MUNITIONS SUPPORT STRUCTURE
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
This chapter describes the munitions support structure and distribution system. Topics include the two types of munitions support units: MOADS-PLS units and modular ammunition units. Also discussed is the flow of munitions, information, and documents, as well as the responsibilities of distribution managers at each echelon.
Major operations and deployments create a tremendous demand on CONUS ammunition depots and port facilities. The Army no longer has massive stockpiles of munitions outside CONUS (OCONUS), and the amount of Army prepositioned stocks (APS) are limited. This leaves stateside depots and ports to provide most of the munitions required in an operation. Very early in the deployment process, planners must provide augmentation support to these depot and port facilities. a significant number of the Army's munitions units are in the Reserve Components (RC). For that reason, RC units should assist in the planning process. Also, RC munitions units will probably assist in providing both planning and surge support.
When planning to use RC units to provide surge support, planners must consider the time required to mobilize and deploy the units. It usually takes an RC unit at least two weeks to complete the mobilization process. This time must be factored into all operational plans.
When the modular ammunition unit concept is implemented, one or more medium or heavy lift platoons may be assigned to each depot and port requiring augmentation. The number assigned will depend on several factors:
- Projected size and duration of the operation.
- Projected amount of munitions to be shipped.
- Size of the depot or port and the facilities, equipment, and personnel organic to the depot or port.
- Readiness level of augmentee units.
Providing surge support to CONUS depots and ports is critical to the success of any operation. Ammunition sitting in state-side storage facilities does not win battles; the failure to get it to the theater of operations may result in unnecessary casualties and an unsuccessful operation.
The mission of the munitions support structure is to deliver the required type and amount of munitions to the combat user at the time and location it is needed. This requires an efficient, effective, and flexible munitions distribution system. To meet the needs of combat commanders, the munitions distribution system must adhere to the sustainment imperatives presented in FM 100-10 and Chapter 1 of this manual.
Three types of ASAs are in the theater: TSAs, CSAs, and ASPs. An ammunition transfer point (ATP) is not considered an ASA because of its temporary nature.
The ASA mission is to receive, store, issue, and maintain the theater's conventional ammunition stocks. Also, ASAs configure ammunition into MCLs. Once configured, MCLs are shipped forward to ATPs for issue to combat units.
Theater Storage Area
The TSA encompasses the storage facilities located in the COMMZ. This is where the bulk of the theater reserve ammunition stocks is located. TSAs are operated and maintained by one or more general support (GS) ammunition companies, or by one or more medium or heavy lift modular ammunition platoons. Besides shipping ammunition to CSAs, the TSA provides area ammunition support to units operating in the COMMZ.
A TSA receives most of its ammunition in International Standardization Organiza-tion (ISO) containers. The unit operating the TSA must have the capability to move containers on and off railcars and line-haul transporters. To facilitate shipment, TSAs must be located where there is easy access to highways, railroads, airheads, and ports (see Figure 2-1). When a TSA's wartime stockage objective exceeds 25,000 short tons (ST), a second TSA should be established.
The TSA stockage objective is determined by the ASCC. AR 710-2 contains basic days of supply (DOS) policy for Class V. The theater army area command (TAACOM) ammunition group must keep the operational level materiel management center (MMC) informed of storage limitations or shortages in each TSA.
Corps Storage Area
The CSA is the primary source of high-tonnage ammunition for the division and corps. It is operated by one or more GS ammunition companies or one or more medium or heavy lift modular ammunition platoons. The number of units assigned to operate a CSA depends on the corps authorized ammunition stockage level. CSAs receive 50 percent of their ammunition from the port of debarkation (POD) and 50 percent from the TSA. At a minimum, each corps will identify an ASA to meet these requirements.
CSAs provide 100 percent of the ASP's ammunition and 75 percent of the ATP's ammunition, configured as MCLs. Besides providing ammunition to ASPs and ATPs, CSAs provide area ammunition sup-port to units operating in the corps rear.
