elements employ a variety of sensors and special purpose equipment to detect, observe, and monitor enemy activities and perform other specified tasks. As information is obtained, periodic reports are sent to the LRSU operations element utilizing secure, rapid-transmission communications equipment. This operational element provides the reported data to the military intelligence (MI) operation center for analysis and dissemination. At a predesignated time, or on order, surveillance elements are either extracted or evade enemy personnel to exfiltrate the enemy area, or they link up with friendly forces. Members of the surveillance elements are physically and mentally prepared to remain in enemy territory for extended periods to accomplish their mission.

Section III. Fire Support Units

6-6. Fire support planning.

a. The types of fire support units the counterguerrilla force may have available are mortar platoons, antitank platoons or companies, field artillery units, naval gunfire, tactical air, and air defense artillery units.

b. An important factor in planning fire support is the restriction(s) placed on its use. In counterinsurgency environments, restrictions on its use (and damage caused) are greater than in conventional conflict environments. The commander operates under the concept of "minimum essential force" in counterinsurgency environments. He integrates his fire support into his tactical plan in accordance with prevailing restrictions, but always ensures he has adequate fire support for likely contingencies. In many cases, this means little or no use of fire support.

c. This difficulty is not as great in conventional conflicts, but in these environments there are also restrictions. Usually these restrictions do not hinge on the amount of firepower used, but rather on collateral damage and coordination and control measures. Additionally, fire support may not be readily available to the counterguerrilla commander because it may be committed to fight in the main battle area.

d. Due to restrictions that may preclude the use of fire support, the counterguerrilla force is prepared to operate with little or no fire support.

e. Since areas of operation are usually larger in counterguerrilla operations (than in more conventional operations), the counterguerrilla force must not become tied to the range of its fire support. Operations will take place outside of fire support weapon ranges. In such cases, the commander provides for increased capability to reinforce or extract his engaged units, depending upon the situation. In all cases, restricted or not, the fire support forces available are ready to respond on short notice if restrictions are lifted or when needed for self-defense.

6-7. Mortar platoons.

In a counterinsurgency, the firing elements of the mortar platoon normally occupy positions within the battalion operational support base. If elements are required to move to firing positions outside of the base, additional security must be provided. The mortar platoon is usually kept under battalion control and provides the most responsive indirect fire capability available to a battalion. Depending on the situation, the mortar platoon may or may not work from an established base in a conventional conflict.

6-8. Antitank platoons and companies.

a. In an insurgency, the antitank units are not usually employed in their primary role. In those situations where no armor threat exists, consideration may be given to leaving the tube-launched, optically-tracked, wire-guided (TOW) missile in a secure staging area, either in or out of country, and using the crews as infantry. Since these personnel are usually not experienced in light infantry tactics, they may be best used as part of the security force for the OSB.

b. In conventional conflict environments, the same situation may apply when no armor threat exists. However, because of the contingencies that the counterguerrilla force must be prepared to encounter, the TOWS must remain with the antitank unit while it is employed in a security role. These contingencies may include countering enemy armor penetrations, or a change in mission from rear battle to reinforcing frontline units, or even attacking or defending as part of the main force.

6-9. Field artillery units.

a. As stated previously, the use of field artillery may be extremely limited because of restrictions on the use of firepower. In all cases, the application of firepower must reflect the principle of "minimum essential force." The field artillery (FA) support normally provided to light infantry divisions consists of the 105-mm howitzer. Artillery of larger calibers may be provided by artillery units augmenting the divisional artillery. If the counterguerrilla unit is not light infantry, its organic capability may consist of 155-mm howitzers. It is normal for artillery batteries to operate from the battalion OSB when the battalions are widely dispersed. Normal field artillery missions include direct support, reinforcing, general support, and general support reinforcing.

b. There is a fire support coordination center at each level of maneuver command from company through brigade. They are manned by personnel from the brigade's direct support FA battalion.

