The Largest Security-Cleared Career Network for Defense and Intelligence Jobs - JOIN NOW



Counterinsurgency Operations

Section I. General

3-1. Different conditions.

a. As described in chapters 1 and 2, the nature of counterguerrilla operations differs from the conditions most soldiers expect to face in combat. The counterguerrilla commander faces an enemy whose objectives, tactics, and concepts are usually different from his own.

b. This chapter examines the role of tactical counterguerrilla operations in relation to the COIN program. In addition, it discusses planning considerations and principles for the successful conduct of counterguerrilla operations, as well as related operations that the counterguerrilla force must be acquainted with.

3-2. US role.

The most common role in which US forces will conduct counterguerrilla operations will be as a foreign internal defense (FID) force. The FID is designed to support the host country's national objectives and COIN plan. Two of the primary considerations for the FID commander are the final goals of the host country COIN program and how to coordinate his operations to support hose goals.

Section II. Considerations

3-3. FID operations.

a. Most US forces conducting counterguerrilla operations will be part of an FID force. The commander must understand how FID operations support the host country COIN plan. In this sense, the goals of the host country COIN plan become the goals for the FID force and the counterguerrilla commander.

b. The primary consideration when planning counterguerrilla operations is the effect operations will have on the populace. Commanders must attempt to win the active support of the population for the government. At a minimum, counterguerrilla activities must eliminate incidents which the guerrilla may exploit in his psychological operations.

3-4. Support of coin.

a. US forces committed to FID in the host country have a dual mission. First, they must defeat or neutralize the guerrilla militarily so the host country government can begin or resume functioning in previously contested or guerrilla-controlled areas. Second, they must support the overall COIN program by conducting noncombat operations to provide an environment where the host country government can win the trust and support of its people and ultimately become self-sustaining. Both aspects of the COIN mission are of equal importance and are usually conducted simultaneously.

b. A common mistake made by FID forces when trying to gain popular support is that they sometimes win popular support only for themselves. The commander must ensure that popular support, in the end, is for the host country government. Credit for successful campaigns against the guerrillas, or programs to help the people, should go to the host country government and not to the FID force commander.

3-5. Purpose of tactical operations.

Tactical counterguerrilla operations are conducted to reduce the guerrilla threat or activity in the area, and to provide a favorable environment for the host country's development program. These purposes are complementary. When the guerrilla threat is reduced, internal development can begin, and when internal development works, the causes of dissatisfaction which gave rise to the insurgency are alleviated. This deprives the guerrilla of both popular support and a reason for fighting (which he needs to survive).

3-6. Planning considerations--METT-T.

a. Mission.

(1) Foreign internal defense operations fall into six areas:

(a) Intelligence operations.

(b) Psychological operations.

(c) Populace and resources control operations.

(d) Military-civic action.

(e) Tactical operations (both strike and consolidation).

(f) Advisory assistance.

(2) The combat brigade is most often concerned with tactical operations, but because of the nature of counterguerrilla warfare, a specific tactical operation or campaign will probably involve elements of the five other operations to some degree. The commander's guidance for counterguerrilla operations is more detailed and comprehensive than for more conventional operations and must accommodate all operational aspects inherent in brigade counterguerrilla operations.

(3) Before receipt of a specific mission, the commander's guidance and subsequent planning is based on all probable missions, to include supporting consolidation operations or conducting strike operations, as well as on the specific characteristics of the guerrilla, terrain, and population in the specific operational area. After receipt of the mission, his guidance becomes more specific and includes the extent to which the brigade will become involved in each of the six areas of FID operations.

b. Enemy. When evaluating the guerrilla capabilities and limitations, the commander considers:

(1) National and regional origins.

(2) Organization, to include effectiveness and unity of command.

(3) Strength, morale, and status of training.

(4) Tactics being employed and tactical proficiency.

(5) Capability to attack, defend, and reinforce.

(6) Resources available:

(a) Food and water.

(b) Arms, ammunition, demolitions, fuels, medicines, and neclear, biological, chemical (NBC) protective equipment (agents, detection devices, and employment assets); external support--personnel, materiel, and morale.

(7) Leaders and their personalities.

(8) Relations with the civilian population.

(9) Status of supplies.

(10) Effectiveness of communications.

(11) Effectiveness of intelligence and counterintelligence, to include the extent of infiltration of host country civil and military establishments.

(12) Lines of communications.

(13) Vulnerabilities.

(14) External support.

c. Terrain and weather. When evaluating the effects of terrain and weather on counterguerrilla operations, the commander considers:

(1) Effects of seasons of the year (to include planting and harvesting periods), phases of the moon, and coastal tides. Particular attention is focused on the effects of the weather on men, equipment, visibility, and mobility (on both US forces and the guerrilla).

(2) Suitability of terrain (to include landing zones and pickup zones) and road nets for tactical and logistical operations. As with weather, particular attention is focused on the effects the terrain has on men, equipment, visibility, and mobility (on both US forces and the guerrilla).

d. Troops and resources available.

(1) The commander has a variety of combat, combat support, and combat service support assets at his disposal. These assets may be from US forces and civilian agencies, or from host country forces and civilian agencies, or from a combination of all these.

(2) Successful counterguerrilla operations depend upon the commander utilizing his available assets to maximize their strengths and minimize their weaknesses. To do this, the commander realistically appraises the capabilities and limitations of his assets and then organizes and employs them on suitable missions. Oftentimes, the commander finds he lacks assets which would greatly facilitate mission accomplishment. In these instances, he should request what he needs from his higher headquarters. If his needs cannot be met, he has the option of improvising a solution or doing without.

(3) The peculiar circumstances of counterguerrilla warfare require that senior commanders allow subordinate leaders, at all levels, a great deal of flexibility in accomplishing their missions.

e. Time.

(1) Time is relative. The conditions leading to the development of the insurgency did not appear overnight, and they will not disappear overnight, either.

(2) US forces involved in FID operations should anticipate staying in the host country only as long as required to complete their mission. Usually, this will only be as long as it takes the host country forces to assume missions the counterguerrilla force is accomplishing. No matter how successful FID forces are militarily, the insurgency is not defeated until the political, economic, and social problems which led to it are corrected or significantly alleviated. This usually takes a considerable length of time.

(3) In the area of tactical operations, time available for planning and execution varies. When planning for long-term actions, such as consolidation campaigns, a long lead time is necessary to permit planning in meticulous detail. However, when planning shorter term actions, such as strike campaigns or offensive operations against fleeting guerrilla targets, planning time is usually short.

(4) Commanders at all levels can use the time available to them more efficiently by planning for contingency missions. Lack of hard information precludes planning in detail, but routine tasks common to similar missions should be codified in standing operating procedures (SOP) and understood by all concerned. When the need to execute a contingency mission arises, the basic plan can be reviewed and planning expedited by making minor adjustment as required.

(5) Planning time is often extremely limited. Warning and operation orders are normally issued orally. In these instances, the one-third rule applies: the commander utilizes one third of the available time for his own planning and allows two thirds of the available time for his subordinates to develop their plans and issue their orders. In many cases, planning time will be so limited that formal planning is precluded. In these instances, commanders direct their subordinates by using fragmentary orders.

3-7. Restrictions.

a. US forces engaged in counterguerrilla operations function under restrictions not encountered in other types of warfare. These restrictions may appear to hamper efforts to find and destroy the guerrilla. For example, the safety of noncombatants and the preservation of their property is vitally important to winning them over to the government's side.

b. The guerrilla knows this and will attempt to capitalize on it by engaging US forces at locations where US fire would endanger civilians or damage their property. While the temptation to return fire may be great, a few dead or injured enemy will in no way compensate for the ill will of the local populace if some innocent civilians are killed or injured or their homes and property destroyed.

c. Political considerations influence the conduct of counterguerrilla operations. It is essentially a contest between the host government and guerrillas concerning political, social, religious, or economic issues. The government and its representatives must present themselves and their program as the better choice.

d. Commanders must be prepared to operate in a broad range of political atmospheres. The host country's form of government may be anything from an absolute, and not too benevolent, dictatorship to a democracy struggling to establish itself, or anything in between.

e. No matter what political atmosphere prevails in the host country, the brigade commander must engage the guerrilla with every asset at the commander's disposal. He must realize that democratic principles may not be immediately applicable. However, he should act within the limits of his authority to improve the circumstances of the government he was sent to support. Any incidents of deep-rooted corruption, gross inefficiency, or violation of human rights should be documented and reported to higher headquarters. The commander can also offer other alternatives to accomplish the same objective. It is the responsibility of the US Government to influence the host government's attitude toward democratic principles; it is not the responsibility of the commander.

f. There will be situations where well-defined responsibilities in a local area may not be readily apparent. It is the duty of the higher headquarters to determine these responsibilities and make them known prior to the insertion of US forces, especially in the execution of strike missions. However, there maybe eventualities in which the counterguerrilla force commander may be required to coordinate with numerous governmental officials to locate sources of authority and decision. If the commander encounters government officials who habitually hinder operations against the guerrillas through incompetence, self-interest, or suspected sympathy for the guerrilla cause, he should document his case and forward it to the next higher commander for disposition.

3-8. Operating principles.

a. Intelligence. Tactical intelligence is the key to defeating the guerrilla. It provides the commander with information about guerrilla locations, activities, strengths, weaknesses, and plans which enable the commander to seize the initiative. Without intelligence sources, the chances of success (particularly in offensive operations) are limited and the commander must react to guerrilla initiatives rather than controlling the situation in the area of operations. Every relevant source of information about the commander's area of operation should be exploited and include:

(1) The brigade intelligence section (and augmentation):

(a) Ground surveillance radar (augmentation from division).

(b) Ground sensors (augmentation from division).

(c) Long-range surveillance unit (augmentation from division).

(d) Aviation assets (augmentation from division).

(e) Aerial imagery reconnaissance (from corps).

(2) The maneuver battalion's intelligence section and reconnaissance platoons.

(3) The maneuver companies' sightings and reports (combat information).

(4) Combat support units' target acquisition batteries, military police, chemical reconnaissance units (if available), and sightings and reports (combat information).

(5) Combat service support units' sightings and reports (combat information).

(6) Other sources:

(a) Local populace.

(b) Intelligence agents (from division and corps).

(c) Host government civilian agencies.

(d) Captured enemy documents (from division and corps).

(e) Enemy prisoners (from division and corps).

(f) Intercepted enemy communications (from division and corps).