One CSA is normally required to support ASP and ATP operations for each committed division. Stockage objectives for the CSA are established by the corps support command (COSCOM) and are based on projected theater combat rates. Initially, the stockage objective of a CSA should be 10-15 days of supply. After the initial combat drawdown, the CSA should maintain 7-10 days of supply. When a CSA's wartime stockage objective exceeds 25,000 ST, a second CSA should be established.
Figure 2-1. Flow of munitions in a theater of operations
The COSCOM ammunition battalion analyzes workload requirements based on the forecast and resupply requirements provided by the division ammunition officer (DAO). From this requirements analysis, the battalion determines how to best provide ammunition resupply to the combat units it supports.
The ammunition battalion must synchronize ASA operations with corps transportation assets to ensure the timely movement of ammunition stocks. With the incorporation of modular units, the number of medium lift and heavy lift platoons will be based on workload. At a minimum, one MLP will be required at each CSA to meet MCL workload.
Ammunition Supply Point
ASPs are another source of ammunition for the division. ASPs receive, store, issue, and maintain a one- to three-day supply of ammunition. ASP stockage levels are based on tactical plans, availability of ammunition, and the threat to the resupply operation.
ASPs are located in the division rear. Normally, three MLPs are required to support a division and to provide manning for the division rear ATP. An ASP is normally operated by a direct support (DS) ammunition company or one or more medium lift modular ammunition platoons. (A DS ammunition company can operate up to three ASPs plus an ATP.) If the ASP must handle containerized ammunition, based on METT-T, HLPs must be assigned to the ASP. Depending on METT-T, engineer support may be required to establish and maintain the ASP. During the ASP site selection process, commanders should focus on locations that minimize the need for engineer support. Possibilities include villages, commercial buildings, or farm complexes.
ASPs provide 25 percent of each ATP's ammunition requirement in the form of MCLs. Besides supporting ATPs, ASPs provide ammunition to units operating in the division rear area. These nondivisional and corps units normally receive support from the closest ASA.
Ammunition Transfer Point
ATPs are the most mobile and responsive of the munitions supply activities. CSAs and ASPs deliver ammunition to the ATP using corps transportation assets. This ammunition is kept loaded on semitrailers or PLS flatracks until ATP personnel transload it to using unit vehicles. If the situation demands, the ammunition can be transferred immediately to using unit tactical vehicles.
ATPs receive about 75 percent of their ammunition as throughput from the CSA. The other 25 percent comes from an ASP and is in the form of MCLs.
ATPs are located in each brigade support area (BSA) with an additional one in the division support area (DSA). The mission of each ATP is to provide 100 percent of the ammunition required by all infantry, armor, artillery, combat aviation, combat engineer, and air defense units in its sector. This includes divisional and non-divisional units (i.e., corps artillery) operating in the brigade area. A DAO noncommissioned officer (NCO) is located at each ATP to control the issue of munitions.
The corps DS ammunition company operates the ATP in the DSA. This ATP supports all corps, divisional, and nondivisional units in the DSA. It receives mission guidance and responds to the priorities established by the DAO.
Each maneuver brigade has a forward support battalion (FSB) that operates an ATP. ATPs are operated by the ammunition section of the supply company in the FSB. These ATPs provide ammunition support to all units in the brigade support sector and receive mission guidance from the DAO.
The FSB support operations officer, in conjunction with the DAO NCO representa-tive, coordinates directly with nonorganic units supported by the ATP. Their munitions requirements are consolidated by the support operations officer/DAO, and their request for resupply consolidated with the brigade request. The DAO/movement control battalion (MCB) and the FSB support operations officer coordinate the location, amount, and type of munitions (MCLs) to be received at the ATP. Munitions are delivered by corps transportation assets. ATP personnel interrogate radio frequency (RF) tags of arriving PLS shipments to gain immediate visibility of the shipment and to identify the organization to which it will be issued.
Units arriving at the ATP to pick up munitions drop off empty, or partially empty, PLS flatracks and retrieve fully loaded flatracks. ATP personnel assist units without the PLS to transload munitions. Uploaded flatracks are normally issued in the same configuration as received.
