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Section I. General

E-1. Three types.

This appendix explains the three types of bases generally used in a counterinsurgency: patrol bases, operational support bases, and support bases.

E-2. Tactical uses.

Patrol bases are used by a company or smaller units. Operational support bases are used by battalions, and support bases are used by brigades and larger units.

Section II. Patrol Bases

E-3. Planning.

a. When a unit halts for an extended period, it takes active and passive measures to provide maximum security. The leader selects, occupies, and organizes an area so located that it provides passive security from enemy detection. This is a patrol base.

b. Planning a patrol base is usually a part of the patrol's operation; or it may be an on-the-spot decision. The length of time a patrol base is occupied depends on the need for secrecy. In most situations, occupation should not exceed 24 hours except in an emergency. A patrol base is occupied the minimum time necessary to accomplish the mission. The same base is not (usually) used again.

c. In counterguerrilla operations, patrol base secrecy is required; and evacuation (if discovered) depends on the degree of control the guerrilla force has in the base area, their ability to react to the discovery of a base, and their ability to affect the unit's mission. When a guerrilla force is relatively small and weak, patrol base secrecy may not bean overriding consideration; and if the base is discovered, evacuation may not be required. In an area controlled by a large guerrilla force with a high degree of combat capability, patrol base secrecy is mandatory; and if discovered, evacuation is required.

d. Typical situations that require planning for a patrol base include:

(1) A requirement to cease all movement to avoid detection.

(2) A requirement to hide the unit during a lengthy, detailed reconnaissance of the objective area.

(3) A need to prepare food, maintain weapons and equipment, and rest after extended movement.

(4) A need to formulate a final plan and issue orders for actions at the objective.

(5) A requirement for reorganization after a patrol has infiltrated the enemy area in small groups (used in conjunction with a linkup point).

(6) A need for a base from which to conduct several consecutive or concurrent operations such as ambush, raid, reconnaissance, or surveillance patrols.

e. Any unforeseen situation occurring during a patrol mission could lead to an on-the-spot decision to establish a patrol base.

E-4. Selection.

a. The location for a patrol base is usually selected by map reconnaissance during planning. Selection may also be by aerial reconnaissance or based on prior knowledge of a suitable location.

b. A patrol base established as the result of an on-the-spot decision requires reconnoitering, securing, expanding, and organizing the area occupied during a security halt.

c. A patrol base location selected by map or aerial reconnaissance, or by prior knowledge of an area, is tentative. Its suitability is confirmed by ground reconnaissance, and it is secured before occupation.

d. Plans to establish a patrol base include consideration of:

(1) Alternate location. This is used if the initial location proves unsuitable or if the unit is required to evacuate the initial location prematurely. In counterguerrilla operations, reconnaissance and surveillance of an alternate location, until occupied or no longer needed, are desirable.

(2) Linkup point. This is used if the unit evacuates the patrol base by exfiltration in groups. The linkup point does not have to be reconnoitered.

(3) Rallying point. This is used if the unit is dispersed from the patrol base. It is a point over which the unit has previously passed, and it is known to all.

E-5. Considerations.

a. When planning for a patrol base, passive and active security measures are considered, as well as the mission.

b. With regard to passive security measures, base selection includes:

(1) Difficult terrain that impedes foot movement and has little tactical value.

(2) An area with dense vegetation (bushes and trees that spread out close to the ground).

(a) An area remote from human habitation.

(b) An area near a water source.

(c) An area that avoids known or suspected enemy positions; built-up areas; ridgelines and topographic crests (except as necessary for maintaining adequate communications); roads or trails and natural lines of drift; and wet areas, steep slopes, and small valleys that may be lines of drift.

c. With regard to active security measures, base selection includes:

(1) Outpost and listening post systems covering avenues of approach into the area.

(2) Communications with outposts and listening posts.

(3) Defense of the patrol base (if required).

(4) Withdrawal, to include multiple withdrawal routes (if required).

(5) An alert plan.

(6) Enforcement of camouflage, noise, and light discipline.

(7) Conduct of necessary activities with minimum movement and noise.

E-6. Occupation and operation of a patrol base.

a. A patrol base may be occupied in two ways:

(1) By moving to a selected site and organizing the area in the same manner as an on-the-spot establishment.