(g) Special operation forces.

b. Tactical situation. The organization for, and conduct of, counterguerrilla operations is dependent on the tactical situation. Units are organized and employed to counter the current guerrilla threat. For example, if guerrillas are operating in platoon-size units, then platoon-or company-size units are used against them. These units conduct independent operations such as patrols and ambushes, under centralized control (company or battalion). This enables them to cover more area simultaneously than a larger unit and still have the firepower to deal with the typical guerrilla unit they might encounter. Employing a large force to counter a significantly smaller guerrilla force is inefficient because it compromises the chance of achieving surprise, reduces the area that can be covered at any one time, and is more difficult to move (than a smaller force) if it is required elsewhere. However, sending a small force to counter a significantly larger guerrilla force may prove disastrous unless the smaller force is supported by fire or can be rapidly reinforced.

c. Flexibility. Forces engaged in counterguerrilla operations are flexible and capable of adapting to rapidly changing tactical situations. The nature of counterguerrilla warfare necessitates being able to make swift transitions from large to small unit operations; to adjust to extremes of terrain, weather, and visibility; to move on foot, by vehicle, or by aircraft; and to function in offensive or defensive modes. Adapting to changing tactical situations keeps the guerrilla force off balance and prevents it from developing effective tactical operations.

d. Mobility.

(1) Counterguerrilla forces most possess mobility equal to or greater than that of the guerrilla in order to find, fix, fight, and pursue him. Since the guerrilla is primarilly footmobile, counterguerrilla forces equipped with motorized, mechanized, or air transportation assets would appear to have a significant mobility advantage. However, the guerrilla typically operates from terrain that precludes (or severely limits) speed on a ground approach. The counterguerrilla force's mobility advantage may not be as great as it first appears to be. When terrain, weather, or the guerrilla force disposition precludes closing on guerrilla positions by high-speed air or ground transport, then counterguerrilla forces should be moved by the fastest available transportation to the nearest suitable, safe area to launch footmobile operations. A well-trained, footmobile counterguerrilla force, that can use terrain better than the enemy, can achieve a tactical mobility advantage.

(2) Commanders should not overburden soldiers with excessive loads because the guerrillas will be able to outrun them. Soldiers should carry only the things they need to find and fix the guerrilla. Once this is accomplished, they can be resupplied by ground or air.

e. Minimum use of force.

(1) Only the minimal firepower needed to accomplish a given mission is employed. If US forces come under guerrilla fire, and if by returning fire noncombatant civilians maybe injured or their homes and property destroyed, then only the amount of fire necessary to protect US forces is returned. Under these circumstances, the commander attempts to suppress the guerrillas with minimal return fire (possibly using snipers) and moves his forces to advantageous positions from which he may engage the guerrillas while not endangering civilian life or property. He may use smoke and, if authorized, riot control agents to facilitate maneuver. If the guerrillas cannot be engaged without endangering civilian life or property, the commander moves his forces (over covered or concealed routes) to positions that cut off their escape routes and encircle them. Then he begins to tighten the ring around them.

(2) The unrestricted use of firepower in the vicinity of civilians or their property will result in turning their anger toward the government and may turn them to the insurgent cause. US soldiers must understand this and follow strict rules of engagement. However, the right to self defense is never denied.

(3) All available fire may be brought to bear on guerrillas when it does not endanger civilian life or property. However, the expenditure of ammunition should be appropriate: mortars to knock out a machine gun position; small arms to kill a sniper. The use of indirect fire, while effective in some cases, is not a substitute for maneuver.

f. Patience. Counterguerrilla forces must anticipate long periods without making contact. The guerrilla knows he is outnumbered and outgunned and avoids engagement unless it is on his terms. Counterguerrilla forces should not develop a false sense of security if it appears the guerrilla has ceased operations in their area. It must be assumed that the guerrilla is always observing the operating patterns of the counterguerrilla force for weak points, and waiting for lax security to strike with minimum risk. A guerrilla attack must be expected at any time.

g. Reserves.

(1) The commander always maintains a reserve to take advantage of sudden opportunities, and to counter guerrilla initiatives. The size of the reserve depends on the size of its parent unit and the tactical situation.

(2) In offensive operations, a company might keep a squad in reserve; battalions, a platoon; and brigade, a company.

(3) In defensive operations, because of the need for 360-degree security, a reserve at company and battalion is complicated by the fact that the on-line strength of the perimeter is reduced.

(4) The company or battalion commander may have to spread his forces thin to protect his perimeter. In these instances, the commander has four options: establish a small, centrally located reserve at the expense of on-line strength; establish no reserve but specify units on-line to be prepared to shift a portion of their strength to other sections of the perimeter; establish no reserve but reinforce the most heavily contested section of the perimeter by fire; and consider reducing the size of the perimeter.

(5) Brigades too should maintain a company in reserve in defensive operations. This mission should be rotated among companies, with the company that has spent the most time in the field (or that has seen the heaviest action) being designated as the reserve. The reserve company can rest, rearm, and train during the time it has the reserve mission.

(6) The reserve unit should be highly mobile. Air transport is the preferred method for moving the reserve because it is fast and not dependent on open ground routes as are motorized or mechanized modes of transport. Whatever its mode of transportation, the reserve's vehicles are dedicated to the reserve and immediately available for employment.

(7) Reserve units are prepared for contingency missions. If the reserve is committed, the commander designates a new reserve. In this case, his least committed unit is the first choice.

Section III. Strike Campaigns

3-9. Targets.

This section provides guidance on the organization, missions, concepts, and operations of strike campaigns. Strike campaigns consist of a series of major combat operations targeted against insurgent tactical forces and bases in contested or insurgent-controlled zones. Other internal defense activities may support tactical forces during strike operations. Strike campaign operations are usually of relatively short duration (generally, one day to several weeks). While the guidance outlined here is focused on the infantry brigade, this section may be extended to apply to any combined arms organization conducting counterguerrilla operations.

3-10. Organization.

Brigades assigned strike campaign missions either are relieved from area responsibility in advance of the mission or, preferably, are constituted as specialized forces held at the national or regional levels. Brigade strike forces are organized as self-sufficient task forces capable of operating in areas remote from logistical bases. Brigades are assigned support bases in secure areas for elements not committed to operations.

3-11. Missions.

Strike campaigns are conducted against guerrilla forces and bases. They serve to keep guerrilla forces moving and off balance. Strike campaign areas are usually outside of those undergoing consolidation or those under friendly control. Ground or water means of entry maybe used, but air assault or parachute deliveries can be employed.

3-12. Concepts.

a. Strike campaigns include offensive tactics such as raids, reconnaissance in force, hasty or deliberate attacks, and pursuit (or combinations of these operations).

b. Brigade strike campaign operations are conducted to:

(1) Harass the guerrilla to prevent the buildup of personnel and logistical resources.

(2) Destroy the guerrilla force and its base complexes.

(3) Demonstrate support for the government and for the populace in the local area.

(4) Expand consolidation areas.

3-13. Operations.

a. Brigades committed to strike campaigns are assigned a tactical area of responsibility. The brigade commander normally assigns operational areas to the subordinate battalions which, in turn, may assign areas to companies. Company commanders may assign specific areas to platoons at times; however, ' platoons are normally assigned specific missions rather than operational areas. Each battalion normally establishes a separate operational support base (OSB). Companies normally operate from patrol bases, but at times may operate separate company OSBs. When the areas assigned to units are too large to be reconnoitered concurrently by subordinate units, commanders establish an order of priority for reconnaissance of the areas.

b. Battalion commanders maintain reserve forces (ready forces) to react quickly to situations requiring an immediate response. Each rifle company patrols its area of operations continuously and aggressively. The location of the company patrol base and patrol routes are varied to ensure complete coverage of the area.

c. The rifle company moves to, secures, and occupies the company patrol base with sufficient supplies to permit limited independent operations. If it is to operate in the same area for a period of time, it should consider establishing small ration and ammunition reserves.

d. The company area is patrolled to provide complete coverage day and night with emphasis on night patrols. Generally, platoon-size patrols have sufficient firepower to handle the situation if a guerrilla force is encountered. If additional support is needed, the company commander may maneuver his other platoons against the guerrillas, or he may request assistance from the battalion reserve (ready force). Emphasis is placed on engaging the guerrilla with organic means of fire and movement (if required) and on employing supporting artillery and air support.

e. Orders issued to the company commanders include the area assigned and resupply instructions. The conduct of operations is based on decentralized planning and execution. Company commanders plan and coordinate platoon activities to ensure completion of the overall company mission. Platoons on patrol carry light rations and store unneeded equipment at OSBs.

f. Rifle company mortars may (at times) be located in battalion OSBs while fire support teams (FIST) move with the companies. If the terrain and situation permit, battalion OSBs may be moved as the companies move their patrol bases. If civilian communities are in the area, and if security conditions permit, battalion bases may be near (but not within) the community. Here, the battalion may conduct psychological, intelligence, and military-civic action operation.

g. Brigade commanders use all available means to locate guerrilla forces and bases, and they give priority to destroying the guerrilla forces. An attack on a guerrilla force normally requires superior combat power. Reserves (ready forces) attempt to immediately engage and destroy moving guerrilla forces before they can disperse. Depending on the situation, either hasty or deliberate attacks are made on guerrilla bases that contain fortifications. After a successful attack on guerrilla forces, troops thoroughly search the area for guerrilla personnel, supplies, equipment, and documents. Pursuit operations are undertaken to destroy or capture forces attempting to flee. Artillery, air support, and air assault forces support ground pursuit.

h. The brigade does not normally occupy the area defensively for an extended time following a successful attack. Operations to search out guerrillas continue. Elements of the brigade may be rotated through the brigade support base for periods of rest and training.

i. Speed and surprise are important in strike operations, especially when attacking a known guerrilla stronghold. The sudden and unexpected delivery of combat forces into a guerrilla-held or contested area provides significant advantages to the counterguerrilla commander. If caught by surprise, the guerrilla maybe unable to react in time to save himself. He is confused initially and may panic. In the time it takes him to become aware of the tactical situation, or to take effective action, the counterguerrilla forces may encircle him. Speed and surprise may be achieved by using air assault tactics to insert the first counterguerrilla forces into the area of operations. Subsequent forces can be delivered on later airlifts or by other modes of transportation.

j. Strike forces are most vulnerable just after entering a new area of operations. Initially, there is some confusion until patrol bases are established and patrols are sent out. counterguerrilla forces must be especially security conscious the first few hours in a new location. Upon arrival, they should immediately establish target reference points, observation posts, and listening posts.