All empty flatracks are shipped back to the nearest ASP, CSA, or TSA as soon as possible. All issues and turn-ins are reported by the DAO representative. The unit ammunition turn-ins are picked up for immediate retrograde by corps transportation assets used to deliver ammunition resupply. A DAO representative attaches RF tags to retrograde shipments. The movement tracking system (MTS) tracks ammunition returns as they are retrograded. The MTS also allows shipments to be redirected if necessary.
The ammunition force structure is evolving. In the near future, and well into the twenty-first century, ammunition units will continue to become smaller and more flexible and capable of deploying more rapidly.
Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Ordnance Group
The mission of the headquarters and headquarters company (HHC), ordnance group (ammunition), is to command and control assigned or attached DS and GS ammunition units (see Figure 2-2, page 2-6). The ordnance group is primarily responsible for the ordnance support structure for ordnance units assigned to echelons above corps (EAC). It is responsible for TSA operations. Also, the ordnance group commands, controls, and plans ammunition missions, to include the following:
- Retrograde activities.
- Enemy ammunition inspection, pro-cessing, and shipping.
- Operating ASAs for COMMZ transient units.
- Advising ASCC on theaterwide ammunition policy.
- Establishing ammunition supply and maintenance procedures consistent with the policies and directives of the ASCC and the corps.
The ordnance group executes missions through subordinate ordnance battalions or in coordination with area support groups (ASGs). The ordnance group provides technical assistance through the materiel section to ASG ordnance planners. Also, the group can provide coordination for resolving support problems between subordinate units, supported units, and CONUS depots.
Ordnance group technical assets can be deployed before, during, and after operations to work in concert with the taacom, the LSE, and the theater army materiel management center (TAMMC).
The ordnance group (ammunition) is assigned to a TAACOM. It is allocated one per theater or one per two to six battalions commanded. At 100 percent of assigned personnel, ammunition group missions include the following:
- Command, control, and staff planning for up to six subordinate units.
- Technical direction of subordinate unit ammunition support operations, except for inventory management functions for which the TAACOM MMC is responsible.
Figure 2-2. Ordnance group, ammunition (DS/GS) (TOE 09662L000)
Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, Ordnance Battalion (Ammunition) (DS/GS)
The mission of the headquarters and headquarters detachment (HHD), ordnance battalion (ammunition) (TOE 09466L000 or TOE 09666L000), is to command and control assigned units or attached DS and GS ammunition units or other attached units (see Figure 2-3 and Figure 2-4). These units ensure compliance with ammunition supply and maintenance procedures established by the TAACOM.
This unit is assigned to a COSCOM or a corps support group (CSG). It may also be assigned to a TAACOM, normally attached to an HHC, conventional ammunition group (DS/GS). A minimum of one ammunition battalion is required per COSCOM to support a fully deployed corps. This battalion is allocated one per three to five companies commanded. It can provide:
- Command, control, and staff planning for up to five subordinate units.
- Technical direction over ammunition support operations of subordinate units. The exception is inventory management functions, for which the operational level MMC is responsible.
The structure of ammunition units and the munitions support concept are revised as combat doctrine evolves.
Under MOADS, a large number of troops were deployed OCONUS to maintain and distribute the vast stockpiles of munitions stored in overseas depots. The MOADS system was designed for break-bulk resupply and multiple transfers of munitions.
The conversion of units to MOADS-PLS has resulted in the more rapid movement of supplies and less frequent transfers through the use of MCLs. Other results under MOADS-PLS include the requirement for fewer soldiers and less equipment. Also, this system provides limited ammunition unit flexibility and ITV of munitions stocks. Table 2-1 shows the lift capability and manpower requirement for each type of materials handling equipment (MHE) listed.
General Support (GS) Ammunition Com-panies (MOADS-PLS). General support companies, which are organized under TOE 09433L000 and TOE 09633L000, establish a CSA/TSA in the COMMZ and corps rear area and behind each committed division. Also, one or more GS ammunition companies will establish a CSA or TSA. Allocation of these companies is based on theater stockage objectives and supported force requirements.
The CSAs provide munitions support throughout the corps and serve as the primary source of high-tonnage munitions for the division. Figure 2-5 and Figure 2-6 illustrate the structure of GS MOADS-PLS units.
