THE ENVIRONMENT, SAFETY, RISK MANAGEMENT,
AND MAINTENANCE AND SURVEILLANCE OPERATIONS
SECTION I. THE ENVIRONMENT
Much of the Army's environmental effort springs from the National Environ-mental Policy Act (NEPA), Public Law (PL) 91-190 of January 1970. NEPA requires federal officials to analyze potential environmental impacts of proposed actions and alternatives before making decisions. The law applies to all Army leaders and activities. Its purpose is to encourage harmony with our physical environment and promote efforts that prevent or eliminate environmental degradation. Also, it improves understanding of relations between ecological systems and important natural resources. In line with NEPA requirements, the Army established a number of policies, programs, and goals to preserve, protect, and restore the quality of our nation's environment.
The Army is also responsible for assisting and complying fully with HN, state, and local laws and regulations. Local laws and ordinances address the concerns of local communities. Each state has its own regulatory agency charged with developing and implementing environmental regulations. While many state and local regulations parallel federal law, they are often more stringent. The Army is committed to the policy that awareness and consideration of environmental issues are an integral part of our relations with the HN. (Note: In the event the HN has minimal or no environmental laws or regulations, ARs 200-1 and 200-2 will apply).
Environmental stewardship calls for awareness and commitment throughout the Army. All soldiers and leaders must do their part by supporting Army objectives. The Army's environmental goals are as follows:
- Demonstrate leadership in envi-ronmental protection and improvement.
- Provide environmental awareness training, including training in environmental laws and regulations, for all soldiers.
- Ensure full compliance with federal, state, local, and HN laws.
- Ensure environmental concerns are part of the decision-making process at all levels of command.
- Provide guidance on the duties and responsibilities of unit commanders and individual soldiers as they relate to environmental stewardship, protection, and compliance.
- Ensure that environmental laws and regulations are followed with maximum emphasis on compliance.
- Incorporate unit-level procedures in SOPs at all command levels.
For added information on Army environmental stewardship, see FM 20-400 (projected publication, FY 98).
Munitions and Army operations have the potential to cause considerable damage to the environment. Thus, the Army has become a national leader in the areas of environmental and natural resource stewardship. This role is an integral part of the Army mission for both present and future generations. Concurrent with this responsibility is the continuing need to exercise extreme caution to prevent accidental damage to the environment.
In day-to-day CONUS operations, or when coordinating operations within an HN or coalition scenario OCONUS, commanders must promote and inspire a keen awareness of the environment.
Many federal, state, local, and HN laws hold commanders legally responsible for environmental damage that is caused by inadequate planning or supervision of operations and training. Penalties can include fines or imprisonment or both.
To avoid adverse environmental impact when planning or executing operations, leaders must comply with the provisions of ARs 200-1 and 200-2, FM 20-400, 40 CFR, and the guidance for unit leaders contained in other appropriate manuals.
Providing ammunition in the theater of operations is essential. When doing so, however, leaders must follow applicable provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), to include the MMR. The RCRA establishes the framework for managing hazardous wastes. It sets the standards for hazardous waste identification, classification, transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal. When munitions or munitions operations fall under RCRA purview, full compliance includes requirements for permits and storage.
The operational commander determines the need for, and the environmental impact of, destruction of ammunition or other explosives. to prevent capture by the enemy, or injury to military or civilian personnel, operational requirements must be applied. Environmental considerations should be followed when time permits, especially if imminent and substantial danger to the environment exists.
Environmental damage that occurs as a result of enemy actions or accidents involving munitions should be repaired. Containment, cleanup, and restoration of the immediate area will allow the area to be used for future operations. Commanders must follow guidance in applicable publications and use environmental risk-assessment matrices to assess possible damage. Such assessments allow leaders to minimize environmental damage while optimizing performance and mission completion. Before conducting training, operations, or logistics activities, a risk-assessment matrix should be completed for each environmental area listed below:
- Air Pollution.
- Water pollution.
- Noise pollution.
- Archeological and historical sites.
Figure 6-1. Environmental risk-assessment matrix
- Threatened/endangered species.