Section IV. Consolidation Campaigns

3-14. Control.

a. This section provides the brigade guidance on the missions, organization, and operations of consolidation compaigns. Consolidation campaigns are the application of all civil and military aspects of internal defense and internal development programs. They are designed to establish, regain, or maintain control of specific areas.

b. The brigade participates in consolidation campaigns by conducting tactical, intelligence, psychological, civil affairs, populace and resources control, and advisory assistance operations.

c. Brigades committed to consolidation campaigns support the overall host country internal defense and development (IDAD) effort by applying their resources in the following manner:

(1) In the preparation and offensive phases, tactical operations are stressed. Initial area control is established by clearing guerrilla forces from an area, expanding it, and linking it to other areas as they are cleared.

(2) In the development phase, the primary mission is tactical operations to maintain security of the cleared area. Concurrently, the brigade performs intelligence, psychological, populace and resources control, civil affairs, and advisory assistance operations. The brigade also conducts military-civic action in conjunction with civil affairs programs.

(3) During the completion phase, when guerrilla activity within a consolidated area has been largely neutralized and host country agencies have resumed control of the area, the brigade begins to phase out its participation in local operations and prepares to conduct operations in another area.

3-15. Preparatory phase.

Consolidation campaign plans are detailed and provide for long-range commitment of both personnel and materiel. Plans are coordinated with all agencies involved in the consolidation campaign. In addition to planning, the brigade conducts necessary training and becomes engaged in intelligence and other FID activities.

3-16. Offensive phase.

a. The offensive phase of a consolidation campaign involves moving the civil-military task force into the operational area, neutralizing guerrilla forces and sympathizers, and removing insurgent personnel who may have infiltrated the local government.

b. Patrolling, area surveillance, ambushes, and other small-unit actions are used extensively. Offensive operations, such as movements to contact, hasty or deliberate attacks, raids, or pursuits follow the small unit reconnaissance as targets are located.

c. Care is taken that once cleared, the friendly, controlled areas are not allowed to revert to guerrilla domination.

3-17. Development and completion phases.

a. During the development and completion phases of a consolidation campaign, brigade operations involve holding an area to permit government agencies to conduct their internal defense and development programs. Operations also involve training local forces to assume the defensive and security missions from the regular armed forces. Aggressive defensive operations provide security against guerrilla attack, deny guerrillas access to support, and provide a secure base from which to expand the consolidated areas. Offensive action is continued to destroy guerrilla forces; however, defense must be provided for population centers, tactical bases, logistical installations, airbases and airfields, and lines of communication.

b. Defensive actions are conducted to accomplish one or more of the following:

(1) Destroy or capture guerrilla forces.

(2) Reduce guerrilla capability and opportunity for offensive action.

(3) Deny guerrilla entry into an area.

(4) Provide security and thus develop favorable conditions for other IDAD operations.

c. The normal defense in consolidation campaign operations employs small-unit tactics, using air assault and other reserve forces (ready forces) to immediately react to intelligence or an insurgent attack. Artillery and air support is prearranged to the degree possible, and plans are adjusted as required.

d. Security forces conduct extensive patrolling throughout the area. The bulk of the brigade force may be assigned areas of responsibility and be heavily engaged in patrolling and supporting efforts of local security forces.

e. The composition of the brigade reserve varies with the size of the area, nature of the enemy threat, and the terrain. Some brigade units may be fragmented into small elements and required to defend dispersed installations. In this situation, the reserve elements are assigned contingency missions to provide reaction forces for several installations.

f. Area coverage may require assignment of fire support units to a much lower level than is normal in conventional operations. To support dispersed security elements, decentralization of fire support may be required. Direct fire supporting weapons (including artillery in the direct fire role) can be effective at short ranges when using time and super quick fuze. Direct fire support weapons are important if the guerrilla force moves within the minimum range of indirect fire weapons.

g. All military and critical civilian installations and population centers must be protected against sabotage and attack.

h. The larger installations and communities and the surrounding smaller ones mutually assist each other in their defense. Fire support from several installations and communities can contribute to mutual defense.

i. The defense of communities is primarily the task of local paramilitary forces and police. The defense of communities is conducted with special emphasis on physical security and populace and resources control measures. In planning the defense, military units may be required to secure lines of communication in the area. They may do so by surveillance, occupation of tactical positions, or use of guards for convoy security, patrolling, and security posts. Along lines of communication, fixed security posts protect critical points such as terminals, tunnels, bridges, and road or railway junctions. The size of the security post depends on the mission and the type and size of the hostile forces which may attack it. Security posts in remote areas are larger than those near supporting forces.

Section V. Offensive Operations

3-18. Three phases.

This section discusses offensive operations which brigades (and subordinate units) may have to conduct. For purposes of organization and clarity, operations are discussed under those phases of an insurgency in which they will most often have to be conducted. Depending on the tactical situation, these operations, or variations and combinations of them, may be conducted during any of the three phases of insurgent activity: latent and incipient insurgency; guerrilla warfare; and war of movement.

3-19. Phase I--Latent and incipient insurgency.

a. This phase ranges from subversive activity that is only a potential threat, latent or incipient, to situations in which frequent subversive incidents and activities occur in an organized pattern. It involves no major outbreak of violence or uncontrolled insurgency activity.

b. Possible insurgent activities during Phase I include attacks on police forces, other terroristic activities, and some minor military operations carried out to gain additional influence over the population (or provide arms for the movement) and to challenge the government's ability to maintain law and order. Furthermore, groundwork is laid for extensive external materiel support which is essential in most cases for the expansion of the insurgency and its eventual success.

3-20. Police-type operations.

a. To control the movement of insurgents or guerrillas, and their materiel, police-type operations are conducted. These operations are executed by host country police, paramilitary, or military forces. For various reasons, this may not be possible, and US forces may have to conduct police-type operations until host country forces are available to relieve them. (Under US law, the military cannot advise or train foreign police forces.)

b. If US forces must conduct this type of operation, military police units are suitable for this function. If they are not available, combat forces do the job.

c. When conducting police operations, host government representatives are with US troops to serve as interpreters and advise on local customs and courtesies. When performing these duties, US troops treat passive civilians and their property with as much courtesy and respect as the situation permits.

3-21. Searches.

a. The need for a counterguerrilla force to conduct search operations or to employ search procedures is a continuous requirement. Most search operations support strike operations or consolidation operations, or they may be conducted as the main effort in populace and resources control operations. A search maybe oriented to people, to materiel, to buildings, or to terrain. It usually involves both civil police and military personnel.

b. Since misuse of search authority can adversely affect the ultimate outcome of operations agtainst guerrillas, seizure of contraband, evidence, intelligence material, supplies, or minor items during searches must be accomplished lawfully and properly recorded to be of future legal value. Proper use of authority in searches gains the respect and support of the people. Abusive, excessive, or inconsiderate search methods may temporarily suppress the guerrilla force or expose elements of it, but at the same time such methods may ultimately increase the civilian population's sympathy for and/or support of the guerrilla.

c. Authority for search operations is carefully reviewed. Military personnel must be aware that they perform searches only in areas within military jurisdiction (or where otherwise lawful) for purposes of apprehending suspects or securing evidence that tends to prove an offense has been committed. Usually, there are special laws regulating the search powers of the military forces. These laws are given wide dissemination.

d. Search teams have detailed instruction on controlled items. Lists of prohibited or controlled-distribution items such as chemicals, medicines, machine tools, and other items should be distributed. The military or civil police who administer the populace and resources control program are contacted before the conduct of search operations, or periodically if search operations are a continuing activity.

e. Search operations involving US forces maybe ineffective when language difficulties prevent full communication with the indigenous population. US units given a search mission are provided with interpreters as required.

f. The pace at which a search operation is conducted is slow enough to allow for an effective search but not so slow as to allow the guerrilla force time to react to the threat of the search.

g. If active resistance develops to the search operation, offensive operations are conducted to eliminate the resistance.

h. Consideration is fiven to returning to a searched area after the completion of an initial search to surprise and eliminate guerrillas or their infrastructure that may have remained undetected or may have returned.

3-22. Search of individuals.

The fact that anyone in an area to be searched can be a guerrilla or a guerrilla sympathizer is stressed in all search operations. However, searchers are tactful to avoid making an enemy out of a suspect who may, in fact, support the host country government. It is during the initial handling of a person about to be searched that the greatest caution is required. During the search of an individual, one member of a search team always covers the other member who makes the actual search. (For information on how to conduct searches, see Appendix G.)

3-23. Checkpoints, roadblocks, and vehicle searches.

a. It will be necessary to maintain a continuous check on road movement to apprehend suspects and to prevent smuggling of controlled items. This requires the use of checkpoints. Since checkpoints cause considerable inconvenience and even fear, it is important that the civil population understands that checkpoints are a preventive and not a punitive measure.

b. Checkpoints maybe described as either deliberate or hasty. The deliberate checkpoint is positioned in a town or in the open country, often on a main road. It acts as a useful deterrent to unlawful movement. The hasty checkpoint is highly mobile and is quickly positioned in a town or in the open country. The actual location of the hasty checkpoint is designed to achieve quick success.

c. Concealment of a checkpoint is desirable, but often impossible. The location should make it difficult for a person to turn back or reverse a vehicle without being observed. Culverts, bridges, or deep cuts may be suitable locations. Positions beyond sharp curves have the advantage that drivers do not see the checkpoint in sufficient time to avoid inspection. Safety disadvantages may outweigh the advantages of such positions. A scarcity of good roads increases the effect of a well-placed checkpoint.

d. A checkpoint requires adequate troops to prevent ambush and surprise by a guerrilla force. An element of the checkpoint force is positioned and concealed an appropriate distance (one hundred to several hundred meters) from the checkpoint to prevent the escape of any vehicle or person attempting to turn back upon sighting the checkpoint. The vehicle, driver, and passengers are searched. If the checkpoint is manned for any length of time, part of the force is allowed to rest. The rest area is located near the search area so that the troops can be assembled quickly as a reserve force. (For information on how to conduct checkpoints and roadblocks, see Appendix G.)

3-24. Search of built-up areas--cordon and search operations.

a. Techniques. Search techniques in built-up areas are practiced by police and military forces operating in populated areas. These techniques are required for searching either a few isolated huts or buildings, or for searching well-developed urban sections. Search operations in built-up areas require thorough preparation and rehearsal. Special emphasis should be given to the following:

(1) Divide the area to be searched into zones, and assign a search party to each. A search party consists of a search element (to conduct the search), a security element (to encircle the area and prevent entrance and exit, and to secure open areas), and a reserve element (to assist, as required).

(a) The search element conducts the mission assigned for the operation. Normally it is organized into special teams.

(b) The security element surrounds the area while the search element moves in. Members of the security element orient primarily upon evaders from the populated area; however, they can cut off any insurgents trying to reinforce. Checkpoints and road blocks are established. Subsurface routes of escape, such as subways and sewers, must be considered when operating in cities.