Direct Support (DS) Ammunition Com-panies (MOADS-PLS). Direct support companies, which are organized under TOE 09484L000, establish three ASPs and a rear ATP to support divisional and nondivisional units in the division area. One DS company is allocated per division. Figure 2-7, page 2-12, illustrates the structure of DS MOADS-PLS units.
Figure 2-3. Ordnance battalion, ammunition (DS/GS) (TOE 09466L000)
Figure 2-4. Ordnance battalion, ammunition (DS/GS) (TOE 09666L000)
Figure 2-5. Ordnance company, ammunition (MOADS-PLS) (CSA) (SRC 09433L000)
Figure 2-6. Ordnance company, ammunition (MOADS/PLS) (TSA) (SRC 09633L000)
Figure 2-7. Ordnance company, ammunition (DS) (MOADS-PLS) (SRC 09484L000)
Table 2-1. MAN/MHE team lift capabilities by STONs per day
With the end of the cold war, the Army began to evolve from a forward-deployed force to a primarily CONUS-based force capable of projecting combat power to any part of the world and to any type of theater.
The MOADS doctrine and force structure were designed to support a forward-deployed force. Conversely, the wide variety of possible missions facing the CONUS-based force projection Army requires an ammunition distribution system capable of supporting any contingency. This more flexible distribution system is based on the concept of modularity.
Under the modularity concept, only the number of soldiers or amount of equipment needed to support the forces are deployed. This might mean deploying a single platoon to support a brigade contingency or a company with added platoons attached to support a mature theater.
The initial deployment of modular ammunition units to a theater will consist of one or more platoons. Heavy lift modular platoons are capable of loading, moving, and unloading 20-foot ISO containers. The MLP has no container handling capabilities.
As the theater matures and more modular ammunition units arrive in theater, a conventional command and control structure is established, and the modular platoons are formed into company-sized units. Table 2-2 illustrates modular ammunition platoon lift capacities.
Table 2-2. Modular ammunition platoon
HEAVY LIFT PLATOON
TOTAL LIFT CAPABILITY
MEDIUM LIFT PLATOON
TOTAL LIFT CAPABILITY:
MAXIMUM STORAGE PER PLATOON
HEAVY LIFT PLATOON
MEDIUM LIFT PLATOON
* Short tons (ST) per day.
** When operating in a CSA or TSA with no ATP mission, the MLP has a total lift capability of 1,521 ST (507 ST per mission). When the ATP section of the MLP is employed separately, it has a lift capability of 393 ST/day. Each MLP can provide one-third a rear ATP. The figures are based on 24-hour operations.
*** This capacity represents a portion of the designated level of the theater stockage objective.
A modular ammunition company consists of a company headquarters platoon and from two to five heavy and/or medium lift platoons. The headquarters platoon (Figure 2-8, page 2-15) is capable of commanding and controlling multiple geo-graphically separated platoons as METT-T requires. However, the headquarters platoon must be collocated with at least one of these platoons for logistical support. This headquarters is capable of consolidating platoons in the COMMZ and providing support to corps and division areas.
The ammunition platoon (heavy lift) (Figure 2-9) is capable of supporting units on an area basis through receipt, storage, stock management, inventory control, and issue. Also, this platoon is capable of loading or off-loading 20-foot ISO containers from inbound or outbound transportation assets. It employs PLS vehicles to move stocks, rewarehouse, move configured loads to a holding area, and move organic equipment. The prepositioned munitions ships will have a portion of the unit's equipment aboard. Therefore, at least one of these platoons must arrive in theater at the same time or before the prepositioned ships. A platoon can operate independently from an ammunition company headquarters, but needs outside support for sustainment. It is 100 percent mobile, less ammunition stocks.
The ammunition platoon (medium lift) (Figure 2-10) does not have container-handling equipment. This platoon can unstuff a 20-foot ISO container, if necessary, to mission configure break-bulk munitions. The ammunition platoon is capable of receipt, storage, stock management, inventory control, mission-configuring, and issuing to supported units on an area basis. The ammunition platoon can operate independently from an ammunition company headquarters, but it requires outside support for sustainment. It is 100 percent mobile, less ammunition stocks on hand, and has PLS vehicles to enable the rapid movement of ammunition within the ASA.