- Hazardous material and hazardous waste.
- Wetland protection.
See Figure 6-1 for an environmental risk-assessment matrix. TC 5-400, Chapter 5, discusses risk management in depth and gives instructions on using the risk-assessment matrix.
Commanders of munitions and munitions support units have specific stewardship and compliance responsibilities. These go beyond the ones implicit in the Army's environmental goals. They include the following:
- Ensuring safety throughout the environment.
- Establishing a unit training program geared towards environmental considerations in handling ammunition.
- Preventing damage and pollution by ensuring existence and application of sound environmental procedures and practices in daily activities.
- Ensuring munitions are distributed and stored in a manner consistent with sound environmental practices. This includes ensuring frequent inspections are conducted to detect deteriorating, leaking, or damaged containers.
- Ensuring compliance with environ-mental regulations during all operations.
- Focusing on prevention of pollution at the source, concurrent with the proper management of hazardous materials and hazardous waste.
- Focusing maximum attention on the prevention of environmental incidents and accidents by emphasizing proper training.
- Ensuring that an environmental compliance officer/hazardous waste coordi-nator is assigned in writing. This person must be properly trained and qualified in environmental matters. Duties should include coordination and interface with appropriate environmental personnel to ensure unit compliance with laws and regulations.
Arming the force is perhaps the most important of the five basic CSS functions. Effective and efficient distribution of munitions within a theater of operations could be the decisive factor in a battle or the war. Incorporating the environmental ethic and stewardship principles in day-to-day operations and ensuring compliance may seem at odds with this focus. What we must remember, however, is that where we operate and fight today may be where we work or live tomorrow.
SECTION II. SAFETY
Safety, including risk assessment (see Section III) and accident reporting, is an inherent responsibility of commanders at all levels. Its importance is intensified for units and personnel engaged in munitions-related activities. The following discussion provides guidance on both general and munitions-related safety issues.
Munitions handlers must be alert to the danger associated with depleted uranium rounds. Since these rounds present a potential radiological hazard, proper storage and handling are critical. See TB 9-1300-278 for information on the hazards and appropriate safety measures.
All soldiers and leaders must maintain a proactive posture towards safety in day-to-day operations. This commitment to safety should be evident to seniors, peers, and subordinates. Specific responsibilities of key personnel and individuals are detailed below.
Commanders. Safety is a command respon-sibility at all echelons. Commanders must display active and aggressive leadership towards safety issues. They must appoint a safety officer or NCO IAW AR 385-10 and DA Pamphlet 385-1. They must determine the causes of accidents and take the neces-sary preventive and corrective measures.
Safety Officer/NCO. The primary duties and responsibilities of the unit safety officer or NCO include the following:
- Preparing a unit safety program and a field safety SOP focused on safety awareness (rather than reactive safety reporting).
- Reviewing regulations and Tms; recommending changes, when needed; recommending procedures for increasing safety in unit operations in general, as well as in the receipt, handling, storage, trans-porting, and issuing of munitions.
- Making safety-related suggestions to the commander for review and possible inclusion in unit SOPs.
Leaders. Leaders must ensure that soldiers perform their duties safely by-
- Making soldiers aware of hazards.
- Stressing safety in operations.
- Halting unsafe operations.
- Preventing accidents through pro-active planning and preparation.
Individuals. Individuals are largely respon-sible for ensuring their own safety. This includes:
- Familiarity with the Army's general safety policies for ammunition, explosives, and related operations (see AR 385-64 and TM 9-1300-206).
- Knowledge of the basic principles of how munitions work and how to handle and transport them safely.
- Familiarity with hazards and safety precautions that apply to specific munitions. Such information can be found in FMs and TMs covering various types of munitions.
STANDING OPERATING PROCEDURES
Each unit should have on hand a current, detailed (as much detail as needed) safety SOP. This safety SOP should include the following:
- Safety education and promotion plans.
- Safety requirements and training frequency.
- Procedures for detecting potential safety violations and ensuring that correc-tions are made.