(2) By halting near the selected site and sending forward reconnaissance forces.

b. The method is thoroughly planned and rehearsed. The use of patrol base drills (in either method) assists in the swift and efficient establishment of patrol bases.

(1) Approach. The unit is halted at a suitable position within 200 meters of the tentative patrol base location. Close-in security is established. Previously designated individuals (preferably leaders of the unit's major subunits) join the unit leader (Figure E-1).

(2) Reconnaissance. The leader designates a point of entry into the patrol base location as 6 o'clock, assigns areas by the clock system, designates the center of the base as headquarters, and moves there. Subordinate leaders then reconnoiter assigned areas for suitability and return to the unit leader. Usually, two men are dispatched to bring the unit forward.

(3) Occupation. The unit leaves its line of march at right angles and enters the base in single file, moving to the center of the base. Designated men remove signs of the unit's movement. Each leader peels off his unit and leads it to the left flank of the unit sector. Each unit occupies its portion of the perimeter by moving clockwise to the left flank of the next sector. The unit leader checks the perimeter by meeting each leader at the left flank of his sector, moving clockwise (Figure E-2).

(a) Each leader reconnoiters forward of his sector by moving a designated distance out from the left flank of the sector, moving clockwise to the right limit of the sector, and reentering at the right flank of the sector. He reports indications of the enemy or civilians, suitable observation and listening post positions, rallying points, and withdrawal routes (Figure E-3).

(b) The unit leader designates rallying points, positions for OPs and listening posts, and withdrawal routes. Each unit puts out one two-man observation post (OP) (day), and one three-man listening post (LP) (night), and establishes communications (Figure E-4).

(4) Operation security. Only one point of base entry and exit is used. It is camouflaged and guarded at all times. Fires are built only when necessary and, as a rule, only in daylight. Whether day or night, only necessary fires are built, and they are kept as small as possible. Where terrain permits, fires are built in pits and, if built at night, are carefully covered and shielded. Building fires in pits reduces the danger of visual detection and facilitates extinguishing the fires and camouflaging the sites. The driest and hardest wood available is used (to reduce smoke). In most areas, the best time for building fires is when the air is thin and smoke dissipates quickly (usually around noon); early morning may be appropriate, however, in areas where there is ground fog. The risk of detection, because of lingering odor, must be weighed against the risk of detection due to visible smoke.

(a) Noisy tasks, such as cutting branches, are accomplished at designated times, as early as possible after occupation but never at night nor during the quiet periods of early morning and late evening. When possible, noisy tasks are performed when other sounds will cover them, such as the sounds of aircraft, artillery, or distant battle noises.

(b) Movement, both inside and outside the patrol base, is restricted to the minimum.

(c) Civilians who discover the location of the patrol base are detained until the base is moved or until they can be evacuated to higher headquarters. Care is taken to prevent detained civilians from learning about base operation and future plans. If necessary, they are tied and blindfolded and their ears are covered.

(d) When sufficient personnel are available, OPs are manned by at least two men so they can alternate and ensure alertness at all times. This also removes the need for traffic between the OP and the patrol base. Listening posts are manned by at least two, preferably three, individuals so they can alternate and remain alert.

(e) A 1-hour stand-to is observed morning and evening: 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after light in the morning, and 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after dark in the evening. This ensures that every man is acclimated to changing light conditions, and is dressed, equipped, and ready for action.

(f) Each man knows the locations of men and positions to his flanks, front, and rear, and knows the times and routes of any expected movement within, into, and out of the patrol base.

(5) Defense. Defensive measures are planned, but a patrol base is usually defended only when evacuation is not possible. Elaborate firing positions are not constructed; nonetheless, camouflage and concealment are stressed.

(a) Artillery and mortar fires may be planned, if available. Early warning devices may be placed on avenues of approach. If the base is to be defended, then mines and trip flares may be placed on avenues of approach and in areas that cannot be covered by fire. The value of these devices is weighed against the fact that their discovery automatically compromises the patrol base.

(b) An alert plan includes evacuation and defense. All members know the plans and the signals or orders for their implementation. Plans cover pursuit and destruction of the attacking force.

(6) Communications. Communications are established with higher headquarters, subordinate units, OPs, and listening posts. The system provides for every man to be alerted quickly and quietly. Radios, an excellent means of communication, are carefully controlled. Wire can be used within the patrol base if its bulk and weight, and the time required to lay and pick up, are not disadvantages. Tug, or pull, wires may be used for signaling. They are quiet and reduce radio or telephone traffic. Messengers may be used within the patrol base.