Figure 2-8. Modular ammunition company headquarters platoon
Figure 2-9. Modular ammunition platoon (heavy lift)
Figure 2-10. Modular ammunition platoon (medium lift)
The USAMC ammunition support team (AST) arrives at immature theater PODs before prepositioned munitions vessels, sustainment shipments, or munitions units. It establishes a point at the PODs where munitions stocks can be accounted for. Also, the team coordinates the off-loading and distribution of stocks either to storage areas or for direct issue to units from the PODs. Early arrival of ammunition units is essential to move Class V from the port area.
The concept for employing the AST is dissimilar to the employment of all other LSE organizations. The AST mission is tied specifically to the accountability and management of APS munitions. These preconfigured loads, stored on logistics ships, are available for rapid delivery to the theater.
During the early stages of any contingency operation requiring APS munitions, the AST deploys with mirror image prepositioned (APS) accountable records and quality assurance specialist (ammunition surveillance) (QASAS) support. Normally, this coincides with the deployment of the LSE advance party. The early departure of the AST from CONUS is necessary to assure that its arrival is before the port acceptance of the Army's APS vessels.
The AST provides technical expertise and assistance in the following areas:
- Explosive safety.
- Accountability for munitions mate-riel and associated equipment.
AST responsibilities may include, but are not limited to, the following activities:
- Providing theater munitions units with technical assistance in establishing and managing ammunition storage areas.
- Conducting inventories. Maintain-ing initial theater-accountable records.
- Providing for the transfer of DA-owned, NICP-accountable Army reserve stocks assigned to the theater.
- Developing and administering con-tract statements of work.
- Planning and executing retrograde operations.
Deployment of the AST should be based on the tempo of logistical operations in the theater. The major functions of the AST include the following:
- Preparing for overseas deployment.
- Deploying to theater ports of debarkation.
- Setting up the support team base of operations.
- Transferring the accountability of APS assets from NICP-accountable officers to theater-accountable officers.
- Providing initial theater accounta-bility and Standard Army Ammunition System (SAAS) operations.
- Linking the CONUS sustainment base and the combat logisticians.
- Submitting status reports through NICP to HQ, USAMC, and HQDA.
- Coordinating joint munitions opera-tions as required.
- Providing initial QASAS support to the theater.
Once the AST has established itself in the theater, the ground component commander may expand the AST mission based on the specialized training and technical expertise of the team. Any expansion of responsibilities must be coordinated with the parent organization at the time, either the LSE or USAMC.
Headquarters and Headquarters
Detachment, Ordnance Battalion
(Ammunition) (WHNS) (DS/GS)
The mission of the headquarters and headquarters detachment, ordnance battalion (ammunition) (WHNS) is to command and control assigned or attached units (see Figure 2-11). This unit provides:
- Command, control, and staff planning for up to nine ammunition companies (TOE 09574LB000).
- Technical direction over ammunition support operations of subordinate units, the exception being inventory management functions for which the operational level MMC is responsible.
This detachment is also involved in the coordination and management of US-owned Class V stocks being received, stored, and issued by host nation (HN) ammunition units. It can be assigned to a CSG; it can also be assigned to an ammunition group in the TAACOM.
The mission of the ordnance company (ammunition) (WHNS) is to provide operational control over US-owned ammunition stocks being received, stored, warehoused, and issued by HN units to US forces combat units. This company is assigned to an ordnance battalion (TOE 09574LA00) with one company allocated per HN ammunition company. On a 24-hour basis this unit provides:
- Expertise required to perform stock accountability, stock status reporting, and QA/QC functions for US-owned ammunition stocks being received, stored, warehoused, and issued by HN ammunition units.
- Coordination needed for maintenance support for US equipment operated by HN units.
- Coordination for operational task-ings.
Figure 2-11. Headquarters and headquarters detachment, ordnance battalion,
ammunition (WHNS) (DS/GS)
IN THE THEATER
The theater receives munitions from CONUS or OCONUS locations through air and water ports or by logistics-over-the-shore (LOTS) operations. From there, munitions are transported to the appropriate munitions support activity.