- Provisions for periodic briefings conducted by the unit command to update soldiers on new munitions items and technical intelligence reports. This is an effective method of keeping soldiers informed and the safety awareness level high.
Individual SOPs must be developed for any and all operations where ammunition or explosives are involved. These procedures must describe the operation in enough detail to enable an untrained soldier to perform the operation safely. Failure to follow the SOP is the major cause of many accidents involving munitions. In some cases, no SOP was developed for the operation.
Besides recognizing and controlling safety hazards, it is essential that the causes of accidents be determined. This information aids in identifying accident trends, unsatis-factory work performance, personnel losses, and property damage. All accidents resulting in injury or property damage must be reported.
When an accident occurs, it is important to gather all essential information for reports and possible corrective action. At a minimum, the following information should be included in the report:
- Who was injured or what was damaged.
- Time and place the accident occurred.
- Severity and cost (in personnel or materiel) of the accident.
- Nature of the accident or injury.
- How and why the accident occurred.
Corrective actions are based on specific facts about the accident or injury. They can include removing the hazards, improving operations, or training personnel. Moreover, corrective action must be supplemented by proper management on the part of unit leaders. They must ensure that familiarity with operations does not lead to complacency or contempt for safety awareness.
SECTION III. RISK ASSESSMENT
In peacetime, leaders learn to assess risks during training exercises. Techniques learned in training can then be used during combat operations. In combat, risks must be taken, but only after the mission is evaluated and weighed as practiced during training.
Identification of hazards and their possible effects is called risk assessment. Risk management is the decision-making process that balances operational demands against identified risks. Doing risk assessment and applying risk management should become fully integrated parts of operational planning and execution.
Risk management is a closed-loop, five-step process that can be used by anyone at any time or place and for any type of mission. The five steps are as follows:
- Identifying the hazards. Identify all hazards, including hazards to both soldiers and equipment.
- Assessing the hazards. Assess the hazards to determine the risks involved and their impact in terms of potential loss and cost. Assessments are based, to a degree, on probability and severity.
- Developing controls and making risk decisions. Develop control measures that eliminate hazards or reduce risks. Continually reevaluate risks during this process. The process continues until all risks are reduced to a level where the benefits outweigh potential costs.
- Implementing controls. Implement those controls that are determined to eliminate the hazards or reduce the risks.
- Enforcing and reevaluating controls. Enforce control measures through proper supervision. Constantly reevaluate the controls to ensure continuing effectiveness or to adjust as needed.
The proper use of risk assessment and risk management procedures is a primary force protection method. saving lives and protecting equipment from accidental damage and loss is the bottom line.
SECTION IV. MAINTENANCE AND
Maintenance of munitions includes all actions necessary to ensure that stocks are serviceable, or that unserviceable stocks are restored to a serviceable condition. Maintenance responsibilities are assigned to ammunition units based on the unit's primary mission and the availability of personnel, skills, time, tools, equipment, and supplies.
maintenance operations for DS units are based on METT-T. The preservation, pack-aging, marking, and minor spot painting of items is standard. situations calling for more than minor maintenance (i.e., PP) are handled and coordinated through command channels.
Ammunition maintenance planning must be aligned closely with the operational needs of the supported units. Maintenance planners must consider the availability of supplies and maintenance resources. A decrease in ammunition maintenance increases the amount of ammunition needed from the supply system.
Conversely, the inability of the supply system to replace unserviceable ammunition requires a greater maintenance effort. Proper maintenance, as well as the proper storage and handling, of ammunition increases readiness, reduces supply requirements for replacements, and conserves resources for other purposes. The maintenance planner must recognize the interdependence of maintenance and munitions support.
Combat units must have serviceable ammunition. Maintenance of munitions is a necessary and vital task that must be performed to maintain a high state of readiness. Maintenance includes minor operations (e.g., cleaning and rust removal) and major operations (e.g., complete renovation). Provisions must be made to conduct as much maintenance as possible at the storage location.
In some cases, ammunition must be evacuated for maintenance. However, since the movement of ammunition consumes transportation assets, it is inefficient to adopt a maintenance program geared totally to evacuation.