(c) The reserve element is a mobile force within a nearby area. Its specific mission is to assist the other two elements should they meet resistance they cannot handle. In addition, it is capable of replacing or reinforcing either of the other two elements should the need arise.

(2) Consider any enemy material found, including propaganda signs and leaflets, to be booby-trapped until inspection proves it is safe.

(3) Thoroughly search underground and underwater areas. Any freshly excavated ground can be a hiding place. Use mine detectors to locate metal objects underground and underwater.

(4) Deploy rapidly, especially when a guerrilla force is still in the area to be searched. The entire area to be searched is surrounded simultaneously. If this is not possible, observed fire must cover that portion not covered by soldiers.

b. Principles. A basic principle when searching a built-up area is to conduct it with limited inconvenience to the population. The populace may be inconvenienced to the point where they discourage guerrillas and insurgent sympathizers from remaining in the locale, but not to the point that they collaborate with the guerrilla force as a result of the search. The large-scale search of a built-up area is normally a combined civil police and military operation. It is planned in detail and rehearsed when possible. Physical reconnaissance of the area just prior to a search is avoided. Information needed about the terrain may be obtained from aerial photographs. In larger towns or cities, the local police may have detailed maps showing relative size and location of buildings. For success, the search plan must be simple and be executed swiftly.

c. Command and control. Normally, a search involving a battalion or larger force is best controlled by the military commander with the civil police in support. A search involving a smaller force is best controlled by the civil police with the military in support. Regardless of the controlling agency, the actual search is performed by host country police when they are available in adequate numbers and have been trained in search operations. (For detailed information on how to conduct cordon and search operations, see Appendix G.)

3-25. Aerial search operations.

a. Search unite mounted in armed helicopters use the mobility and firepower of these aircraft to the maximum. (This may seriously affect the morale of the guerrilla force.)

b. Air assault combat patrols, conducting an aerial search, reconnoiter an assigned area or route in search of guerrilla forces. When a guerrilla force is located, the air assault combat patrol may engage it from the air or may land and engage it on the ground. This technique has little value in areas of dense vegetation. Use of air assault combat patrols should be limited to those operations in which sufficient intelligence exists to justify their use and then normally in conjunction with ground operations.

c. In ground search operations, helicopters drop off troops in an area suspected of containing guerrilla elements. With the helicopters overmatching from the air, troops search the area. Troops are then picked up and the process is repeated in other areas.

d. Members of air assault combat patrols should be trained in tracking procedures in order to follow guerrillas to their base. If the patrol encounters a large guerrilla force, the reserve (ready forces) are committed. Plans must provide for evacuation of prisoners, casualties, and materiel.

3-26. Civil disturbance and riot control.

a. US forces participating in counterguerrilla operations may be tasked to assist host country police and military forces in restoring order disrupted by civil disturbance or riot. If this occurs, US force participation should be limited to containing the disturbance and protecting US lives and property.

b. The suppression of demonstrators or rioters should be left entirely to host country forces. Any direct action by US troops against demonstrators or rioters will be misrepresented by the insurgents and their sympathizers as brutal suppression of legitimate dissent and be used by them as a propaganda weapon. (For further information on specific techniques, see FM 19-15.)

3-27. Phase II--Guerrilla warfare.

a. Phase II is reached when the subversive movement, having gained sufficient local or external support, initiates organized guerrilla warfare or related forms of violence against the government. Examples of insurgent activities during Phase II include:

(1) Activities initiated in Phase I are continued and expanded. Insurgent control, both political and military, over territory and populace, is intensified.

(2) Guerrilla warfare is used on a larger scale, and limited defense is conducted in some geographic areas.

(3) An insurgent government is established in insurgent-dominated areas as the military situation permits. In areas not yet controlled, efforts are made to neutralize actual or potential opposition groups and to increase infiltration into government agencies. Intimidation through terror and threat of guerrilla action increases and thus becomes more significant.

b. Militarily, the major goal is to control additional areas; the government is forced to strain its resources trying to protect everything at the same time. Insurgent forces attempt to tie down government troops in static defense tasks, interdict and destroy lines of communications, and capture or destroy supplies and other government resources.

3-28. Small-unit operations.

Small-unit operations are used against guerrilla activities in the second phase of an insurgency. They are effective since small units can cover more territory than a large unit, they keep the guerrilla off balance, and their friendly firepower (that can be rapidly massed) may provide a favorable ratio in meeting engagements. In Phase II, the guerrilla is usually operating in smaller units, too.

3-29. Raid.

a. A raid is an operation involving a swift penetration of hostile territory to secure information, harass the guerrilla force, or destroy the guerrilla force and its installation. It ends in a planned withdrawal upon completion of the assigned mission. A successful raid is based on accurate, timely, and detailed information. Raids are usually targeted against single, isolated guerrilla base camps. To assist in attaining surprise, the raiding force uses inclement weather, limited visibility, or terrain normally considered impassable.

b. The raiding force is normally organized into an assault element and a security element. A larger raiding force may add a support element while a small raiding force includes supporting weapons in the assault element.

c. The use of airborne and air assault forces for a raid enhances surprise. If night airborne or air assault raids are conducted, the force must be accurately inserted and oriented on the ground. Air assault forces supported by armed helicopters offer infinite possibilities for conducting raids. This type of raid force can move in, strike the objective, and withdraw without extensive preparation or support from other sources. (For further information on the composition and organization of raid forces, see FM 7-8, FM 7-10, and FM 7-20.)

3-30. Patrols.

a. Conventional patrolling doctrine normally applies to counterguerrilla operations, but some techniques must be oriented to meet the guerrilla's activities and the operational environment. Patrolling becomes more significant in counterguerrilla operations because of the difficulty in locating and identifying guerrilla forces and determining their intentions. Patrolling is used when limited (or no) intelligence on guerrilla activity is available. Personnel should be thoroughly briefed, carry only mission-essential equipment, and be physically fit. Routes are planned carefully and coordinated with higher, lower, and adjacent units, to include air and ground fire support elements and reserve forces.

b. Patrolling is done to find and destroy the guerrilla, and to deny him use of an area. Patrols are usually categorized as either combat or reconnaissance.

c. Patrols can be employed to:

(1) Saturate areas of suspected guerrilla activity.

(2) Control critical roads and trails.

(3) Maintain contact between villages and units.

(4) Establish population checkpoints.

(5) Provide security for friendly forces.

(6) Interdict guerrilla routes of supply and communication.

(7) Establish ambushes.

(8) Pursue, maintain contact with, and destroy guerrillas.

(9) Provide internal security in rural areas.

(10) Locate guerrilla units and base camps.

d. Saturation patrolling is extremely effective in Phase II situations. In this technique, patrols are conducted by many lightly armed, small, fast-moving units and provide thorough area coverage. Patrols move over planned and coordinated routes which are changed frequently to avoid establishing patterns. Use of saturation patrolling results in the sustained denial of an area to guerrilla forces as they seek to avoid contact with the counterguerrilla units. In addition to harassment and discovery of guerrilla tactical forces, this technique provides:

(1) An opportunity to gain an intimate knowledge of the area of operations.

(2) A form of reassurance to the local population that the government is concerned about their protection and security.

(3) A means by which information about the guerrilla can be obtained. (For further information on preparation, execution, and operational techniques of patrols, see FM 7-10, FM 7-20, and Appendix D.)

3-31. Ambush

a. An ambush is a surprise attack from a concealed position upon a moving or temporarily halted target. Ambushes give the counterguerrilla force several advantages:

(1) An ambush does not require ground to be seized or held.

(2) Smaller forces with limited weapons and equipment can harass or destroy larger, better armed forces.

(3) Guerrillas can be forced to engage in decisive combat at unfavorable times and places.

(4) Guerrillas can be denied freedom of movement and deprived of weapons and equipment that are difficult to replace.

b. Well-planned and well-executed ambushes maybe the most successful operational technique employed against guerrillas. It is an effective technique to interdict movement of guerrilla forces within an area. Selection of the site is a key step in developing a well-organized ambush. Also, leaders must be proficient in using mines, antihandling devices, demolitions, and expedient devices for organization of the position. Fire support is prepared for immediate delivery on call.

3-32. Night ambush.

Ambush during darkness is difficult to control, but darkness increases the security of the ambush party and the confusion of those being ambushed. A small ambush party generally is more practical; however, the size of the party depends on factors such as the size of the unit to be ambushed and the estimated guerrilla strength in the area. (For further information on preparation, execution, and operational ambush techniques, see FM 7-8, FM 7-10, and Appendix C.)

3-33. Encirclement.

a. Encirclement offers the best chance to fix guerrilla forces in position and achieve decisive results. The battalion and larger units will usually plan and conduct encirclements. The company and smaller units normally do not have the manpower and command and control capability to execute encirclements except as part of a larger force.

b. Encirclements require accurate intelligence on the location of guerrilla elements. Since it requires a major portion of the counterguerrilla force to execute this maneuver, it is usually targeted against large guerrilla forces or guerrilla base complexes, a series of smaller base camps clustered within an area.

c. Planning, preparation, and execution are aimed at encircling the guerrilla force rapidly. Maximum security and surprise can be gained by occupying the initial encirclement positions during darkness.

d. In large operations, air assault and airborne troops add speed and surprise to the operation. Positions are occupied simultaneously in order to block escape. If simultaneous occupation is not possible, probable escape routes are covered first. Initial occupation is the most critical period of the operation. When the guerrillas become aware that they are being encircled, they will probably probe for gaps or attack weak points and attempt to break out.

e. Encircling units provide strong combat patrols far to their front to give early warning of attempted breakouts. Mobile reserves are positioned to counter a breakout and to reinforce difficult areas such as broken terrain or areas with caves, tunnels, or fortification complexes.

f. Indirect fire support can serve to cloak an encirclement by gaining and holding the guerrillas' attention. Fires are planned in detail to support the encirclement.

g. Following completion of the encirclement, the circle is contracted to capture or destroy the guerrilla force. As the circle is contracted, units may be removed from the line and added to the reserve. Against small guerrilla forces, the encircled area may be cleared by contraction and a final sweep. Against larger guerrilla forces, however, at some point, some action other than contraction will be required.

h. One technique consists of driving a wedge through the guerrilla force to divide it and then destroying the guerrillas in each subarea.

i. Another technique, employed after some degree of contraction, is to employ a blocking force on one or more sides of the perimeter while the remainder of the encircling force drives the guerrillas against the blocking force. Either element may accomplish the actual destruction. This technique is effective when the blocking force can be located on, or immediately in the rear of, a natural terrain obstacle. (For further information, see Appendix G.)

3-34. Phase III--War of movement.