(7) Maintenance. Weapons and equipment are cleaned and maintained as required.

(8) Sanitation and personal hygiene. In daylight, catholes outside the perimeter are used. The user is guarded. At night, catholes are used inside the perimeter. Men wash, shave, and brush their teeth as needed, consistent with the situation (including availability of water). Cans, food, and other trash are taken with the departing patrol for security.

(9) Messing. Men eat at staggered times, as planned and controlled. Preparation of meals is planned (if required).

(10) Water. Guarded water parties provide water. Lone individuals do not visit the water source. No more than two visits to the source are made in a 24-hour period. Use of water is controlled (as required).

(11) Rest. Rest and sleep are permitted after all work is done. Rest periods are staggered to maintain security. Consistent with work and security requirements, as much sleep and rest as possible are scheduled for each man.

(12) Resupply. If the unit is to be resupplied by air, the flight path, drop zone or landing zone, and cache are located so that neither the base nor possible objectives are compromised.

(13) Planning and conduct of operations. Details of operations are passed to all unit members. Members are not assembled atone time as this would endanger base security. Rehearsals are limited to terrain models, with part of the unit rehearsing while the remainder provides security. Weapons are not test fired. If part of the unit is absent on an operation, the perimeter is adjusted, if necessary, to ensure security. Orders are as brief as possible. Maximum practical use is made of fragmentary orders and references to SOPs.

(14) Departure. All signs of the unit's presence are removed or concealed. This may prevent the enemy from learning that the unit is in the area, prevent pursuit, or prevent the enemy from learning how the patrol base is operated. Night evacuation (in case of attack) is avoided if possible. Evacuation is conducted as a unit when possible.

Section III. Battalion Operational Support Bases

E-7. Purpose.

When engaged in counterguerrilla operations, battalion elements often establish a base for command and control and fire support resources, protected by a perimeter defense. These resources are called the battalion operational support base.

E-8. Perimeter defense.

a. The OSB perimeter defense location depends upon:

(1) Forces available to defend the combat base.

(2) Ability to support subordinate units with indirect fire.

(3) Defensibility of terrain.

(4) Ability to communicate with subordinate units.

b. Before establishing the battalion OSB, the commander reconnoiters to determine terrain defensibility. He also plans the defense force.

c. While the defense is designed to defeat the heaviest attack the enemy is likely to conduct, it uses minimal forces. Essential elements (reinforced as necessary) of the headquarters and headquarters company (HHC) compose the force available to prepare and defend the perimeter.

E-9. OSB commander.

a. The battalion commander normally designates the HHC commander as battalion OSB commander in charge of perimeter defense. Forces normally under control of the OSB commander include:

(1) An antitank platoon.

(2) An air defense section, if attached (to man the perimeter and provide antiaircraft fire).

(3) A heavy mortar platoon (to man the perimeter and provide fire support).

(4) A rifle platoon (if provided for perimeter defense or as a reaction force).

b. The scout platoon is normally used for patrolling or screening missions, rather than perimeter defense. Use of specialty unit personnel (air defense and mortar) for manning the perimeter will reduce the responsiveness of those systems. An element of risk is involved.

c. During defense works construction, the perimeter is vulnerable to attack, so it is completed as quickly as possible. Maximum security is provided during construction.

E-10. Infiltration.

a. Guerrillas may be able to conduct large-scale attacks on fortified positions, but they may disrupt operations by infiltrating one or two men through the perimeter to place explosive devices on command and control facilities, artillery pieces or mortars, or ammunition storage areas.

b. This infiltration often follows a deceptive attack or probe. The perimeter defense force maintains constant security, using early warning systems and continuous patrolling. Starlight scopes, OPs, unattended ground sensors, ground surveillance radars, and trip flares are also used. Wire obstacles should be used to keep infiltrators out of critical facilities.

c. A battalion OSB may have to remain in place for an extended period, but it is not a permanent base. Continuous firing of mortars and landing of helicopters make concealing its location difficult. These factors require that the perimeter defense be hardened. Overhead cover and sandbagged bunkers are provided for all fighting positions. The tactical operations center and command post (CP) require similar protection (or they may be dug underground). Mortars and artillery pieces are dug in or fortified with sandbags.