DS, GS, and modular units may initiate and conduct maintenance operations and programs when operating in the corps and theater areas. In these forward areas, maintenance functions are limited to PP operations, such as replacing broken banding or minor pallet repair or replacement.
Munitions maintenance is divided into four categories: organizational, DS, GS, and depot. For ammunition units, DS and GS maintenance is limited to packaging and preservation operations.
Organizational maintenance is per-formed by all activities that have ammunition on hand, including using units. Organi-zational maintenance in the using unit is usually performed with the technical assistance of ammunition units.
DS maintenance is performed by ammunition companies in the theater of operations that have DS capabilities.
GS maintenance is performed by ammunition companies in the theater of operations that have GS capabilities. Modular companies are designed with the capability to perform both DS and GS maintenance.
If items require depot maintenance (such as modification, explosive component replacement, or complete renovation), the ammunition is packaged and evacuated to a depot.
All DS, GS, and modular companies with storage and issue missions are equipped to perform maintenance functions. Tools, equipment, and supplies needed to support maintenance are included in each unit's supply and equipment list.
All maintenance is performed IAW an approved maintenance SOP. See Tm 9-1300-250 for guidelines on preparing maintenance SOPs. Also, valuable guidance may be available from a unit with similar missions and responsibilities, or from experienced personnel. When local nationals are involved in maintenance operations, the SOP must be written in their language as well as in English.
Ammunition surveillance is the obser-vation, inspection, and classification of ammunition and its components during movement, storage, and maintenance opera-tions. This definition also covers inspection equipment, facilities, and operations. Sur-veillance activities are conducted by all theater activities that store, maintain, dispose of, or ship ammunition and its components. Surveillance ends only when the ammunition is expended or destroyed.
The TAACOM is responsible for supervising ammunition surveillance in the theater of operations. The CSB or CSG closely supervises this function in its com-mand. In established theaters of operation, surveillance activities are under the control of DA civilian (DAC) QASASs assigned to major Army headquarters. In theater ammunition units, surveillance is performed by attached civilians and assigned military inspectors.
The commander of any ammunition battalion must administer a QA ammunition surveillance program that covers all ammunition operations assigned to that command. The QASAS in charge has the overall responsibility for the program and reports directly to the commander. Since QASAS training is much more extensive than that of the military inspector, the QASAS performs the more complicated inspections and most functional tests. The QASAS certifies the results of any inspections or tests performed by the military inspectors. In some commands, certain inspection results and functional test reports can be signed only by a QASAS.
when in an immature or developing theater, all surveillance functions are performed by 55Bs in a DS, GS, or modular ammunition company.
Ammunition inspectors perform the following duties:
- Inspect storage buildings, outdoor storage sites, and field storage sites to make sure that they comply with all storage standards.
- Inspect surrounding areas for fire hazards and other nonstandard conditions.
- Look for nonstandard conditions that could speed up the normal deterioration rate of the items in storage.
- Teach surveillance and ammunition safety.
- Prepare and maintain proper corre-spondence, records, and reports to cover all surveillance activities. See SB 742-1 for a list of surveillance records and reports.
- Observe, inspect, and investigate to determine the current degree of serviceability of ammunition and components.
- Monitor the methods of storage, handling, and maintenance and recommend changes to increase safety and operational effectiveness.
- Recommend to commander controls needed to maintain standards of quality.
- Act as technical advisors to the commander on all ammunition surveillance matters.
- Inspect and investigate to determine the quality, safety, and deterioration of ammunition.
- Help investigate ammunition accidents.
- Help plan, coordinate, and administer the explosives safety program. This program includes review, evaluation, and inspection of all operations, procedures, equipment, and facilities used with ammu-nition and explosives operations to ensure application of and compliance with pertinent safety standards and criteria.
- Help plan the construction of storage facilities and/or field storage areas based on current quantity-distance require-ments and storage criteria.
- Prepare and maintain accurate records of all observations, inspections, and investigations.
- Maintain files and indexes for all drawings and specifications covering ammu-nition and methods of packing and storing.