The situation moves from Phase II to Phase III when insurgency becomes primarily a war of movement between organized insurgent forces and forces of the established government. During Phase III, insurgent activities conducted in Phases I and II are continued and expanded. Larger insurgent units are used to fight government forces and to capture key geographical and political objectives to be used to defeat government forces.

3-35. Large-unit operations.

When an insurgency enters Phase III, the guerrilla begins to mass his forces and challenge government forces openly. He may begin to use conventional warfare tactics to a greater degree. He may even elect to stand and fight in defense of terrain if he feels that it is in his interest to retain it or if he feels that he can deal government forces a serious military or political defeat by defending. In this phase, conventional warfare tactics can be effectively employed to defeat the guerrilla. (For further information on how to employ these tactics, see FM 7-8, FM 7-10, FM 7-20, and FM 7-30.)

3-36. Movement to contact.

a. Movement to contact in counterguerrilla tactical operations is basically the same as in conventional conflicts. Night movement, clandestine movement, and counterambush precautions are emphasized.

b. Care is taken to avoid ambushes in movement to contact. The infantry maintains contact by aggressive frontal and flank patrolling by small security elements, thereby exposing a minimum of troops to ambush. Supporting fires are placed close-in along, and parallel to, the route of advance.

3-37. Reconnaissance in force.

a. Reconnaissance in force is a limited-objective operation to discover and test guerrilla positions, locations, and strength, and to gather information. In counterguerrilla operations, the objective is collection of information about guerrillas and the destruction of units and facilities. The commander is prepared to exploit meeting engagements and intelligence to achieve tactical success by conducting a hasty or deliberate attack to destroy discovered guerrilla units and facilities. The recon force may conduct the operation as a unit, or selected subordinate units may be committed on a limited scale.

b. Reconnaissance-in-force operations normally develop information more rapidly and in more detail than do other reconnaissance methods. When firm intelligence is lacking, the principal effort of the recon unit may be a widespread and continuous reconnaissance-in-force operation coupled with mandatory security missions. In arriving at a decision to reconnoiter in force, the commander considers:

(1) His overall mission.

(2) His knowledge of the enemy situation.

(3) The urgency and importance of other information.

(4) The efficiency and speed of other intelligence collection agencies.

(5) The possibility that the reconnaissance may lead to a general engagement under favorable conditions.

(6) The continuing requirements for local and area security.

(7) The availability of adequate reserves (reaction forces) and the resources to deliver them quickly to the area to be exploited.

(8) The availability of adequate, all-weather fire support means.

c. The reconnaissance elements in the force should have mobility at least equal to that of the enemy. Mobile reserves (ready forces) quickly exploit guerrilla weaknesses and influence the action.

3-38. Hasty attack.

a. Once contact with the enemy is made, the commander deploys his force, coordinating movement, fires, air support, and other means in an attempt to immediately destroy the enemy or fully develop the situation. Generally, if the leading element contacting the enemy cannot defeat him quickly, the commander must decide whether to conduct a hasty attack or to take time to develop the situation more carefully and then conduct a deliberate attack.

b. At times, the intelligence available to the commander indicates clearly which course he should follow. At other times, however, judgment may dictate that he conduct a hasty attack to avoid being held up by inferior forces and being unnecessarily delayed. At the same time, he must be careful to avoid being drawn into ambush.

c. Conduct of a hasty attack is a difficult and challenging operation. Ideally, there should be no pause in the forward momentum of the force upon initial contact. Maneuver units swing into action immediately, using movement techniques appropriate to the enemy and terrain.

d. The commander calls for available fire support. He coordinates and maneuvers resources so as to apply the combat power needed against the enemy. The hasty attack tries to fix enemy elements in place with firepower and either overrun or encircle them. Speed is essential. The reserve force has to be deployed early if maneuver elements are held up. If momentum is lost, the hasty attack fails.

3-39. Deliberate attack.

a. When the force commander knows he has encountered a strong enemy force in well-prepared defensive positions, he may conclude that a deliberate attack is necessary.

b. A deliberate attack is characterized by detailed (and widely distributed) knowledge of enemy positions, by large volumes of effectively delivered supporting fires, by extensive deception, by full exploitation of electronic warfare (EW), and by employing measures beyond those possible in a hasty attack. Continued contact with the guerrilla force must be maintained to prevent its escape.

3-40. Exploitation.

a. If an attack succeeds, exploitation and pursuit follow. Exploitation is an operation undertaken to follow up success in the attack. Following the principle of reinforcing success, immediate exploitation using an uncommitted element of the force is advisable.

b. The exploiting force drives swiftly to disrupt guerrilla command and control functions, severs escape routes, destroys reserves and equipment, and denies the enemy an opportunity to reorganize his defense. The exploitation force is large, reasonably self-sufficient, and well-supported by tactical air, air cavalry, and attack helicopters. It does not pause to achieve minor tactical successes against isolated or fleeing enemy units; it attempts to fix them while concentrating on destroying the main guerrilla force. The commander provides mobile support, including helicopters for emergency supply of petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) and ammunition, and ensures sufficient follow-on forces to attack guerrilla forces bypassed or fixed by the exploiting force.

3-41. Pursuit.

a. Pursuit is an offensive action against a retreating enemy. It is the final phase of the exploitation and occurs when a large guerrilla force attempts to disengage. Normally, it attempts to cut off escape routes and encircle and destroy the guerrilla force. It maintains pressure with an exploiting force.

b. As the guerrilla unit disintegrates, exploitation may develop into pursuit. Pursuit may develop in any operation in which the enemy has lost his ability to operate effectively and attempts to flee. Pursuit requires energy and resolution to press on despite fatigue, dwindling supplies, or the approach of darkness. Nighttime pursuit increases the enemy's confusion and speeds his disintegration.

c. The primary purpose of pursuit is to destroy the guerrilla force. Although terrain objectives may be assigned as control measures, the primary objective is the guerrilla force.

d. In pursuit, the requirements and command relationships for forces which follow and support are the same as in exploitation. They destroy bypassed enemy strongholds, relieve supported units that have halted to contain enemy forces, guard prisoners, open and secure lines of communications, and control refugees. In conducting a pursuit, the commander maintains unremitting, direct pressure against the enemy while trying to envelop him to cut his line of retreat. When conditions permit, the commander orders double envelopments of the retreating guerrilla force. He makes maximum use of fire support, air assault forces, and offensive electronic warfare.

Section VI. Defensive Operations

3-42. Variations.

a. This section discusses defensive operations which brigades and subordinate units may have to conduct. Depending on the tactical situation, these operations, or variations of them, may be conducted during any phase of an insurgency. In some instances, the type of operation under consideration is identical to one already discussed in Section V. The difference is the purpose.

b. For example, patrolling maybe either offensive or defensive in purpose. When its purpose is offensive, it is done to locate the enemy and destroy him. When its purpose is defensive, it is done to deny the enemy access to an area, and to keep him from organizing for offensive operation. (For similarities of offensive and defensive operations, see Section V.)

c. This section also provides guidance to commanders concerned with the defense of various types of temporary or semipermanent bases, such as logistical installations, OSBS, airfields, and airbases, under varying conditions of security that may exist in an area of operations.

d. It is also applicable to the defense of civilian communities. Commanders responsible for bases, facilities, and communities should exercise those principles and techniques discussed which apply to their particular situation.

3-43. Base defense environment.

a. Defense and security of tactical units and installations are integral parts of combat missions. (The term "base" is used to include all types of facilities to be defended.)

b. Base defense operations are executed under the guidance of an area commander whose responsibilities include protecting the resources of his area from interruptions caused by enemy activities. This is a territorial responsibility in which base commanders provide for the local defense of their immediate base areas. In addition, base commanders may be asked to provide resources for other activities which may be classified as rear battle.

c. The base defense environment is established in an area generally controlled by friendly forces but not sufficiently secure to prevent guerrillas from moving in small groups, establishing firing positions, or mounting small-scale attacks.

d. Conditions which may characterize the environment for base defense include:

(1) US forces are in a host country.

(2) Other nations in similar roles may be in the same host country.

(3) Unity of command or a combined headquarters may or may not exist.

(4) Although there is organized armed conflict, there is no recognized state of war.

(5) Many of the guerrillas do not wear distinctive uniforms. At times, some may appear dressed in government uniforms. Guerrillas cannot always be distinguished from government supporters or neutrals even when they are conducting overt operations.

(6) External support may be provided to the guerrillas, both overtly and covertly. Nations or groups supporting the guerrillas may provide sanctuaries where guerrilla forces may establish base areas.

(7) Paramilitary forces may assume increased responsibilities.

(8) No military "frontline" exists where continuous contact can be maintained.

(9) Guerrillas usually do not hold territory. They may disperse and avoid combat at the appearance of a stronger force.

3-44. Missions, functions, and responsibilities.

a. Base defense consists of both normal and emergency local military measures taken to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of enemy attacks or sabotage. Base defense is conducted to ensure the continued effectiveness of its facilities and units to fulfill their missions.

b. The commander of an area or a subarea that contains a base is responsible for its overall defense. The base commander, however, is responsible for its local defense; he must have under his operational control all forces, regardless of branch of service, that are assigned to the base primarily for its defense. Forces assigned to the base for other primary purposes will also assist in local defense during an attack. Each commander of forces located at a base is responsible for:

(1) Participating in preparation of base defense plans. Training his forces for base defense.

(2) Providing appropriate facilities and essential personnel for the base defense operations center and appropriate personnel for the base defense force staff.

(3) Providing for internal security of his own command.

3-45. Passive defense.

In addition to their assigned defense missions, all units in the base area are responsible for maximum implementation of passive defense. Passive defense consists of measures taken to reduce the probability (and to minimize the effects) of damage caused by hostile action, without the expectation of taking the initiative. Responsibility for the conduct of specialized passive defense measures is assigned to firefighting units, chemical units, medical units, and other appropriate organizations capable of satisfying passive defense requirements. Additionally, all units assigned to the base initiate passive defense measures, such as dispersion, camouflage, blackout, and use of shelters. These measures assist in preserving the operating integrity of the base and ensuring decisive and effective action against enemy attack.

3-46. Command relationships.

Command relationships for base defense operations provide unity of command while preserving simplicity. The urgency of base defense operations requires clear-cut authority.

3-47. Fundamentals of base defense.

a. Base defense. It is established to provide all-round security for the base with available forces and is characterized by detailed planning and centralized control. Security measures may also include provisions to protect adjacent civilian communities, if feasible. Constant and aggressive action by friendly elements against enemy forces constitutes a major element of base defense. Vigilance and sound security measures reduce enemy interference with operations at the base and also tend to cause enemy forces to divert their operations from the area.

b. Use of terrain. Proper evaluation and organization of the area are essential to hold down the number of additional forces required for base defense. Factors considered are:

(1) Natural defensive characteristics of the terrain.