Several factors determine the quantity of munitions moved forward. These factors are as follows:
- Quantity of munitions on hand.
- Current and projected consumption.
- Available transportation.
- Available personnel and equipment.
Determining or Requesting
Combat commanders control the flow of ammunition in their areas of responsibility by using two ammunition supply rates, the required supply rate (RSR) and the controlled supply rate (CSR). Commanders at each level submit their RSR to the next higher headquarters. These headquarters review, adjust, and consolidate RSR information and forward it through command channels. At the ASCC level, the total, unrestricted ammunition requirements are compared against total ammunition assets available (on hand or expected) to develop the CSR. Chapter 3 of this manual has more information about RSRs and CSRs.
To request ammunition, each unit consolidates its on-hand quantities and forwards its report to the battalion supply officer (S4), with information copies to the battalion commander and operations and training officer (S3). Company commanders will indicate in their situation report (SITREP) remarks any critical munitions shortages or forecasted changes in munitions requirements.
The battalion S4 requisitions ammunition based on information provided in the company SITREPs and guidance received from the battalion commander and S3. The battalion S4 consolidates the entire battalion munitions requirement and submits it to the brigade S4. When necessary, battalion commanders cross-level within companies or throughout the battalion to meet mission requirements. The battalion S4 also reports the unit's on-hand quantities by Department of Defense Identification Code (DODIC) or nomenclature, any critical shortages, and any forecasted changes in requirements in the battalion's SITREP to the brigade.
The brigade S4 consolidates the requests for ammunition and passes them to the support operations officer in the supporting FSB. An information copy is forwarded to the DAO. The DAO, in conjunction with the corps materiel management center (CMMC), uses the information copy to determine if on-hand stocks in the ASP are sufficient or if munitions from the CSA or TSA will be required.
The brigade S4 monitors the munitions on the commander's tracked items list (CTIL) that require special attention, such as emergency resupply. The support operations officer consolidates the brigade's munitions requirements and forwards them to the division support command (DISCOM).
Controlled Supply Rate/
Priority of Issue
The support operations officer, with guidance from the brigade S3 and S4, informs the DAO about the brigade's CSR breakout and unit priority of munitions resupply. Forecasted critical shortages and changes in requirements, as reported in the brigade SITREP, are provided to the DAO.
The preferred method of munitions resupply is to deliver as far forward as possible. Ammunition containers are shipped only to the TSA or CSA. There, they are unstuffed, and the ammunition configured into MCLs sent to forward ASAs. If the situation requires it or transportation assets are available, munitions may be throughput as close to the unit as possible. Figure 2-1 on page 2-3 illustrates the flow of munitions in the theater.
The CMMC determines whether the munitions resupply will come from the ASP or the CSA. The DAO determines the munitions status of the brigade ATPs in the division. This information will determine whether munitions within the division can be cross-leveled to meet munitions require-ments.
If the munitions are coming from the ASP, the CMMC prepares a materiel release order directing the munitions shipment. If the munitions must be brought forward from the CSA, the CMMC submits a request for munitions resupply to the corps assistant chief of staff (logistics) (G4).
Munitions may arrive in theater in configured loads. The supporting activity, either the ASP or CSA, reconfigures these loads into MCLs before transportation assets arrive. The MCB schedules transportation according to corps priorities. The ammunition units are notified by the MCB of where and when transportation will arrive.
After ammunition has been loaded, the RF tags are verified along with the correct cargo and destination. All ammunition shipments are tracked through ITV. Delivery coordinates and time are forwarded to the receiving unit or activity, with information copies furnished to the DAO, the FSB support operations officer, the DAO representative, and the S4. In the event an ammunition shipment must be diverted within the brigade, the brigade commander or designated representative retains sole authority to do so. This is accomplished through the FSB support operations officer. Ammunition shipments that must be diverted within the division are directed by the division commander to the DISCOM commander for implementation.
Air resupply missions are categorized as preplanned or emergency. Preplanned missions make up the routine air transport service that supports preplanned or program-med requirements. Emergency air move-ments are initiated by requirements that cannot be determined in advance.