- Inspect all incoming and outgoing shipments of ammunition for sabotage devices; proper blocking, bracing, and loading; condition and serviceability; and compliance with existing instructions and regulations.
- Inspect dunnage used and storage methods for compliance with specifications, drawings, and safety regulations.
- Furnish technical advice regarding safety to unit operating elements.
- Ensure all facilities and/or field storage areas comply with existing regulations. This includes compliance of the methods used to store, handle, ship, assemble, load, preserve, maintain, salvage, and destroy ammunition.
- Ensure all surveillance functions are performed IAW the procedures set forth in SB 742-1, applicable TMs, and other SBs.
IAW SB 742-1, the following surveillance inspections are performed by the QASAS and military inspectors:
- Receipt inspections, including depot transfers, field returns, and CEA.
- Periodic inspections (cyclic).
- Storage monitoring inspections.
- Special inspections.
- Pre-issue inspections.
- Verification inspections.
- Ammunition condition code inspec-tions.
The object of an inspection is to find deterioration and determine the degree of serviceability of the inspected item. That is, whether the inspected item is serviceable as it stands, requires maintenance, or must be rejected. Before inspecting an item, the inspector should be familiar with all available information about the item, including its components, packaging, and the characteristics of the weapon in which it is used. See SB 742-1 for serviceability standards references.
Inspection procedures include observa-tion, physical tests (such as gauging or strength tests), and functional tests. Unserviceability can usually be detected by casual observation. As a general guide, munitions must not have any defects that would alter their characteristics, make them unsafe, or make them perform in any way other than for what they were designed. The inspector must determine whether defects found can be corrected and at what level this must be done.
The prime enemies of ammunition are heat and moisture. They affect all ammuni-tion components to a varying degree. Deterioration is faster when moisture is combined with a rise in temperature. Inspectors should be especially alert to indications of moisture, rust, or corrosion on projectiles and fuses; corrosion and cracks on cartridge cases; deterioration of propellants; loose closing caps; and moisture or dampness inside containers.
Evaluating the acceptability of materiel that shows deterioration or damage depends on the training, experience, and judgment of the inspector. The deterioration of materiel in storage is natural. However, the rate and degree of that deterioration vary according to the type of protective coating on the materiel, packaging, and storage conditions. Also, deterioration is progressive. if no maintenance is performed, the condition degrades through four stages: incidental, minor, major, and critical. The four stages are used to establish a uniform system of examination for deterioration or damage.
for added guidance on classifying metal, plastic, and rubber component deterioration; mixed ammunition; damaged packaging; and for placing defects into one of the four defect categories, see SB 742-1, applicable techni-cal manuals, and supply bulletins.
Guided Missiles and
Large Rocket Inspection
Guided missile and large rocket (GMLR) ammunition, components, propel-lants (liquid and solid), protective clothing, packaging, and packing materials are inspected and tested using applicable SBs, TMs, drawings, and specifications.
Most mid-size guided missiles are now certified as rounds and are maintained by the contractor at contractor facilities. Unit maintenance on guided missiles is essentially limited to spot-painting and replacement of wings, elevons, and the like. Inspectors must check with surveillance to determine those liquid propellants that should be removed before turn in. Missile items identified by lot or serial numbers are inspected for serviceability as follows:
- Materiel identified by lot number is sampled and inspected by individual lots. Missiles are inspected using the inspection table in the appropriate TM or SB.
- Materiel identified by serial number is put into homogeneous groups. This grouping is not a permanent or physical grouping of the items, but a grouping on paper for inspection. The judgment of a QASAS or MOS 55B ammunition specialist is needed in forming these groups.
Defects found in the sample are classified using the applicable SB, TM, or other specification. Where defects are not classified in these publications, the inspector classifies them according to SB 742-1. The results of the sample inspection are used to make serviceability decisions about the lot or group.