c. When the situation permits the use of indirect fire support, FA units must be responsive and flexible. Timely and effective artillery fire in response to guerrilla activity may discourage subsequent guerrilla activity within artillery range. Quick reaction times and the capability to shift artillery fires over wide areas require a responsive and effective means of communication. To provide effective fire support, artillery is employed to obtain maximum area coverage with available weapons while retaining the capability to mass fires. In addition to supporting tactical operations, artillery may be positioned to provide area fire support to defend depots, logistical complexes, population centers, and other critical installations. Fires may be requested by self-defense forces, police, security elements protecting logistical complexes, and other support units, in addition to the supported tactical force.

d. The senior field artillery officer at each echelon of maneuver command is designated the fire support coordinator. (FM 6-20 gives information on fire support coordination for indirect fires and fires from tactical air support.) Fires must be closely coordinated not only with tactical operations in the area but also with civilian activities.

e. Counterguerrilla operations normally dictate:

(1) A greater decentralization of organic, attached, and reinforcing fire support.

(2) A reduced capability for brigade-level control and coordination of fires within the operational area.

(3) Greater security requirements for firing positions of indirect fire weapons to include planning of direct fires for defense.

(4) A requirement to fire in all directions.

(5) Provision for support to local defense forces and static security posts.

(6) Discriminate use of fire support to avoid noncombatant casualties that would alienate the population and produce hostile attitudes toward the host government.

(7) Close coordination with host country officials in the operational area.

f. Lack of time may preclude the preparation of a formal, coordinated, and integrated fire support plan for every contingency; however, SOP should provide for all likely contingencies. Close liaison and continuous contact between the supported commander and the fire support coordinators provide the required coordination; however, in operations involving extensive employment of maneuver and support forces, such as in the final phase of an encirclement, coordination measures must be used to ensure that converging friendly units do not call fire upon one another.

g. In conventional conflicts, the use of FA units is more along conventional lines.

6-10. Naval gunfire support.

a. Naval gunfire support is delivered by ship batteries to support amphibious operations and maneuver units operating in coastal areas. When support is provided by naval gunfire, each gunfire ship is assigned the tactical mission of either direct support or general support. A ship in direct support normally supports a battalion and delivers planned and immediate fires. A ship in general support normally supports a brigade and delivers adjusted fires, or it may be assigned on a fire-mission basis to a subordinate maneuver unit. The counterguerrilla force commander must take into consideration the fact that naval gunfire is normally high velocity, low trajectory fire.

b. In a counterinsurgency, the use of this asset will be governed by the same restrictions and the principle of "minimum essential force" that pertains to firepower when using field artillery. Generally, if FA can be used in an insurgency, naval gunfire can also be used, if available. The same is true of naval gunfire in conventional conflicts. One advantage of naval gunfire is that the supported ground units do not have to provide security to the firing batteries.

c. A liaison platoon (from the US Marine Corps) will normally be attached to the brigade to provide specialists and communications needed to control, coordinate, and recommend employment of naval gunfire or naval air.

6-11. Tactical air operations.

Tactical air operations are flown by the US Air Force in support of counterguerrilla operations and cover six mission areas (some missions could be flown by Navy or Marine air assets) and special operations.

a. Counter air. Objectives are to gain control of the airspace environment. Counter air operations protect friendly forces, ensure freedom to use the airspace to perform assigned missions and tasks, and deny use of airspace to a hostile force. The goal is air supremacy.

b. Offensive counter air (OCA). Air operations seek out and neutralize or destroy hostile air forces at a chosen time and place. Offensive counter air is designed to seize the offensive at the initiation of hostilities, conduct operations in hostile air space, and neutralize or destroy hostile air forces and the infrastructure that supports their operations.

c. Suppression of enemy air defenses. These operations neutralize, destroy, or temporarily degrade hostile air defensive systems in a specific area by physical or electronic attack. SEAD operations provide a favorable situation to perform missions effective y without interference from hostile air defenses.

d. Defensive counter air (DCA). These operations detect, identify, intercept, and destroy hostile air forces attempting to attack friendly forces or penetrate friendly airspace. DCA defends friendly lines of communication, protects friendly bases, and supports friendly land and naval forces while denying hostile forces the freedom to carry out offensive operations.

e. Air interdiction (AI).