E-11. Reserves.

a. A reserve for the defense is made up from attachments (engineers, if available, or from off-shift personnel from tactical operation center [TOC] and CP elements).

b. The reserve reacts to enemy attacks and reinforces the defense or counterattack. It is rehearsed on signals and actions. Mortars are employed to provide close-in fire support. Artillery pieces may be able to provide direct fire but may not be able to provide indirect fire in support of the perimeter. Hence, the perimeter should be within range of other artillery and mortar units for additional protection.

E-12. Work priorities.

a. A priority of work is scheduled to construct the battalion OSB. The priority placed on actions is dependent upon the tactical situation and the availability of resources. Work is accomplished in the following sequence, consistent with the tactical situation and the availability of resources.

(1) Step 1. Air assault and/or ground assault seizes the site; immediate security is established to include OPs; area is swept for booby traps; and mortars are laid.

(2) Step 2. Communications are established; CP is set up; TOC position is dug in; and selected TOC personnel are displaced to perimeter defense.

(3) Step 3. Perimeter positions are established; fields of fire are cleared; reserve force is established; and wire is laid to all positions.

(4) Step 4. Barriers and obstacles are placed around perimeter defense; early warning devices are emplaced; security and ambush patrol plans are established; and final protective fire (FPF) is called in.

(5) Step 5. Positions are sustained; positions are hardened with overhead cover; all other positions are improved; more fields of fire are cleared; the landing zone is enlarged; and the latrine, generators, and ammunition supply point are established.

NOTE: Camouflage is applied throughout base preparations.

b. The size of the base is dependent upon the situation and the terrain available. When artillery is within the perimeter, then the OSB is larger to accommodate the guns and supporting equipment (Figure E-5).

Section IV. Brigade, Division Support Base

E-13. Permanent-type base.

a. A brigade or division support base is larger and more permanent. It is usually near an airfield and/or generally in consolidation areas. This section describes the responsibilities and organization found in the defense of more permanent installations.

b. An area command is composed of those organized elements of one or more of the armed services designated to operate in a specific geographical area; these armed services are placed under a single commander. The area command may range in size from an area (theater) of operations to a small urban complex. The purpose of such area assignment is to:

(1) Secure unity of effort in such operational missions as may be assigned to commanders.

(2) Coordinate defense, logistics, and the use of available facilities.

c. To provide for the effective defense of a base within his command or for joint planning within his area of responsibility, the commander must:

(1) Assign the responsibility for defense of the base and surrounding local defense areas.

(2) Establish the method of command or coordination to be exercised.

(3) Ensure the establishment of appropriate command relationships between subordinate area and base commanders.

d. Command relationships, security, and defense responsibilities vary at the base command level because of the possible multinational and multiservice force combinations involved in the overall defense effort of a given base. In most cases, base ownership, national-level agreements, and mutual agreements among senior commanders determine relationships and responsibilities. The relationship between US service components and host country forces is included in the directive of the US establishing authority. This relationship is generally one of mutual coordination and cooperation. Relationships among US service components using the same base are also outlined in the directive of the establishing authority. These relationships follow the principles designated for joint operations, attachment, or support given in JCS Publication 2.

E-14. Organization of forces.

The overall organization for base defense includes three basic elements: permanent, as required, and as available.

a. Permanent. Permanently assigned elements for base defense and/or security responsibilities are:

(1) Provisional-type base defense forces which have been assigned a primary mission to defend the base. This force includes personnel and equipment for command and control; conduct of patrols; manning of outposts, listening posts, and the base perimeter; and reserve and/or reaction force activities.

(2) Component police and security elements make up the internal security force. Although not normally a part of the BDF, these forces perform their routine security duties in close coordination with the defense force commander to ensure complete protection and integration of defensive planning.

(3) Combat support and combat service support units are relatively static support units, such as communications and maintenance elements, which exercise their support capabilities from within the perimeter of the base.

b. As required. Elements assigned base defense responsibilities on an "as required" basis include units, or elements of units, normally occupying or operating in the base area whose primary mission is not base defense. These elements, referred to as the emergency augmentation force, supplement the capabilities of the BDF when the degree of threat or intensity of guerrilla attack dictates that they cease their primary functions and assist in base defense. The emergency augmentation force may consists of US, host country, or allied ground, naval, or air forces.

c. As available. Elements assigned base defense responsibilities on an "as available" basis include:

(1) Transient units of US, host country, or allied military forces temporarily in the base area.