RECORDS AND REPORTS
Surveillance personnel keep a technical history of each lot, serial number, or group of munitions. This history includes a record of the results of all inspections, tests, investigations, and any unusual or changing conditions affecting the items. These records are used to evaluate the serviceability and reliability of ammunition items. It is important that all information gathered from surveillance procedures is accurate and concise. The type of information needed for recording and reporting purposes may vary depending on the organizations supported by surveillance. The information needed to satisfy local and higher headquarters supply actions is determined by local procedures. The information needed for maintenance purposes is usually more detailed as to the extent of the defect and the work required to return the item to service. The following information is needed to evaluate the reliability of the stockpile:
- Date of manufacture.
- Type of storage.
- Type of defects.
- Cause of defects.
- Results of tests.
Surveillance personnel are also required to submit other types of reports on materiel received or in storage and to maintain certain records. SB 742-1 provides guidance for preparing these records and reports, which are listed below:
- DD Form 250 (Material Inspection and Receiving Report).
- DD Form 1575 (Suspended Tag-Materiel).
- DD Form 1575-1 (Suspended Label-Materiel).
- DD Form 1650 (Ammunition Data Card).
- DA Form 984 (Munitions Surveillance Report Descriptive Data of Ammunition Represented by Sample).
- DA Form 2415 (Ammunition Condition Report).
- DA Form 3022-R (Army Depot Surveillance Record).
- DA Form 3023 (Gage Record).
- DA Form 4508 (Ammunition Transfer Record).
- SF 361 (Transportation Discrepancy Report).
- SF 364 (Report of Discrepancy [ROD]).
- Ammunition inspection and lot number reports.
- Ammunition suspension records, to include Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) and Missile Command (MICOM) suspension.
- Equipment logbooks and mainten-ance logs.
- Reports of explosions, chemical agent releases, serious accidents, and nuclear incidents.
- Small arms tracer reports.
- Storage monitoring records (local format).
The destruction of ammunition is based on METT-T and command guidance. A general plan for the destruction of unserv-iceable ammunition and CEA must be prepared for every storage activity. At a minimum, this plan includes the following:
- Priorities of materiel to be destroyed.
- Methods of destruction.
- Location of primary and alternate disposal sites.
- Protective clothing requirements.
- Decontamination requirements.
- Required equipment and explosive materials, with instructions for their placement and use.
Also, the destruction plan must consider emergency destruction of munitions. See Chapter 4 of this manual and TM 43-0002-33 for more information on emergency destruction.
A destruction site should be carefully selected so that explosive fragments, debris, and toxic vapors do not become a hazard to personnel, materiel, facilities, or operations. For more information on selecting a destruction site, refer to TM 9-1300-206 and FMs 5-250 and 9-13.
Ammunition personnel normally perform the routine destruction of ammunition deter-mined to be unserviceable as a result of damage or deterioration.
Unserviceable ammunition is either manufactured with defects or has been made unserviceable by improper storage, handling, packaging, or transportation. Shipments of ammunition received from other supply facilities should be inspected for serv-iceability. When it is not possible to inspect the ammunition at the time of receipt, unit turn ins should be stored in a segregated area for later inspection. Ammunition specialists should be familiar with indications of unserviceability and report them.
Unserviceable ammunition must be segregated from serviceable ammunition for safety reasons and to reduce rehandling. Also, inspectors must segregate the ammuni-tion by DODIC and lot number, followed by serviceability classification. Ammunition that cannot be positively identified by lot number is automatically classified as pending disposition (condition code K). Exceptions may be made based on METT-T and the type, quantity, and condition of the ammunition.
The same safety precautions and principles used for storage of serviceable ammunition are used for the storage of unserviceable ammunition. Proper records must be kept on all unserviceable items stored at a supply facility.
Ammunition that requires maintenance should be segregated and marked to prevent issuing. Minor preservation and packaging are performed at field locations, TSAs, CSAs, or ASPs. Extensive maintenance is usually performed at a depot storage facility.
The unit packages and preserves the ammunition if that is the only requirement. If time permits, unserviceable ammunition that is repairable is retrograded for repair. Ammunition abandoned by using units is treated as unserviceable until it is inspected. The procedures that apply to unit turn-ins also apply to abandoned ammunition. Unserviceable ammunition is reported through proper channels for disposition instructions. Hazardous unserviceable ammunition is reported immediately through proper channels to EOD detachments for destruction. A demolition area is designated and cleared for the safe destruction of ammunition.