(1) AI delays, disrupts, diverts, or destroys hostile military potential before it can be brought to bear effectively against friendly forces. These operations are performed at such distances from friendly forces that detailed integration of specific actions with friendly fire and movement forces is not normally required. AI attacks are usually executed against hostile surface forces; movement networks (including lines of communication); command, control and communications networks; and combat supplies. Interdiction can delay the arrival or buildup of hostile forces and supplies, disrupt the hostile scheme of operation and control of forces, divert hostile resources to other uses, and destroy forces and supplies.

(2) AI is normally executed by an air commander as part of a systematic and persistent campaign. Although an AI campaign can bean independent air effort, an air commander normally coordinates the campaign with a surface force commander. A campaign is developed to limit the enemy's mobility to maneuver forces, while forcing the enemy into high rates of consumption, and to create opportunities for friendly forces to exploit the disabilities produced by interdiction. The weight, phasing, and timing of interdiction attacks can provide friendly forces the opportunity to seize the initiative.

(3) AI against targets which could have a near-term effect on friendly land forces is referred to as battlefield air interdiction. The primary difference between battlefield air interdiction and the rest of the air interdiction effort is the level of interest and emphasis the land commander places on the process of identifying, selecting, and attacking certain targets. Therefore, battlefield air interdiction requires joint coordination at the component level during planning, but once planned, battlefield air interdiction is controlled and executed by the air commander as an integral part of a total air interdiction campaign.

f. Close air support (CAS).

(1) CAS supports surface operations by attacking hostile targets near friendly surface forces. CAS can support offensive, counteroffensive, and defensive surface force operations with planned or immediate attacks. All such missions require detailed coordination and integration with the fire and maneuver plans of friendly surface forces. CAS missions require corridors to the battlefield, timely intelligence information, and accurate weapons delivery.

(2) CAS enhances surface force operations by delivering a wide range of weapons and massed firepower at decisive points. It can surprise the hostile force, create opportunities for the maneuver or advance of friendly forces through shock effect and concentrated attacks, protect the flanks of friendly forces, blunt hostile offensives, and protect the rear of surface forces during rear battle maneuvers.

g. Special operations.

(1) These operations influence the accomplishment of strategic or tactical objectives through the conduct of low visibility, covert, or clandestine military actions. Special operations are usually conducted in hostile territory or politically sensitive areas and may complement friendly force operations.

(2) Virtually all aerospace forces have the potential for employment in special operations. Additionally, the Air Force organizes, trains, and equips unique units to conduct special operations as a primary mission. To execute special operations, forces are normally organized and employed in small formations capable of support actions and independent operations that enable timely and tailored responses throughout the spectrum of conflict. Special operation forces may conduct or support unconventional warfare, counterterrorist operations, collective security, psychological operations, certain rescue operations, and other missions such as interdiction or offensive counter air operations.

(a) Airlift. Airlifts deploy, employ, and sustain military forces under varying conditions, ranging from peace to war. As a combat mission, airlifts provide combat power through airdrops, extractions, and airlanding of ground forces and supplies. Through mobility operations, the joint or combined force commander can maneuver fighting forces to exploit hostile weaknesses. As a combat support mission, airlifts provide logistical support through the transportation of personnel and equipment. In peacetime, airlifts provide the opportunity to enhance national objectives by providing military assistance and civilian relief programs. In addition to the special operations noted above, aircraft assets may be used to dispense flares and leaflets as well as equipped with speakers or spraying apparatus for forest fire fighting. Airlifts, therefore, accomplish the timely movement, delivery and recovery of personnel, equipment, and supplies, and further military and national goals. Airlifts may be strategic or tactical. Strategic (intertheater) airlifts transcend the boundary of any one theater and are executed under the central direction of higher authority, normally in support of an overall effort. In contrast, tactical (intratheater) airlifts are performed within a theater of operations and support theater objectives through the rapid and responsive movement of personnel and supplies.

