MUNITIONS PLANNING AND EXECUTION
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
The object of the munitions distribution system is to provide munitions at the right time, place, and quantity to ensure the success of an operation. Munitions planning and operations must be versatile. They must complement combat plans and operations and improve the ability of the supported unit to accomplish its mission.
The supported commander's concept of operations, priorities, and allocations dictates the actions of the ammunition planner. Am-munition planning includes:
- Determining ammunition require-ments.
- Echeloning capabilities and ammuni-tion units.
- Establishing split-based operations.
- Preconfiguring ammunition basic loads and resupply amounts.
- When required, using civilian con-tractor, allied, and HN capabilities.
CONVENTIONAL AMMUNITION ALLOCATIONS
The Deputy Chief of Staff for Opera-tions and Plans (DCSOPS) is responsible for developing munitions programming and budgeting requirements. Requirements determination establishes what is essential to support a strategy, campaign, or operation. During a conflict, resupply quantities must constantly be reviewed and adjusted based on historical usage data gathered as the conflict progresses.
The United States Army Combined Arms Support Command (USACASCOM) validates munitions operational planning factors. The Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics (DCSLOG) is the approving agency. An automated tool called the Operational Logistics (OPLOG) Planner is the authorized method for determining munitions planning data at all levels. FM 101-10-1/2 is not an authorized tool for determining operational ammunition planning factors.
Ammunition consumption rates for all operations, including SASO, are determined using the OPLOG Planner. Units base their ammunition requirements on METT-T, their projected mission, and the supported commander's concept of the operation and intent. Developing ammunition requirements for using units is the responsibility of their operations section. To obtain the OPLOG Planner software, write to:
Force Development Division
DIR OF CBT DEVS CBT SVC SPT
700 Quarters Road Suite 210
Fort Lee VA 23801-1703
Ammunition Basic Load
Ammunition basic load is that quantity of ammunition either allocated to or issued to (depending on the major Army command's [MACOM's] policy) a unit to sustain its operations in combat until it can be resupplied. Basic load requirements are based on unit weapons density and mission requirements. Units must be able to transport ABL using organic vehicles, equipment, and personnel.
To sustain tactical operations for specific periods, units determine their munitions requirements and submit an RSR. The RSR is the amount of ammunition a maneuver commander estimates will be needed to sustain tactical operations, without ammunition expenditure restrictions, over a specified time period. The RSR is expressed as rounds per weapon (on hand) per day, or as a bulk allotment per day or per mission.
RSR computation and routing are normally done by unit S3/G3s. As such, it is not a logistics function, but the S4/G4 may be called on to assist in the process. RSRs can be computed using manual or automated procedures. Weapons density (WD) and mission are key to determining RSR. Determine RSR using the following formula:
Total Rounds =
WD x Expenditure Rate x Days
RSRs are developed by maneuver commanders and submitted to the next higher headquarters. Headquarters at each level review, adjust, and consolidate RSR information and forward it through command channels. The ARFOR determines the CSR by comparing the total unrestricted ammunition requirements against the total ammunition assets on hand or due in.
Several factors limit the amount of ammunition available for an operation (e.g., stockage or lift capabilities). Accordingly, ammunition issues are controlled by CSRs. The ARFOR establishes the CSR, which is based on the amount of munitions available for issue. When a munitions item is in short supply, the CSR is low. The commander determines who receives the ammunition. The DAO informs the G3 of the quantity available.
The ARFOR commander gives the corps commanders the CSR for each ammunition item. The CSR may vary from corps to corps based on the mission objectives and priorities of each corps, the projected threat, and ammunition availability. The corps gives subordinate combat commanders their unit CSR. Each combat commander gives the CSR to each subordinate combat commander. Commanders making CSR allocations to subordinate units should retain a portion of the CSR to meet unforeseen contingencies. The CSR is disseminated to units through the OPORD. The CSR should appear in the OPORD in paragraph 4, or in either the service support or fire support annex.
The ammunition requirements of other services and coalition members must be considered when computing the RSR and CSR. Also, ammunition items in the Army inventory that are unique to other services or coalition members must be considered in supply rate computations. Figure 3-1 illustrates the flow of RSRs and CSRs.
LOGISTICS PREPARATION OF
At the strategic level, logistics prep-aration of the theater (LPT) combines the peacetime actions taken by logisticians at all echelons to maximize means (e.g., force structure, resources, and strategic lift) of logistically supporting the commander's plan.
Figure 3-1. Ammunition supply rate flow
For the ammunition planner at DA, planning is based on the Defense Planning Guidance (DPG). The DPG provides scenarios that are modeled and integrated into Army force structure, budgeting, procurement actions, and operational plans (OPLANs). Ammunition planning at the DA level considers the following:
- Mission synchronization.
- Threat capabilities.
- Production base.
- Transportation assets.
- Consumption rates determined by the US Army Concepts Analysis Agency (USACAA).
- Depot stocks.
- Prepositioned stockage afloat.
- Worldwide ammunition stocks.
- Echeloning of units using time-phased force deployment (TPFD).
At the operational and tactical levels, logistics preparation of the battlefield is as critical as intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB). Some products generated under IPB should become a part of the data file of logistics essential elements of information. The ammunition planner uses the tactical commander's mission analysis to ensure a complete understanding of what must be accomplished. The ammunition planner participates in the orders process by preparing the munitions piece of the logistics estimate.
The logistics planners supporting the ASCC and geographic combatant commander must consider total force ammunition requirements when planning for the movement of stocks and support forces. The number of HLPs in a theater must be considered prior to requesting containerized ammunition. For more information on this aspect of planning, see FM 100-16.
Ammunition units must have reliable communications to accomplish their mission. Effective communications networks must be established to ensure the success of ammunition support in the theater of operations. These networks must relay accurate and timely information between supported and supporting units, the MMCs, and the DAO. Also, they must interface with the combat and combat support networks of units supported by ammunition units. The most critical link is the one between the accountable SAAS level and those responsible for stock status reporting. This link provides necessary data to the ASCC, enabling crucial decisions to be made in support of the combat force.
Joint integration of ammunition support is crucial to unity of effort. Army ammunition units will support the requirements of other services during joint operations. In computing the RSR/CSR, these requirements must be forecasted and considered. Failure to plan for this support may result in severe shortages of critical ammunition items and handling capability.
Plans must consider efficiencies gained by having integrated ammunition support. The plans must be coordinated with the various services involved to ensure adequacy of personnel, storage requirements, MHE, accountability procedures, and safety.
Combined and Coalition
Combined and coalition logistics operations (see FM 100-7) require integration for unity of effort. Procedures for ammunition support must be worked out during the planning phase of a deployment or operation. This ensures interoperability and that handling capability is available. During emergency deployments, there may not be time to develop formal intercountry agreements. Planners must develop methods to preclude competition for resources, particularly infrastructure and LOCs, that could adversely affect operations.
Planners should consider options for contracting, acquiring host nation support (HNS), or obtaining support from other national forces, and then integrating this support into the multinational force.
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