(2) Tenant units on the base between operations.

(3) Host units or units of other nation(s) normally in areas adjacent to the base perimeter that have been designated, by their commanders, to provide assistance to the base when their own operations do not require total effort.

E-15. Operational concepts.

a. Base defense includes all actions that units occupying the base must take to protect themselves from enemy acts. Such actions inevitably interfere to some degree with the primary mission of some of the elements involved. To reduce this interference, the following principles apply:

(1) Tenant units not assigned primarily for base defense are normally used in the role or configuration for which they are organized and trained --except when required for duty as emergency augmentation forces during an all-out attack on the base.

(2) Combat, combat support, and combat service support elements are specifically allocated for base defense missions when guerrilla actions are frequent, prolonged, or severe.

(3) When emergency augmentation forces are used in base defense situations, they must be returned to their primary functions as soon as the situation permits.

(4) Base tenant unit personnel are responsible for local security. The organization of a provisional defense force or the assignment of a combat unit to provide security for the base does not relieve them of this responsibility.

b. The overall concept of base defense includes all actions required to preseve the operating integrity of the base.

c. Regardless of the military measures applied, there is no defense that prevents guerrillas from attacking and damaging a base if they are willing to pay the price in manpower and materiel. Making them pay a high price holds down the number of attacks.

d. Defense of the critical areas is a primary consideration. The critical areas are facilities and installations whose continued operation is essential for the accomplishment of the primary mission. These facilities and installations are designated by the base commander or higher authority and include power stations; petroleum, oils, and lubricants storage sites; ammunition storage sites; aircraft facilities; and artillery emplacements.

e. Defense of a military base involves a combination of area denial actions, aggressive offensive operations, and immediate reaction to guerrilla threat or attack. While hardening of facilities and maintaining an immediate reaction force are the responsibility of the base commander, area denial actions and major offensive operations are the responsibility of the area commander. Use of barriers, field expedient flame weapons, natural obstacles, and aggressive offensive actions deny guerrillas access to the area immediately surrounding the base. If they are kept at a distance, they cannot launch damaging rocket attacks on the base. If they penetrate far enough to use rockets or other long-range weapons, hardening and dispersal of base resources may reduce the damage.

f. Plans are prepared to counter the threat or attack, and reaction forces are kept ready to immediately implement these plans. This preparation includes plans by area commanders to commit other forces to base defense. Base defense plans are coordinated with host country officials and other allied forces through use of the area coordination center.

g. Responsive, rapid fire support is required for base defense operations. Artillery and mortar fire can provide quick reaction to the infiltration and standoff attack threats. If in range, naval gunfire is used the same as artillery fire. In base defense operations, base-positioned fire support units follow normal fire support procedures. Fire support units positioned outside the base area, but within support range, are included in the overall base defense fire support plan. Also included are the fire support capabilities of host country and other allied forces.

h. The fire support coordination center is operational 24 hours a day. It must have immediate access to host country officials who can authorize fire within areas not predesignated as free fire zones.

E-16. Base commander.

a. The mission of the base commander is to exercise command, control, and administration of the base and also to exercise necessary control of resident and transient units not a part of the base command.

b. A base commander may also be the area commander. At the same time, he may also be the component Army, Navy, Marine Corps, or Air Force commander; or he may be designated separately.

c. The base commander's responsibilities include establishing the overall defense organization as well as planning, preparing, and executing all defense measures. If the base mounts or supports operations of two or more services that occupy and operate separate nonadjoining facilities within the base area, the base commander, as base defense coordinating authority, plans and directs the employment of these forces in base defense roles. The base commander normally appoints a base defense force commander to assist him in executing base defense functions (Figure E-6).

E-17. Base defense force commander.

a. The base defense force commanders normally appointed to supervise the preparation of detailed defense plans to include establishing defense sectors, conducting required training, providing for or coordinating logistical support, and controlling base defense operations. As the base commander's special representative, the BDF commander coordinates the planning efforts of all elements scheduled to participate in the base defense. During the defense, he exercises command authority over these elements.

b. Commanders of base elements may be given responsibility for the defense training of their forces or for making their forces available to the BDF commander for training. Additional requirements such as procurement and storage of essential supplies, construction of defense installations, medical support, and communications assistance may also be levied against these commanders, consistent with overall requirements.