(b) Aerospace surveillance and reconnaissance. The objectives are to collect information from airborne, orbital, and surface-based sensors. Air Force surveillance and reconnaissance efforts are part of the national intelligence gathering effort and a systematic observation process. These operations provide much information that is key to the development of national security policy, force postures, planning actions, force employment, and informed responses in times of crises. Surveillance operations collect information continuously from the aerospace and from the earth's surface and subsurface. Reconnaissance operations are directed toward localized or specific targets. Through surveillance and reconnaissance, varied data are collected, such as meteorological, hydrographic, geographic, electronic, and communications characteristics. The products of reconnaissance and surveillance operations have strategic and tactical applications in both peace and war. Strategic and tactical surveillance and reconnaissance provide timely notification of hostile intent and actions as well as other information vital to the national command authorities and combat commanders. These operations are instrumental in identifying the composition and capability of potentially hostile forces. The Air Force also performs the following specialized tasks that could support counterguerrilla operations:

(c) Electronic combat (EC). This is a specialized task performed by aerospace forces to control selected parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in support of strategic and tactical operations. Electronic combat involves actions to protect friendly electromagnetic capabilities and actions to neutralize or destroy hostile electromagnetic capabilities. This enhances the ability of friendly war-fighting systems to achieve objectives, since the use of the electromagnetic spectrum can have a major impact on the success or failure of military operations. EC includes electronic warfare (EW), as well as elements of command, control, and communications countermeasures (C 3 CM) and suppression of enemy air defenses. EW is military action using electromagnetic energy to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of the electromagnetic spectrum and also includes actions designed to retain the friendly use of that spectrum. C 3 CM involves defensive and offensive operations designed to deny information, protect friendly command, control, and communications (C 3 ), influence hostile actions, and degrade or destroy hostile C 3 capabilities. C 3 CM, supported by intelligence operations, integrates the use of operations security, military deception, jamming, and physical destruction. SEAD, as an essential element of the counter air mission, is aimed at gaining freedom of action to perform Air Force missions by neutralizing, destroying, or temporarily degrading hostile air defense systems. EC contributes heavily to SEAD in counter air objectives.

(d) Psychological operations. This is a specialized task performed to support national objectives by influencing the attitudes and behavior of hostile, neutral, or friendly groups. All Air Force commands and agencies are responsible for the conduct or support of psychological operations. In planning and executing operations, commanders should consider the psychological implications and opportunities inherent in every action, and they must make a concerted effort to ensure that the signals transmitted are perceived as intended. Both action and inaction may communicate information (which can exert influence and may be used to reinforce actions) to enhance perceptions of capabilities or to influence others to support friendly objectives. Depending on the medium of communications, national objectives, and planned actions, various psychological efforts can be created to reinforce operations. These include planned communications through electronic means or printed material; a show of force or demonstrations of superiority; an attack on a specific, significant target for psychological effect; actions to harass and disrupt hostile operations; surprise, shock action, and deception; or humanitarian operations.

(e) Weather service. This is a specialized task performed to provide timely and accurate environmental information to support strategic, tactical, and mobility operations. The Air Force weather service gathers, analyzes, and provides meteorological and exoatmospheric data for mission planning. Environmental information is essential in conducting both airspace and surface operations. The environmental information provided by the weather service directly influences the decision process for employing forces, including the selection of weapon systems, routes, targets, and delivery tactics.