The movement control officer coordi-nates the movement of supplies with the main support battalion (MSB) and the move-ment manager in the FSB support operations section. If the movement control officer determines that air resupply is appropriate, he passes a request through the division transportation officer (DTO) to the assistant chief of staff (operations and plans) (G3). The G3 allocates helicopters on the basis of all aviation tasks by balancing combat, combat support (CS), and CSS require-ments. The G4 must ensure the CSS role for helicopters is developed and considered concurrently with the tactical mission. The priorities for helicopter resupply should be addressed in the operations order (OPORD) and used by the movement control officer.
Emergency requests are passed through supply channels the same as routine requests. However, they are also passed simultane-ously through command channels from the user to the G3. The G3 approves emergency requests and tasks the aviation brigade to perform the mission. At the same time, the G4 coordinates with the DISCOM support operations branch so it can task the appropriate supply activity to prepare the shipment. A liaison officer from the aviation brigade coordinates with the movement control officer and the requesting unit. Prerigged loads of standard resupply packages may reduce response time for emergency air resupply. More details on requests for aerial resupply are in FMs 55-2 and 100-27.
COMMAND AND SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS
Army, joint, and/or combined units or elements may be required to perform their missions within the area of operations (AO) of a corps, division, brigade, or battalion with which they have no formal command or support relationship. Unless attached for logistical support, parent units are responsi-ble for providing support to their elements dispersed throughout the battlefield. At times, mission requirements may exceed the organic support capabilities of the parent unit. When this happens, the parent unit must coordinate support for its elements with the headquarters controlling that element's AO. Once coordination is accomplished, the headquarters controlling the AO assumes responsibility for providing logistical support for the units in the AO. The rear command post (CP) facilitates support of nondivisional units by identifying the name and location of the divisional coordinating staff element or host unit.
Munitions support for nondivisional units operating in the division's AO is coordinated by the DAO. Nondivisional units attached to or supporting the brigade combat trains (BCTs) forward their munitions requests through the FSB support operations officer to the DAO. Nondivisional units attached to or supporting the division and operating in the division's rear area forward their munitions requests through the DISCOM support operations officer to the DAO. Specific procedures for supporting nondivisional units are detailed in the Class V section of the service and support annex of the OPORD.
Each activity or unit in the munitions supply system has functions unique to it. These functions are discussed below.
Army Service Component
The ASCC has overall responsibility for in-theater receipt, accountability, and management of munitions stocks. The ASCC is also responsible for the following functions:
- Establishing ASPs, CSAs, and TSAs.
- Coordinating distribution between storage sites and storage sites and forward ATPs; coordinating direct issue to using units on an area support basis.
Materiel Management Center
The operational level MMC is the support unit responsible for providing theaterwide munitions supply management and allocation. Support is based on priorities established by the theater CINC. The MMC is the prime interface between the theater and the CONUS sustaining base, which includes the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), NICPs, and USAMC. The operational level MMC communicates with the operational level movement control agency (MCA), the TAACOM, CMMCs, and CONUS.
The MMC provides initial resupply to the corps from several possible theater ammunition sources, as follows:
- Army prepositioned stocks. This includes either ammunition preconfigured on logistics ships that is available for rapid delivery to the theater or prepositioned ammunition available on a regional basis to support contingencies worldwide.
- Sustainment base production stocks. This includes ammunition either off the production line or stored in depots. These stocks are shipped to the theater as needed.
Materiel Management Center
When a corps is the ARFOR, the CMMC is the operational level MMC. In a theater with more than one corps, the ASCC may establish a centralized MMC to which CMMCs report.
The CMMC provides centralized control of munitions and all other classes of supply within the corps. It is the interface between corps units and the theater/operational level MMC.
Missile and Munitions
In the CMMC, the missile and munitions division includes three branches: the missile and munitions support branch; the missile and munitions parts supply branch; and the missile and munitions maintenance branch (see FM 63-3).
The missile and munitions division is responsible for ammunition management to include the following:
- Processing requisitions.
- Reviewing the RSR and computing the CSR.
