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Combined Operations

J-1. General.

If and when US forces are deployed to a host country to assist in a counterinsurgency conflict, tactical operations will probably be joint in nature, and it is likely that US forces will be working with, or in support of, the military and paramilitary forces of the host country.

J-2. Nature of Combined Operations.

a. Combined operations require prior written agreement as to authority, jurisdiction, and procedural and organizational matters. The legal basis for combined operations is usually a treaty or operational agreement between the US and the host country.

b. US forces must plan to coordinate and work with the military or paramilitary forces. Commanders and staffs must be prepared to establish workable arrangements rapidly, once introduced into a host country, if not done prior to deployment. Every situation will be unique and will depend upon the extent of involvement of US forces and the nature of the operations.

c. Planning for factors that must be taken into consideration will benefit combined operations. Chief considerations are:

(1) Command and control.

(2) Intelligence.

(3) Operational procedures.

(4) Combat service support.

J-3. Command and Control.


a. Organization of the combined force.

b. Overall command of the force.

c. Roles and/or missions of the combined force.

d. Procedure for exchange of liaison officers with language capability or interpreter support, and determine the level of exchange.

e. Understanding of differences, capabilities, and personal characteristics of host country military leaders.

J-4. Intelligence.

Establish procedures for:

a. Dissemination of military intelligence and use of intelligence assets by partners.

b. Coordination of intelligence operations.

c. Sharing of high-tech intelligence capabilities.

J-5. Operational Procedures.

Establish plans and procedures for:

a. SOPs that ensure effective cooperation.

b. Assignment of responsibility for certain operations based on special capabilities of the force.

c. Determining difference in tactics, techniques, and procedures.

d. Determining difference in equipment, radios, and maps.

e. Detailed planning and rehearsals.

f. Determining allied unit recognition.

g. Rear operations coordination, planning, and responsibilities.

h. Use of combat support assets.

J-6. Combat Service Support.

Establish plans for:

a. Exchange of liaison officers.

b. Coordinating support from local resources and facilities.

c. Determining equipment and ammunition compatibility.

d. Support in a tactical emergency.

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