(2) Use of artificial obstacles to enhance the natural defensive characteristics of the terrain.

(3) Existing roads and waterways used for military lines of communications and civilian commerce.

(4) Control of land areas surrounding the base complex to a range beyond that of enemy mortars and rockets, and also control of water approaches.

c. Security. Early warning of pending actions ensures the base commander time to react to any threat. Outposts, patrols, ground surveillance and countermortar radar, infantry scout dogs (if available), and air reconnaissance and surveillance provide early warning. Civilian informants and actions of indigenous personnel near the base are excellent indicators of pending enemy actions. Security measures vary with enemy threat, forces available, and other factors; all-round security is essential.

d. Mutual support. Defending forces are positioned to ensure mutual employment of defensive resources, which include fires, observation, and maneuver elements. Mutual support between defensive elements requires careful planning, positioning, and coordination because of the circular aspects of the base area. Surveillance, obstacles, prearranged fires, and maneuver are used to control gaps. Defense plans provide for use of all available support, including attack helicopters and close air support.

e. All-round defense. In defensive planning, the base commander has to be prepared to defend against enemy attack from any direction. Plans are sufficiently flexible, and reserves are positioned to permit reaction to any threat. Base defense forces (BDF) are assigned primary and alternate positions and sectors of responsibility. All personnel are assigned duty stations or shelters.

f. Defense in depth. Alternate and supplementary positions, combat outposts, and mutually supporting strongpoints in front of the base forward defense area extend the depth. The commander plans fires throughout the defensive area up to the maximum range of available weapons. Portable obstacles may be placed around critical targets during reduced visibility to disrupt the enemy's plan and add depth to the defense.

g. Responsiveness. Attacks against a base may range from long-range sniper, mortar, or rocket fire to attacks by suicide demolition squads or major forces. The enemy has the advantage of deciding when, where, and with what force he will attack. The defender positions his forces and plans fires and movement so he can respond to the widest possible range of enemy actions. The defender prepares plans, to include counterattack plans, and rehearses, evaluates, and revises them as necessary.

h. Maximum use of offensive action. Since the objective of the base defense is to maintain a secure base, the defender uses offensive action to the maximum to engage enemy forces outside the base. On initial occupation of the base site, friendly forces take offensive actions to destroy enemy forces in the immediate area. The area commander employs patrols, raids, ambushes, air attacks, and supporting fires to harass and destroy any remaining enemy force. Once the enemy has been cleared from the area, the base can be defended by a smaller force. The BDF commander maintains constant liaison with major tactical unit commanders in the area to stay abreast of efforts to remove the threat.

3-48. Defense preparations.

a. Implementation of base defense measures in a new base begins before base units arrive, if possible. Normally, combat units provide the initial defense in a new base area, These combat forces remain in the base area, conducting aggressive offensive actions, until base units are capable of assuming the mission.

b. When base units arrive, they immediately start organizing the base defense. They perform many of the tasks concurrently, but some tasks require priority. The base commander specifies the sequence for preparation of the defense system. (FM 7-8, FM 7-10, and FM 7-20 provide a recommended sequence for tactical defense. For more information on base defense, see Appendix E.)

3-49. Patrols.

a. Base defense operations to counter small groups of enemy forces include aggressive, frequent patrolling by squad-and platoon-size forces to detect and capture or destroy small groups of guerrillas. Infantry scout dogs, if available, maybe used to add security and additional detection ability to patrol operations.

b. Patrolling is conducted by small, highly mobile units moving on foot or by vehicles during daylight and darkness. It may include the use of aircraft or boats. Populated areas near the base are searched, and surprise checkpoints are established along known or suspected routes of guerrilla communications.

c. Dug-in or concealed night ambush sites are manned outside the barrier system trace on a random basis. Indigenous personnel should accompany ambushes near populated areas. Their knowledge of local populace and terrain assists the ambush mission. Artillery and mortar targets are registered and plotted to provide rapid on-call support. Detectors and sensors are emplaced to provide early warning.

d. BDF or other base unit reconnaissance patrols obtain target acquisition data. They may penetrate known guerrilla-controlled territory to install sensors that report the enemy's presence along infiltration and supply routes. In addition, such patrols observe known infiltration and supply routes and report any activity along these routes. They provide early warning of guerrilla assembly of personnel; movement of weapons, ammunition, or other supplies; and preparation of mortar and rocket firing sites. In addition to the acquisition of specific targets, reconnaissance patrols may be used to locate suspected areas where other types of surveillance or acquisition systems may be employed to obtain information. Indigenous personnel are valuable assets to reconnaissance patrols. Their knowledge of the terrain, ability to operate effectively in the environment, knowledge of the language, and familiarity with local customs are useful.

e. Combat patrols, when used for base defense, are employed in difficult terrain some distance from the base but within range of supporting artillery. Combat patrols employ ranger-type tactics and remain committed for relatively long periods. They may be supplied by air and equipped to communicate with the base and supporting aircraft. Such patrols may vary in size from squad to platoon. They have the mission of making planned searches to locate areas used by guerrillas to hide supplies, regroup, rest, train, or otherwise prepare for offensive actions. Small groups of guerrillas are engaged and destroyed. Large groups are reported and kept under surveillance until they are attacked. Augmentation in the form of local paramilitary guides or trackers increases the effectiveness of combat patrols.

(1) Reaction force operations. When a guerrilla unit is located, the reaction force is deployed rapidly to engage the unit, disrupt its cohesion, and destroy it. If the guerrilla force cannot be contained and destroyed, contact is maintained; reinforcements are dispatched if needed; and the guerrillas are pursued. When escape routes have been effectively blocked, the attack is continued to destroy the enemy force. The required mobility is provided by ground and air vehicles and by rapid foot movement. Wheeled vehicles for reaction forces are predesignated.

(a) Reaction operations are simple, planned, and rehearsed day and night. Primary and alternate points are predesignated for the release of reaction forces from centralized control to facilitate movement against multiple targets. Such points are reconnoitered and photographed for use in planning and briefing. Within security limitations, actual release points are used during rehearsals to promote complete familiarity with the area.

(b) Immediate reaction to any type of attack is essential and is attained through employment of firepower and movement of forces and their equipment. Immediate reaction to accurate and timely intelligence may permit destruction of the guerrilla force before an attack. Immediate reaction to standoff mortar or rocket fire may permit destruction of the guerrilla force during an assault on the base and facilitate blocking routes of withdrawal.

(2) Host and third country forces. The BDF commander normally considers the integration of host and third country forces in the overall base defense effort. Particular emphasis is on integration of host country forces in patrol and populace control activities. Both host and third country forces provide local security for their own units; however, to ensure maximum benefit, all such local plans should be coordinated with, and integrated in, the base master defense plan. The degree of participation in base defense by host and third country forces depends on the orders and guidance of their governments.

3-50. Securing lines of communication (LOC).

a. Guerrillas may attempt to sever lines of communications (LOC) by various methods. Roads, waterways, and railways can be mined, or ambush sites located adjacent to them. Bridges and tunnels can be destroyed by demolitions. It is impossible to absolutely secure long lines of communication, but measures can be taken to minimize the effect of guerrilla activity against them.

b. Patrolling by counterguerrilla forces increases the chances of detecting guerrillas before they can emplace mines or demolitions, or establish ambushes or roadblocks. During Phases I and II of an insurgent action, military police can do most of the patrolling of ground lines of communication, but the tactical situation may dictate combat forces having to perform this mission.

c. Patrolling is done regularly, but patrols should not establish a routine which enables the guerrilla to avoid or ambush them. Patrols must pay particular attention to probable ambush sites and chokepoints where roadblocks or mines and demolitions would be effective.

d. Aerial patrols are effective for covering large areas in a short time.

e. Surface patrols are slower, but they can check routes in greater detail. Surface patrol members must be trained in the detection of mines and booby traps. Mine detectors and infantry scout dogs, if available, may aid them in this task.

f. The primary function of a patrol is to check the security of the routes it patrols. Ordinarily, manpower constraints prohibit a patrol from being organized and equipped to counter a large guerrilla force; however, reinforcement by artillery and attack helicopters increases a patrol's capability to deal with guerrillas they encounter. Patrols are organized with enough combat power to survive an initial contact. Recent guerrilla activity provides guidance on how patrols are organized. If the guerrilla is found in strength, his destruction is the reaction force mission.

g. Patrols always attempt to make initial contact with the smallest of their elements, and they must be thoroughly proficient in counterambush techniques.

h. Roadblocks, checkpoints, and guardposts at critical chokepoints (such as bridges and tunnels) are effective in preventing acts of sabotage. Vehicles and persons are stopped and searched before being allowed to proceed. Vehicles are not allowed to stop on or under bridges or in tunnels.

i. Critical chokepoints are watched carefully at night. Personnel guarding them are equipped with night vision equipment, and ground surveillance radar and sensors are used to cover the immediate, surrounding area. Curves on railroads are also watched. Mining indirect approaches to sensitive areas may help to lessen the chances of ground attack. The area is ringed with planned artillery fires, and bunkers are constructed to protect guard personnel and provide them positions from which to fight until reinforced. Underwater approaches to bridges are reinforced by booby-trapped obstacles.

j. Engineers are used to help keep lines of communication open. They can locate and clear mines, clear potential ambush sites, and repair damage. They may also prepare defensive systems around chokepoints.

3-51. Defending against guerrilla offensive.

a. When insurgent action enters Phase III, the guerrilla may begin to attack using conventional tactics with the intention of capturing and holding facilities, installations, bases, communities, and terrority. He also attemps to permanently sever critical lines of communication. These attacks are similar to attacks conducted by conventional infantry except the initial absence of established lines enables the guerrilla to strike from any direction, or from many directions at once. As host government and US forces react to these initiatives, enemy and friendly lines may evolve; however, during the initial stages of the guerrilla's offensive campaign, friendly bases, facilities, installation, and even cities may be surrounded and come under siege.

b. The organization of the defense and the construction of physical defenses must be at least partially completed prior to the guerrilla's attack if the defenders are expected to hold until a counteroffense can begin.

c. Once enemy and friendly lines are established, conventional tactics are employed by both sides. Initially, however, US forces may have to conduct limited attacks to reopen lines of communication or to relieve besieged areas.

Section VII. Common Operations

Operations common to offensive and defensive counterguerrilla operations may be conducted during any of the three phases of an insurgency. The degree to which these operations are utilized is dependent on the tactical situation.