- Directing storage and distribution of ammunition.
- Coordinating with the corps move-ment control center (CMCC) to integrate ammunition movement requirements into movement programs.
- Providing guidance to division mate-riel management centers (DMMCs).
The munitions support branch exercises staff supervision over munitions support operations. These include supply and maintenance operations relating to muni-tions, missiles, special weapons, and associated repair parts, special tools, and test equipment. Responsibilities include:
- Developing plans and policies involving munitions supply and maintenance.
- Providing staff input for munitions planning to COSCOM CSS plans staff branch.
- Developing munitions surveillance policies.
- Maintaining a running estimate of munitions requirements.
- Coordinating munitions require-ments with corps G3 and G4 staff.
- Establishing ammunition supply levels based on corps directives.
- Recommending ammunition supply and storage site locations to the corps rear CP CSS cell.
Missile and munitions officers assigned to the munitions support branch develop operating procedures and plans to implement munitions supply policies prescribed in ARs 710-1 and 710-2 and SAAS technical manuals (TMs). Other duties include:
- Providing technical advice and assistance to ammunition officers in subordi-nate CSGs and ammunition supply units.
- Coordinating with CSG ammunition officers on cross-leveling munitions support personnel and equipment.
- Recommending establishment and movement of ASAs as the situation dictates.
- Reviewing and updating ammunition planning factors to the theater scenario.
- Monitoring ammunition suspen-sions.
- Recommending adjustments to munitions stockage levels.
- Coordinating resupply of munitions stocks for attrited units at regeneration sites.
In the absence of an ordnance group in theater, the conventional ammunition bat-talion is normally assigned to the COSCOM/ TAACOM (Figures 2-3 and 2-4, pages 2-8 and 2-9) to establish and operate ammunition supply activities. The materiel office (MATO) of this battalion serves as the initial point of coordination for resolving ammunition support problems. The MATO acts in concert with the COSCOM staff and CMMC munitions and transportation managers to accomplish the following:
- Coordination of assets.
The MATO's responsibilities include the following:
Materiel Management Center
The DMMC is part of the DISCOM (see FM 63-2, Chapter 3). The munitions supply section of the DMMC manages ammunition for the division. The DAO is in charge of the munitions supply section. Its mission includes the following:
- Managing ammunition and provid-ing status of ammunition to the DISCOM and other division commands and staffs.
- Providing staff supervision of FSB ATPs.
The DAO is responsible for ammunition resupply for all units operating in the division AO. He represents the MMC and DISCOM commander on all ammunition-related mat-ters. The DAO has five broad missions:
- Consolidating division ammunition requirements.
- Conducting and supervising ammu-nition operations.
- Validating ammunition requests.
The DAO maintains liaison with the ASA supporting the division and with ammu-nition staff officers at the COSCOM.
The brigade S3's ammunition responsi-bilities include:
- Determining brigade ammunition requirements based on input from subordi-nate battalions and knowledge of upcoming tactical operations.
- Determining consolidated brigade RSR and submitting it to the division G3 and DAO.
- Determining the best location for the BSA.
The brigade S4 ammunition responsi-bilities include:
- Providing a unit issue priority list to the DAO. Forwarding the consolidated unit ammunition requirements to the DAO.
- Providing subordinate battalion S4s with their allocations of the brigade CSR. (This information is also provided to the DAO so battalion units do not exceed their authorizations when transloading at the ATP.)
The Class V section of the FSB supply company operates one ATP in the BSA. It provides area support to division and corps units. Each ATP has DAO representatives assigned to control the flow of ammunition.
When munitions arrive at the ATP, the FSB Class V section inspects, inventories, and signs for the shipment. A copy of the shipping document is returned to the originating ASA. The DAO representative forwards a copy of the receipt document to the DMMC.
The brigade S4 coordinates with the FSB support operations officer to establish an issue schedule. When supported units arrive at the ATP, they submit ammunition requests that have been authenticated by the battalion S4. Before a unit is issued ammunition, the DAO representative at the ATP validates the request. Once ammu-nition is issued to a unit, the unit assumes accountability and uses its transportation assets to move the ammunition forward.
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