6-12. Air defense artillery units.

a. Air defense is a combination of all active and passive measures to counter hostile air operations. In an insurgency, the hostile air threat may be minimal. In this case, consideration may be given to leaving air defense artillery (ADA) weapons in a rear staging area and using ADA personnel as additional security forces for the OSB. If this course of action is selected, the ground commander must recognize that an insurgency does not equate to a low intensity air threat. If ADA personnel are separated from their ADA weapons, even a minimal air attack could result in the destruction of friendly force units. Commanders must plan for such an attack by hostile or sympathetic forces.

b. When the guerrilla force has the potential to mount an air threat, or when an air threat exists, the ADA assets must maintain the capability to immediately react to an air threat. In a conventional counterguerrilla environment, the roles of ADA are along more conventional lines. (For further information on air defense operations integrated with infantry operations, see FM 44-1, FM 44-3, and FM 44-18.)

6-13. Military intelligence.

a. Intelligence at the tactical level is of prime importance in counterguerrilla operations. MI elements organic to units conducting counterguerrilla operations are CEWI battalions at division level, and staff sections at brigade and battalion level.

b. Because of the decentralized nature of counterguerrilla operations, portions of the divisional assets are usually attached to brigades, which may in turn attach elements down to the battalions. The tactical MI assets coordinate their efforts with the existing intelligence operations (either host country or US) in their area.

c. Division level MI assets are not capable of long-term, area-oriented intelligence production without echelons above division support and assistance. However, they are capable of short-term collection and production efforts in support of the immediate tactical operation.

d. The tactical MI element has two missions that are conducted simultaneously. The first is to collect, process, and analyze intelligence information. There are two categories of information which are important to combat commanders: combat information and intelligence. Combat information is raw data that can be used for fire and maneuver decisions as received without further processing, interpretation, or integration with other data. Combat information is seldom developed above battalion level and is a component part of intelligence. Intelligence is data requiring some form of validation, integration, and comparison with other data (or analysis) before it can be used or fully exploited.

e. The disciplines from which these data are produced and collected are HUMINT, SIGINT, and IMINT. In a counterguerrilla conflict, the area of HUMINT provides a large portion of available intelligence. Technical and electronic assets, if used effectively, can provide additional data to enhance the counterguerrilla force's intelligence advantage. Some of these assets include ground surveillance radar, sensors, communications intercept (COMINT), and side-looking airborne radar (IMINT).

f. The second mission of the tactical MI element is to attempt to disrupt or delay the enemy's intelligence collection processes. The discipline that accomplishes this task is termed counterintelligence. These functions include deception operations, OPSEC, COMSEC, and are for the most part performed by HUMINT assets. (For further information on intelligence operations, see FM 34-1 and FM 34-10.)

6-14. Engineers.

a. Engineer assets are usually found at division level and above. Portions of these assets may be attached to brigades and, in turn, to battalions. The engineer system is divided into four areas: mobility, countermobility, survivability, and general engineering.

b. Mobility is geared toward improving the movement of maneuver units and movement of critical supplies. It is oriented toward reducing or negating the effects of obstacles. Examples of mobility operations include landing zone construction, reduction of roadblocks, construction of combat trails, and assault bridging.

c. Countermobility is designed to reduce the enemy's mobility and effectiveness. This is generally done through the installation of obstacles. Some obstacles may destroy targets; most enhance or complement weapon effectiveness. Examples of conventional obstacles are minefield and wire entanglements.

d. Survivability is the development of protective positions. Examples include construction of perimeter defense positions in operational support bases.

e. General engineering missions do not contribute directly to committed maneuver units. Examples of general engineering missions include:

(1) Improving and maintaining essential supply routes.

(2) Developing areas for essential logistics.

(3) Replacing assault (or destroyed) bridges with tactical bridging.

(4) Carrying out civic action.

f. Engineer units spend most of their time and effort in survivability and general engineering tasks, even though all four areas of engineer effort may be addressed. When determining if a project should be considered general engineering or one of the other three, the rule is: if the project's primary purpose is to help the populace, it is general engineering; if its primary purpose is to enhance tactical operations, it will usually be one of the other three categories.

g. Since engineers spend much of their time interfacing with the populace during civic action projects, it is essential that engineers understand the impact of their role on national objectives.

h. Engineer assets can be used to enhance infantry combat operations as a contingency mission. Engineers are effective in their primary mission and are utilized in their secondary role as a last resort. Engineers can be used as trainers on basic mobility, countermobility, and survivability skills to include identification of booby traps, mines, and obstacles, and emplacement construction. They contribute more toward the achievement of national goals as civic action units than as additional infantry. Engineers may be used as infantry:

(1) During attacks on the operational support base.