3-52. Movement security.

a. All movements of troops and supplies are planned and conducted as tactical operations with emphasis on extensive security measures. These security measures may include:

(1) Secrecy when planning and disseminating orders, strict noise and light discipline during movement when appropriate, and varying routes and schedules of movement.

(2) Security forces organized and equipped to ensure effective front, flank, and rear security during movement and halts. Pre-positioning security elements along the route of movement helps in performing route reconnaissance and movement security.

(3) Coordination with supporting air units to ensure a thorough understanding of air support used to assist the movement, both in taking preventive measures and in close combat operations. The need for secrecy may preclude initial air cover, but it will not preclude use of close air support when required. The use of aerial photographs is critical.

(4) Fire support elements which provide close and continuous fire support for the movement.

(5) Maneuver for counterambush actions, to include contingency plans for immediate action against an ambush and use of formations which allow part of the column to be in position to maneuver against an ambush force.

(6) Communications with supporting units, adjacent host country forces, and higher headquarters, to include airborne radio relay.

(7) Varying the location of leaders, communications, and automatic weapons within the movement formation.

(8) Questioning local civilians along the movement route for intelligence information, to include possible guerrilla ambush sites.

(9) Movement by bounds with overmatching fire.

(10) Use of infantry scout dogs, if available, and other ambush detection means.

b. Organization of the movement depends upon the type of movement, whether by ground, air, or water.

c. Planning for movement is coordinated with military units along routes of movement and considers the following:

(1) Communications. Communications are vital to the success of movements. Radio communication is planned and available between convoy serials and march units, with artillery forward observers and air controllers, and with units and population centers in the areas along the route of movement. Visual and sound signals, which include colored smoke, identification panels, and whistle or horn signals, are prearranged. While limited, these communication means are effective when prearranged meanings and responses are understood and rehearsed.

(2) Artillery and mortar support. Artillery and mortar support may be provided by units within range of the route of movement or by artillery and mortars which may be positioned within range of the proposed route. Movements requiring artillery and mortar support have observers either with them or in supporting observation aircraft. Strip maps marked with planned targets enable personnel (other than forward observers) to request fires. Coordination with fire direction centers (FDC) capable of providing fire along the route of movement ensures that forward observers can enter the FDC net, make routine location reports, and request and adjust fires. Call signs, frequencies, authentications, areas of possible employment, schedules of movement, and target numbers are coordinated.

(3) Aircraft. Experience has shown that the presence of aircraft deters ambushes. Column movement covered by traveling overwatch or bounding overwatch attack helicopters, in conjunction with a route reconnaissance by scout helicopters or fixed-wing strike aircraft, maybe requested. Planning includes the type, number, and method of employment of aircraft. Methods of employment include column cover, air alert, and ground alert. Column cover by fighter aircraft is expensive in terms of crew fatigue and equipment maintenance; therefore, light observation-type aircraft that can direct on-call air support are used for short movements over frequently used routes in more secure areas. When air support is planned, communications information concerning radio frequencies, call signs, and identification procedures is provided to all who may need to use them. In addition, the supporting air unit knows the maneuver intentions of the ground element in case of ambush.

(4) Route clearing. This operation may be conducted before certain critical movements. The use of route-clearing operations depends upon the availability of troops, the importance of the movement, and the guerrilla threat within the area. Normally the units responsible for the area through which the movement will pass are used in route-clearing operations. These route-clearing forces normally include both mounted and dismounted elements. In addition to a thorough reconnaissance of the main route of movement, critical terrain near the route is secured. This maybe done by placing pickets along critical stretches of the route or by selective placement of tactical units.

(5) Reserves. Reserves (ready forces) are vital to countering ambushes. The guerrilla must be convinced that ambushes produce a fast, relentless, hard-hitting response by counterguerrilla supporting forces, to include airstrikes and ground pursuit. Prior to a movement, reserve force commanders and aviators are briefed on the general area of operations; landing areas, known and suspected guerrilla locations, and communications are emphasized. If the distance to be covered from a single location prevents quick reaction, reserve ready forces are designated in successive areas. (For further information on movement security, see Appendix G.)

3-53. Motor movement.

a. Special escort attachments may not be available to support all motor movements; therefore, many convoys must be prepared to secure themselves for part or all of the distance. When a maneuver unit is designated to provide escort for a vehicle convoy, elements of the unit provide escort through their respective areas of responsibility. Armor or armored cavalry units are ideally suited to provide convoy escorts. Reconnaissance of the route immediately prior to the passage of the convoy is desirable. When a single unit is to provide escort through other units' areas of responsibility, the single unit coordinates closely with those other units to ensure adequate fire support and available reinforcements during passage of the convoy.

b. Since there is seldom time to issue orders during an ambush, the security detachment's actions are planned and, when possible, rehearsed by drills prior to the movement.

c. Convoy command responsibility is clearly fixed throughout the chain of command. The commander and as many of his subordinates as possible are briefed on the latest information about the area through which they are to pass. The commander formulates his plans and issues his orders to include formation, intervals between echelons and vehicles, rate of travel, and detailed plans for action if a guerrilla force attacks the convoy. All personnel board their vehicle in such a way that they can dismount rapidly into predrilled formations. Arms and ammunition are readied for immediate action, and vehicle commanders are responsible for keeping personnel alert (Figure 3-1).

d. Convoys may be escorted by reconnaissance aircraft or attack helicopters and may have tactical air support on call. The use of reconnaissance Army aircraft to survey routes immediately forward of a convoy often provides early warning of danger.

3-54. Armor and cavalry movement.

a. During movements, unit vehicles and equipment are arranged to facilitate their employment upon contact with, or interference from, the enemy. Traveling, traveling overwatch, and bounding overwatch techniques are used in movement. (See FM 71-2 for armor ground movement security techniques, and FM 17-95 for cavalry movement techniques.)

b. Air cavalry can be used to provide column cover and to give early warning of hostile activity. Security measures are employed to keep the enemy from learning of the movement or its destination once the column has begun moving.

c. Terrain and weather permitting, aground security force (advance guard, flank security, and/or rear guards) are used to provide security. When terrain precludes the use of these ground security elements, air cavalry may perform these activities as part of the security mission.

3-55. Rail movement.

a. Mission. The primary mission of train personnel and combat or security troops is to get the train to its destination.

b. Concept. As long as the train continues to move, control remains with the train crew; however, if an ambush or firefight develops and the train is unable to disengage by movement forward or backward, the escort commander takes command and undertakes defense of the train with all available personnel. If there is no escort, the senior military member aboard takes command. Radio communications are used to call for assistance. Security detachments guarding the right of way have their own communication system which may be tied into the railway communication system, when required.

c. Organization. Railway installations and rail traffic are secured by establishing defined areas of responsibility. Standing operating procedures on organization for rail movement are normally published by the highest level of command. Rail security is coordinated with area and tactical commands which provide support.

d. Operations. Armored trains may be used for patrolling track where guerrilla activity may be expected. Armored trains operate tactically under orders of the appropriate military commander. Since the operation of an armored train is quite different from that of other trains, the military transportation service assigns a specially selected train crew. This crew coordinates the train movement with that of other trains and with proper regard for the tactical situation. Railway gondolas may be prepared for defense by piling sandbags on the floor and at the sides and by mounting machine guns, mortars, and rocket launchers. These cars must not be placed next to cars containing gasoline, ammunition, or other flammables. Locomotives should be preceded by two or more cars loaded with sandbags, rocks, or scrap material for protection against mines and obstructions. On a single-track rail division subject to guerrilla attack, the positive-block method of operations is employed. In this method of operation, a following train is not permitted to enter a block until the preceding train has cleared it. This permits the train in the block, if attacked, to back up if necessary and to receive reinforcements by train from either direction.

3-56. Water movement and riverine operations.

Counterguerrilla operations may be conducted in large inundated areas (lakes, coastal waters, flooded delta areas, and inland waterways) which are inhabited by large population segments and which have limited, or no, rail and road nets. The ability of the counterguerrilla force to operate in these areas is a requirement for successful missions. (See FM 31-11 and FM 31-12 for amphibious operations.)

a. Mission and concept. Boats may be used to perform a variety of tactical as well as logistical tasks. Waterway movement of troops and supplies is planned and conducted in much the same manner as mounted movements on land; however, special characteristics of water transportation must be considered. The counterguerrilla force may participate in riverine operations along with host country regular forces (particularly naval forces), paramilitary forces, US Army waterborne transportation forces, and US naval forces.

b. Organization. When a large waterborne force moves, it adopts a march formation similar to a ground convoy. Advance and rear guards in boats are organized. Flank security maybe provided by patrols in boats in adjacent streams or on foot on the banks. Unlike ground convoy procedures, movement is not necessarily in file or column formation. The formation depends upon the purpose of the movement, the strength of the friendly force, and the width of the stream. It is based on the same considerations as those for combat formations on land, to include control, security, flexibility, speed of reaction, observation, and fields of fire.

c. Operations.

(1) Waterways afford little cover and concealment. Power-driven boats are noisy and attract attention. Boats can be seen and fired on easily in daylight, but this disadvantage can be reduced by night movement and by traveling close to the stream banks where shadow and overhead branches aid concealment. Boats must go to or near the shore to unload, thus affecting the reaction time in case of an ambush. Landing operations may be difficult because of unfavorable characteristics along the banks. Transported troops should be assigned firing positions on board their vessels for defense against ambush. The transported units should position the maximum number of crew-served weapons on board to engage enemy on the near bank or both banks of the waterway.

(2) Combinations of blocking, attacking, and screening tactical actions can be devised by the counterguerrilla force utilizing the mobility of naval forces (river assault groups) and air assault units. Teamwork between ground forces moving along river banks, and supporting naval craft firepower and floating artillery, can result in successful operations against guerrilla forces in water areas.

(3) The amount of time required for planning increases with the size of the force involved. Planning should be as detailed as time permits, but quick reaction is necessary to capitalize on current intelligence.

(4) Planning includes:

(a) Reducing all planning facets of embarking and debarking of troops and equipment to SOP.

(b) Integrating and combining plans for US, allied, and host country military forces and civilian agencies.

(c) Facilitating command and control means to unify command and coordination of fires and other support.

(d) Reducing rehearsals to a minimum, based on habitual employment; reducing activities to SOP; reducing equipment and logistical requirements.

(e) Obtaining detailed intelligence from the population and civilian police.

(f) Obtaining information on currents and tides at H-hour, beach conditions, and conditions of banks or shores for exit routes.

(5) Crew-served weapons transported on water craft must be in position at all times to engage guerrilla ambush forces.

