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APPENDIX F

Smoke, Flame, Herbicides, and Riot Control Agents

F-1. Employment.

a. This appendix provides guidance on the employment of chemical agents and munitions in counterguerrilla operations.

b. The munitions are useful where there is difficulty in pinpointing guerrilla locations, and where the area coverage provided by riot control munitions would be greater than that of other available weapon systems.

F-2. Smoke.

a. Smoke may be used to identify, signal, obscure, deceive, and screen. It may be used to identify and signal targets, supply and evacuation point, and friendly unit positions. It may also provide the counterguerrilla commander with prearranged battlefield communications.

b. Obscuring smoke is used on guerrilla positions to reduce their ability to see and engage friendly targets. Deceptive smoke is used to mislead guerrillas as to friendly force intentions. Screening smoke is used in friendly operational areas, or between friendly and guerrilla forces to deny guerrilla observation of areas where friendly units are maneuvering, or resupply or recovery operations are in progress. This type of smoke employment usually is not required by the counterguerrilla commander until the later stages of Phases II and III.

c. Smoke sources include:

(1) Mechanical smoke generators (large screen areas).

(2) Smoke grenades (small screens, signaling, identifying).

(3) M110-pound smoke pot (small screen).

(4) ABC-M5 30-pound smoke pot (small screen).

(5) M42A and M207A1 floating smoke pot (small screens, ground or water base).

(6) WP mortar and WP and HC artillery rounds (obscuring, signaling, deceiving, identifying).

(7) WP tank rounds, 90-mm and 105-mm (small screens, obscuring, signaling, identifying).

(8) Grenade-launched round by tanks, Bradley fighting vehicle, and M203 (small, individual screens).

(9) Vehicle engine exhaust smoke systems, tanks, and Bradley fighting vehicle (small, individual screens).

(10) Aircraft-delivered smoke ordnance (large screens).

d. Depending on the weather and terrain, smoke screening may not always be effective. For example, the wind could be too strong or be blowing from the wrong direction. Signaling, identifying, and obscuring are all good smoke missions in all phases of a counterguerrilla operation.

F-3. Flame expedients and the M202.

a. Flaming fuel and hot shrapnel, exploding over an area up to 100 meters in diameter, is an effective defensive weapon. If a target is to be pinpointed, then the M202 rocket can be used to flame a hostile position.

b. The flame mine is an omnidirectional expedient that can be command detonated or activated by a tripwire. It will scatter flame and shrapnel over an area 20 to 80 meters in diameter, depending on the size of the mine.

c. The fougasse (flame/shrapnel) expedient is similar to the mine except that its explosive force is directional (rather than all-round). A 55-gallon barrel is often used as a container for fuel and shrapnel. The barrel is placed in a V-trench, sandbagged in place, and an explosive charge is placed behind the barrel. When exploded, the flaming fuel and pieces of metal are blown out to a distance of 100 meters or more (in a broad V-pattern).

d. The M202 rocket launcher contains four rockets that burst into flame on impact. The aiming device on the launcher provides on-target accuracy for close-in combat.

F-4. Herbicides.

a. The United States renounces first use of herbicides in war except use, under regulations applicable to their domestic use and the rules of engagement, for control of vegetation within US bases and installations or around their immediate defensive perimeters to clear observation and fields of fire.

b. Herbicides have the potential to destroy food production and defoliate large areas. The US will not use herbicides in this way, unless they are first used against US forces and the President directs their use in retaliation.

F-5. Riot control agents.

a. The United States renounces the first use of riot control agents (RCA) in war, except defensively to save lives. The use of RCA is not governed by the same policy as chemical agents. Since they are not used to injure or kill and their effects are short lived, there are times when the use of RCA is more appropriate than conventional weapons.

b. Commonly used not control agents contain chemicals that cause vomiting, sneezing, and watering (tears) of the eyes.

c. RCA containers include hand grenades and 40-mm cartridge grenades (M203 launcher). When used, the grenades, whether thrown or fired, are directed upwind of the target so the chemical particulate (vapor) will drift onto the hostile position.

d. RCAs are used to force guerrillas from tunnels, caves, and buildings in an effort to take them prisoner. When counterguerrilla units probe possible ambush sites, RCAs may be employed to flush guerrillas and take prisoners.

e. When counterguerrilla units are in defensive positions, canister of RCA (containing the agent in powder form) maybe detonated by remote control. This type of agent causes reactions similar to RCA vapor agents and blisters the skin.

f. Counterguerrilla personnel will wear the protective mask and cover exposed skin areas when employing RCAs. Decontamination, after RCA missions, requires troops to wash skin areas and brush or wash clothing.



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