(2) When all tactical units are committed and a threat arises.

(3) As reserves in situations where the guerrilla threat has already caused the commitment of all available reserves. (For further information on engineer operations and capabilities, see FM 5-100.)

6-15. Military police.

a. Military police units can perform their normal functions as an effective part of any counterguerrilla force. They provide a distinct advantage in police operations in the populace and resources control program. Military police operate in conjunction with host country civil and military police.

b. Military police functions include:

(1) Populace and resources control operations. Operations in an insurgency may involve extensive police activities to control the host country populace and materiel resources, including screening, identification, registration, enforcement of curfews, operation of patrols and checkpoints, and investigation of crime.

(2) Intelligence operations. Since guerrilla activities often overlap with criminal activities, police activities over a period of time can develop informants and informant nets which produce intelligence and/or information.

(3) Searches. Military police may conduct searches in support of cordon-and-search operations. They support the operation by manning or supervising search parties, securing persons or property captured, and evacuating prisoners.

(4) Securing ground lines of communication. Military police assist in securing lines of communication by road and aerial patrolling, establishing traffic control points, escorting convoys, and conducting reconnaissance in their area of responsibility. In securing such lines, they may apprehend individual guerrillas and their supporters and are prepared to combat small groups of guerrillas or to act as a fixing element until combat units arrive.

(5) Physical security. Military police provide physical security to individuals and installations. This may include designated communities.

(6) Prisoners. Military police process, secure, and evacuate captured persons and detainees in accordance with FM 19-40 and Department of the Army directives.

c. A division usually has one military police company. Depending on the situation, elements of this company may be attached to brigades or battalions. They are utilized more in consolidation operations than in strike operations. (For further information on military police activities, see FM 19-1, FM 19-4, and FM 19-40.)

6-16. Signal.

a. Radio is the primary means of communication in counterguerrilla operations. Planning and implementing radio communication nets for the brigade and its maneuver battalions may become highly complex. The brigade signal officer is prepared to advise on the capability of available communications means to support each course of action being considered.

b. Providing sufficient radio communication equipment to conduct operations is a high priority in an insurgency. Aerial and ground relay stations may be required to extend the range of FM equipment. Since the brigade communication platoon has no reserve from which to provide augmentation, special communication needs of brigade elements are provided either by redistributing equipment or by augmenting the table of organization and equipment. For long-range radio communications between battalion operational support bases and patrol bases, communication support teams may be required.

c. Extensive use of radio expands the communications security problem. Never consider the guerrilla force too unsophisticated to acquire communications intelligence. Conventional communications security measures are employed with emphasis on changing operational codes frequently at the lower tactical echelons. Secure voice nets will be provided from company level upward.

d. Long-range reconnaissance and surveillance units employed in counterguerrilla operations should possess a secure, long-range capability to enhance communications security.

e. Use of multichannel, high-frequency voice radio, radio teletype, and tactical satellite should be considered for interconnecting operational support bases. Normally, isolated relay stations cannot be established in the counterguerrilla operational environment. Therefore, the location of operational support or patrol bases, and distance between them, seriously impacts on the signal unit's ability to provide a reliable multichannel communications system. The signal officer considers this when presenting his recommendations on base locations to the commander.

f. The composition of the signal element committed in support of the counterguerrilla force is modified to meet mission and situation requirements. The signal support element can be either in direct support or attached. A direct support role is desirable as it affords the signal officer wider latitude and greater flexibility to meet changing support requirements. In all cases, the supported unit provides security forces for the signal elements. (For further information on signal operations and capabilities, see FM 24-1.)

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