Specific lots of ammunition and components are withdrawn from issue when they are determined to be unsafe or otherwise defective. Storing ammunition by lot number enables the rapid withdrawal from issue of those items that are unsafe, defective, or suspected of being defective.
The authority to suspend any lot of conventional ammunition is vested in the commander, Industrial Operations Command (IOC). However, a local suspension may be placed on a suspected lot of ammunition by the installation or area commander. A preliminary report, and later a detailed report, are forwarded through the supporting MMC to the ARFOR. The ammunition remains in local suspension unless its status is changed by higher headquarters. See TB 9-1300-385 for instructions in preparing suspension reports. TB 9-1300-385 lists suspended lots of conventional ammunition and components. Added notices of suspen-sions or restrictions are produced as supplemental changes to TB 9-1300-385, Ammunition Information Notices (AINS), or Safety of Use Messages (SOUMS).
Ammunition lots that are stored and later placed under suspension need not be moved to a segregated area unless the suspension notice so orders. Stacks of suspended ammunition must be clearly marked on all sides. This is done using DD Form 1575 and DA Form 3782, or facsimile-formatted documents (taped to the materiel), to show that the items have been suspended or restricted from issue. When foreign nationals are employed, locally-produced bilingual tags should be used. Suspended or restricted-issue items returned by the firing units, or items received from other supply facilities, should be segregated upon receipt. These items should be marked using the forms mentioned above and stored in the segregation area. DA Form 3020-R or a facsimile-formatted document (taped to the materiel) should be posted showing the suspension date, suspension number, and authority.
Enemy ammunition found is considered excess and is to be treated as such. AR 381-26 requires that one of three options be taken when ammunition is determined to be in excess for any reason on the battlefield. These options are use, destroy, or secure and retrograde. Except for use, all of these options apply to CEA. As discussed in this section, CEA includes all types of munitions.
When an enemy ammunition cache is found or captured, the commander must assess the combat situation. He must decide whether to destroy the CEA because of the situation, or to secure it and request EOD support. If the commander notifies EOD, he must provide the following information:
- Grid coordinates.
- Estimated quantity of munitions.
- Initial estimate of the different types of CEA in the cache.
EOD analyzes and identifies the types of munitions in the cache and determines the following:
- If the munitions present a hazard to friendly forces (booby-trapped or nuclear, biological, chemical [NBC]).
- If the items are safe to transport.
EOD then evaluates the CEA for possible technical intelligence exploitation. If any of the munitions are identified for technical exploitation, EOD forwards a technical intelligence report to the assistant chief of staff (intelligence) (G2/J2). The G2/J2 coordinates the evacuation of any of the CEA identified for exploitation. Also, civilian or military ammunition inspectors may assist in inspecting the cache after EOD has determined there are no extraordinary hazards (booby-traps, time-delay devices, and/or armed munitions). All hazardous enemy ammunition should be segregated and disposed of by trained personnel.
If the cache is to be retrograded, ammunition units in the corps are tasked to provide QASAS, MHE, and ammunition handlers to inspect, segregate, and load the captured stocks. Also, corps transportation assets are tasked to move the CEA. Working together, these corps assets load and transport the CEA to the designated ASA. Once the CEA arrives at the ASA, it is stored in a designated secure area separate from the area containing US munitions. Regardless of its condition, CEA cannot be intermingled with US munition stocks.
CEA that has been certified or cleared by EOD, QASAS, or military inspectors must be receipted, inspected, and accounted for in the same way as US munitions. Once the CEA is identified as accurately as possible, it is entered into the SAAS-MOD system for accountability and control. This procedure must be done as soon as possible after receipt. Reporting and disposition instructions for CEA are the same as for friendly munitions. Close control of CEA is required.
Positively identified and serviceable CEA may be compatible for use in US or allied forces weapons systems. These munitions can greatly ease the burden on the ammunition supply system. Also, CEA can be used as a substitute for bulk explosives during demolition operations. See FMs 9-13 and 9-15 for more information.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|