E-18. Base defense force.

a. The mission of the BDF, whether it be an assigned or a provisional force, is to prevent or resist an enemy attack by destroy in the enemy force, reducing the enemy capacity for offensive action, and denying the enemy entry into the base area. Detecting and destroying enemy forces (organized in strength) are responsibilities of the area commander; however, the BDF commander may initiate offensive action in areas over which he has operational control.

b. The accomplishment of this basic mission requires thorough planning for an aggressive defense fully supported by other forces of the area command.

E-19. Major tenant units.

a. All units assigned to the base constitute elements of the overall defense force of the base. During an enemy attack or threat, some elements may be required to continue their primary function longer than others. In this respect, all local unit defenses are coordinated by the BDF commander to ensure that each contributes to the overall defense of the base as well as to the local security of the areas in which the unit is quartered or employed.

b. Since all tenant units may not be organized and equipped for base defense tasks, they must be provided with appropriate weapons, ammunition, and equipment, as well as combat and logistical support.

E-20. Transient units.

Transient units, or other units not a part of the base command, may be placed under operational control of the base commander, or the BDF commander, for emergency defense. Transient units may be elements of US components, host country, or other allied military forces.

E-21. Employment of forces.

Forces whose primary mission is base defense patrol aggressively, develop and occupy defensive positions within their assigned sectors, and prepare immediate reaction forces to counter any guerrilla action. These forces may be uniservice, joint, or combined, depending on the composition of base area forces.

E-22. Defensive construction.

a. Shelters. Construction of personnel shelters throughout the billeting, administrative, and maintenance areas provides individual protection against standoff attacks. Depending on resources available, these shelters vary in construction. Shipping containers, dugouts, and double-walled plywood shelters with sand or gravel fill, all with sandbag reinforcement and overhead cover, provide acceptable protection. These shelters are close to the billets and work areas to permit rapid access.

b. Bunkers. Fighting bunkers may be constructed on position or prefabricated and moved to position for assembly. These bunkers should be strong enough to withstand direct hit by recoilless rifle fire on the front and sides and a direct hit by a mortar round on the top.

c. Revetments. Construction of revetments for critical resources provides additional protection against mortar and rocket fragmentation. These revetments may be of sand-filled, double-walled construction, with either plywood or steel plate sides. Overhead cover is provided when possible.

d. Wire. Tactical wire barriers should be used within the perimeter to limit and canalize penetrations by enemy groups or individuals. Initially, these barriers can be as simple as a single strand of wire 3 to 4 feet high. Generally, they should be placed to prevent a direct approach to vital installations, and they should be covered by automatic weapons fire. The barriers are constructed as inconspicuously as possible and relocated periodically to disrupt enemy plans. Further, the barriers must not preclude freedom of movement by the reaction or reserve forces. These forces, and other personnel, become thoroughly familiar with the location of all barriers during the course of daylight and night drills.

E-23. Defense positions.

a. The key base defense positions consist primarily of bunkers and towers in the base perimeter area. The positioning of bunkers and towers affords maximum observation and mutually supporting fires over the area forward of the perimeter to include the perimeter barrier and sensor system.

(1) Bunkers. Full-time observation and all-round defense of the base are essential. To reduce the number of personnel conducting static defense missions, however, it may be possible to designate key bunkers around the perimeter to be manned at all times and the remainder to be fully manned during darkness, reduced visibility, and increased enemy threat. Individual fighting positions are prepared near the bunkers to provide covering fires. Night and day vision devices, automatic weapons, grenade launchers, and hand grenades are common to the positions. Antitank weapons cover possible vehicle approaches.

(2) Towers. When coupled with night and day vision aids, sensors, and flash-ranging devices, elevated platforms enhance the capability of detecting perimeter infiltration and the location of guerrilla mortar and/or rocket firing positions. Either standard military towers or towers constructed from local materials can be used. The installation of sandbags or steel plating around observation platforms provides protection against automatic weapons and small arms fire. Construction of a ground-level bunker provides additional protection when fires are directed against the tower. Access to the bunker may be by means of a fireman's pole or a ladder arrangement. Tower safety measures for consideration include:

(a) Lightning arresters.

(b) Construction to withstand strong winds and to support two observers and their equipment.