3-57. Foot and air movement.

a. Foot movement. Dismounted movements by small units are planned and conducted using the principles for patrolling; for larger units, the principles for movement to contact will apply (FM 7-8, FM 7-10, and FM 7-20).

b. Air movement. Air movements are an integral part of counterguerrilla operations. The principles governing security of such movements are contained in FM 7-10, FM 7-20, and FM 90-4.

3-58. Border operations.

a. While operations to control borders are normally a civilian security agency mission, the brigade may be required to participate in these operations by reinforcing or assuming responsibility for border surveillance and control.

b. Brigades conducting or supporting consolidation or strike operations may become involved in border control activities. In some cases, the scope and combat requirements of controlling a border may make border operations more a tactical than a civilian security force problem, and may require the conduct of successive strike operations by the brigade in its area of operations.

(1) Purpose. Border control operations require effective measures to secure extensive land border or seacoast areas and to preclude communication and supply operations (to include aerial resupply) between an external sponsoring power and guerrilla forces.

(a) Concept. In Phase I insurgency, operations in border areas are normally a function of police, customs, and other government organizations. Armed and paramilitary forces may assist these organizations, particularly in remote areas. In Phases II and III, denial of external support for the insurgency may require combat operations in border areas. These operations require close coordination and cooperation between the armed forces, paramilitary forces, and all government agencies involved. Physically sealing the border may not be possible since it could require the commitment of more government forces and materiel than overall national resources permit. Since placing forces and barriers at all possible crossings or entry sites maybe impossible, priorities should be established. Natural barriers must be used wherever possible. Using patrols, sensors, and obstacles in selected areas increases the effectiveness of natural barriers. Barrier and denial operations are established after careful consideration of the threat, the environment, and the location of the infiltrator's probable targets and methods of operation.

(b) Organization. National border forces may be composed of border police and guards and may include paramilitary forces and regular armed forces with supporting or direct responsibility for portions of the international border.

(c) Command and control. Border operations are planned, directed, and supervised from the national level. Authority to conduct these operations may be delegated to subnational and other area commanders.

(d) Structuring. Border task forces are tailored units designed to meet requirements in their assigned areas. They should contain sufficient combat support and combat service support elements to support operations for extended periods.

(2) Operations.

(a) Restricted zones or friendly population buffer zones can be established if needed. Either of these operations, which could require relocating many persons, must be carefully planned. Although armed forces may assist, civil authorities normally are responsible for planning and carrying out a relocation program. Forced relocation is held to a minimum. The 1949 Geneva Conventions prohibit forced population resettlement unless there is clear military necessity.

(b) While specific portions of an international land border or shoreline maybe placed under effective surveillance and control by use of static security posts, reserve forces, ground and aerial observers, electronic listening posts, and patrols, the continuous surveillance and control of an extensive land border or shoreline is difficult. Since it may not be possible to place brigade forces at all the crossing or landing sites, a priority system for the sites requiring military forces is established.

(3) Surveillance. Continuous and detailed surveillance is required to determine infiltration and exfiltration routes and support sites, frequency and volume of traffic, type of transportation, number and type of personnel, amount and type of materiel, terrain and traffic conditions, and the probable location of base areas and sanctuaries. Surveillance and control of extensive coastal areas normally require the use of coordinated ground patrols on the shoreline, coordinated offshore patrols, aerial surveillance, strategic observation posts along the shoreline, and an effective system of licensing and identifying friendly military and civilian watercraft.

(4) Military operations. Border units establish operational support bases at battalion and company levels to direct operations. Aviation, signal, engineer, and fire support augmentation usually is required. These are normally found in the brigade support base if not augmenting subordinate units.

(5) Border control methods. Two operational concepts for the control of extensive land borders are the restricted zone and the friendly population buffer.

(a) Restricted zone. Under this concept, an area of predetermined width along the border is declared a restricted zone. Appropriate proclamations are issued to the population so that everyone understands that any individual or group encountered in the zone will be considered as an element of the guerrilla force, paramilitary force, or similar organization. So far as practicable, the restricted zone is cleared of vegetation and other obstacles to observation over the area. Earth-moving equipment may be used for this purpose. Defoliants, if authorized, may also be used for this purpose, but this should be considered when no other method is feasible. Since the clearance of the zone along the entire border is normally not feasible, a priority of areas for clearance is usually necessary. The restricted zone is controlled by the use of ground and aerial observers, electronic sensor devices, listening posts, patrols, mines, and obstacles. It is preferable that these activities be conducted by host country civil police and paramilitary forces to economize on the available regular armed forces' combat power which can be better utilized in tactical operations.

(b) Friendly population buffer. The civilian population in the area of operations is redistributed as necessary to ensure that all civilians residing near the border are sympathetic to the host country government. This may entail the screening of all persons settled along the border, relocation of those persons of doubtful sympathy, and supplementary resettlement of the border area with friendly elements of the civilian population. This concept provides a potential informant net along the border, it provides friendly local civilians for employment in self-defense units to control the border area, and it denies potential civilian contacts and houses of refuge for use by the guerrillas in border-crossing activities. Relocation of civilians is a sensitive legal and political issue and should be undertaken with host country authority in compliance with host country law. US personnel should not be actively involved. US relocation activities in an international conflict environment must comply with applicable provisions of Geneva Conventions IV. Relocation operations must be preceded by detailed economic, social, psychological, and political preparation so the socio-economic stability of the area is not endangered by the shifts in population. The conduct of these operations without such preparation can result in such undesirable effects in the area as political instability, extensive unemployment, inequities in land distribution, inadequate public utilities, inadequate housing, and intermingling of population with conflicting religious beliefs and social mores.

(6) Waterline borders. In addition to use of restricted zones and friendly population buffers, as discussed above for land borders, the surveillance and control of extensive coastal areas and shorelines normally require the use of:

(a) Coordinated ground patrols on the shoreline.

(b) Coordinated offshore sea patrols of the shoreline and river delta areas.

(c) Reinforcing aerial, visual, and photographic surveillance of the offshore waters and the shoreline.

(d) Observation posts along the shoreline in the vicinity of river mouths, ground lines of communication, and accessible portions of the shoreline.

(e) An effective system of licensing and identifying all friendly military and civilian watercraft using the offshore waters.

(f) Effective, centralized control and coordination of all these activities.

(7) Sanctuaries. Guerrillas may establish base camps and conduct cross-border operations from countries adjacent to the host country. They will take advantage of an international boundary to launch operations or evade pursuit with impunity. Commanders operating in border areas must respect the sanctity of international boundaries, but they can conduct combat operations against the guerrilla force once it crosses back over the border. Ambush patrols are an excellent means of dealing with guerrillas who attempt to use an international border as a sanctuary.

3-59. Urban operations.

a. Operations in an urban environment require different emphasis and different techniques than those in rural areas. The presence of many people and the characteristics of the area influence both insurgent and government operations. During Phases I and II, these areas are usually unfavorable for guerrilla operations. Guerrillas will not normally fight in these areas; however, other insurgent elements in the urban areas may incite rioting, use terrorist tactics, or seize portions of the city and key facilities. Armed forces may be required to reinforce police in combatting riots and disorders provoked by the insurgents. Tactical operations may be necessary if the guerrillas take direct action to seize urban areas or critical installations within them. This may occur in smaller urban areas during Phase II, and may occur in large urban areas in the later stages of Phase III. (FM 90-10 discusses tactical operations in urban areas. FM 19-15 discusses civil disturbances.)

b. The population density requires emphasis on the use of nonlethal weapons and the careful use of weapons of destruction when force is necessary. The application of "minimum essential force" to minimize loss of life and destruction of property requires detailed planning, coordination, and control.

c. Covert insurgent activity is extensive in urban areas. The government must emphasize intelligence and police operations to counter clandestine organizational, intelligence, logistical, and terrorist activities. IDAD operations in urban areas maybe part of a consolidation campaign.

d. Urban areas are critical and require a continuing IDAD effort whether or not they are included in a specific campaign. Military forces should participate in IDAD planning and operations in urban areas during all phases of insurgency to be prepared to assist other national security and law enforcement agencies if situations requiring military forces develop.

(1) Operational environment. The characteristics of an urban area normally include:

(a) A large, concentrated population.

(b) Government facilities.

(c) Industrial complexes.

(d) Communications facilities.

(e) Transportation terminals.

(f) Storage facilities.

(g) Food markets.

(h) Medical facilities.

(i) Public utilities.

(j) Educational centers.

(k) Ethnic, religious, and economic groups.

(l) Man-made features (multistory buildings and subterranean facilities).

(m) Police force, paramilitary force, and other law enforcement agencies.

(2) Government activity. Urban areas need more government functions and services than rural areas. This requires more and possibly larger government organizations for operations. The activities and capabilities of all government agencies should be considered in planning and executing IDAD operations.

(3) Subversive activities. A subversive element intent on destroying the government may strain the capabilities of local authorities. The insurgents will attempt to exploit local civilian organizations by subverting their goals and objectives. They will try to place them in opposition to the government. Terrorist activities and psychological operations will take place along with covert insurgent organizational, intelligence, and logistical operations. Police, internal security, and other government organizations will be high priority targets of the insurgents.

(4) Operations. Operations require careful planning and coordination, particularly those operations involving application of force. Military forces designated to provide assistance, if needed, make plans and prepare to implement them. Military forces must be able to communicate with police and other agencies involved in the operations. They must collect and have readily available detailed information on area characteristics and critical installations.

(5) Tactical operations.

(a) Tactical operations may be required inside or near an urban area to defeat an insurgent attack. Any insurgent attempt to seize and hold an urban area will probably involve operations in nearby areas as well. When the police and other internal security forces can cope with the attack inside the urban area, military forces can best participate by establishing security around the urban area and by denying the insurgent reinforcement or support. When military forces are required to reinforce police or defeat insurgent forces inside the urban area, operations must be closely controlled and coordinated. Military forces should be withdrawn as soon as police forces can handle the situation.

(b) When an urban area has been seized by insurgent forces, an evaluation must be made from both a tactical and psychological perspective whether to recapture it using major military force or using other techniques. The amount of force and the specific techniques to be used to recapture the area are decided based on the probable psychological impact on the enemy, noncombatant civilians, and friendly troops; the safety of civilians and friendly troops; the destruction of buildings; and the military forces available. The principle of "minimum essential force" will help reduce casualties in the noncombatant civilian population.

(c) Riot control munitions can be used against targets so that military forces can close with and capture the enemy with minimum injury to the noncombatants. Operations may be in the form of assistance to civilian police. In any event, military operations must be coordinated with the civilian police. (For information on combat in fortified and built-up areas, see FM 90-10 and FM 90-10-1.)

Join the mailing list