(c) Enclosed mounting ladder.

(d) Provision of safety nets round the tower when warranted by tower height.

(e) Painting it a dark color to reduce reflection from moonlight.

(f) Installation of a suitable roof to shield personnel from the elements without interference to observation. A double-roof design could cause mortar rounds to detonate at a height that affords some protection to observers.

b. Control is the key to a successful base defense. To achieve the necessary control, a communication capability must be established between the base defense operations center and commanders of sectors of responsibility, and between the sector commander and his bunkers, towers, and reserve. Additionally, bunkers within each section can communicate laterally within the sector, and flank bunkers of one sector can communicate with flank bunkers of adjacent sectors.

E-24. Training considerations.

a. Individual and collective training. Most of the training required in support of base defense operations is currently a part of individual and collective training programs. Individuals designated to take any part in base defense operations will probably require additional training in areas applicable to their roles in the base defense effort. Training may be on:

(1) Techniques of ambushes and raids and defensive measures against these types of operations.

(2) Use of hearing, sight, and smell as detection means.

(3) Police-type patrolling and the operation of roadblocks and checkpoints.

(4) Night operations to include use of night observation devices and sensors and special challenge, sign, and countersign techniques.

(5) Individual and crew-served weapons cross-training within the unit.

(6) Marksmanship, especially night firing.

(7) Observation post operations with emphasis on security, sound and light discipline, and reporting procedures.

(8) Operation and operator maintenance of special devices such as radars, sensors, and night observation devices (if employed).

(9) Familiarization with all communications equipment available within the unit and communication techniques.

(10) Barrier construction, mines, and booby traps.

(11) Patrolling of all types.

(12) Counterattack.

(13) Fire control.

b. Area orientation. All individuals require an orientation on the guerrilla and his tactics, local customs, social values, and the civilian population in the area. The capabilities and procedures of civil police and indigenous forces are explained, since elements of the base and base defense force may operate in conjunction with them. Status-of-forces agreements and rules of engagement concerning use of weapons must be covered.

c. Technical training. The most up-to-date surveillance, target acquisition, and night observation (STANO) equipment should be used in base defense operations. Its installation and operation require special training. If enough specialists are not available, the scope of training is expanded. Additional maintenance specialists are also required to keep equipment operational and to advise and assist operators on their maintenance responsibilities. Maintenance and operator training is scheduled periodically to ensure a current capability to use the equipment.

d. Morale and psychological factors. The morale and psychological pressures on troops employed in base defense operations differ from those normally found in regular combat operations. Many of these pressures are caused by infrequent contact with guerrillas and the requirement for constant vigilance. Other factors include:

(1) Boredom caused by recurring routine tasks, which tends to lead to laxity.

(2) The tendency to become inattentive, which occurs because little physical activity is required in operating or monitoring observation devices or sensor equipment.

(3) The disruption of normal sleep and eating routines, which occurs when operations continue day and night.

(4) Long periods of relative inactivity, which may result if training is not pursued vigorously.

e. Leader participation. Leaders at all echelons must carry out a continuing indoctrination and motivation program to offset psychological pressures. This is an important part of the training program. Physical training and athletic and recreation programs are essential to maintaining high morale.

E-25. Defense exercises.

a. Defense exercises provide a means for rehearsing the BDF defense plans, to include testing of the base defense alarm and communication systems, and for training and diverse elements of the defense force to act in a coordinated effort.

b. Defense exercises are the final and most important step in the training cycle. These exercises familiarize all elements of the defense force, and the base tenant units, with their assignments in base defense. The exercises are conducted frequently, under various weather conditions, and during both daylight and darkness.

c. Exercises include, but are not limited to:

(1) Defense of sectors of responsibility to include rehearsing counterattacks and manning defense positions.

(2) Employment of the reserve for counterattacking and for reinforcing the defense positions.

(3) Coordination of supporting fires and other means of support.

(4) Integration of the emergency augmentation force with other units of the defense force.

(5) Coordination with other forces of the base, such as the air defense units that may be used in a ground defense role.

d. Command post exercises should be held frequently to:

(1) Train the staffs of all headquarters involved in base defense.

(2) Train fire support coordination agencies.

(3) Test communications.

(4) Obtain the necessary coordination and liaison between the base defense headquarters and the headquarters of base tenant forces.

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