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Fm 71-3
The Armored and Mechanized Infantry Brigade


APPENDIX H
TACTICAL STANDING OPERATING PROCEDURES
(Continued)


H-17. Air Defense Artillery Procedures.

  1. Air Defense Warnings (ADW). The regional air defense commander establishes the ADW for the entire region, which can encompass an area larger than that of the corps. Consequently, the entire division could be at ADW Red with no air attack imminent. Because the region can be large, the ADW seldom changes during daylight. Consequently, the ADW may not reflect a true evaluation of the local air threat to air defense and maneuver units.
    1. ADW Red - air attack is imminent or in progress.
    2. ADW Yellow - air attack is probable.
    3. ADW White - air attack not probable.
  2. Local Air Defense Warnings (LADW). LADWs are broadcast over communications nets. They reflect an evaluation of the air threat to the brigade and require a specific response by air defense and other units in the brigade.
    1. LADW Dynamite - Air attack is imminent or in progress.
      1. Actions taken by ADA units:
        • Air defense weapons occupy firing positions.
        • Observers intensify their search for aircraft.
        • Platoon leader actively monitor the directed early warning net.
      2. Actions taken by other units:
        • Cease movement and seek overhead cover if possible.
        • Except for those in direct contact with the enemy, have personnel and weapons directed toward the sky.
        • Intensify efforts to monitor the directed early warning net.
    2. LADW lookout - air attack is probable.
      1. Actions taken by ADA units:
        • Air defense weapons are kept in a ready state.
        • Observers intensify their search for the air threat.
        • Platoon leaders actively monitor the directed early warning net.
      2. Actions taken by other units:
        • Deploy observers to search for the air threat.
        • Continue mission, but minimize movement.
        • Improve passive air defense measures (camouflage from aerial observation).
        • Intensify monitoring of the directed early warning net.
    3. LADW Snowman - No hostile air threat in the division area.
      1. Actions taken: none.
      2. ADA and other units can conduct all normal field operations.
  3. Weapons Control Status (WCS). The WCS is used to control fires in regard to aerial engagements. They are established by the regional air defense commander. Maneuver commanders may establish a more restrictive measure based on his mission, intent, and air traffic. He can not, however, ease the control status (from weapons tight to weapons free) without approval from the regional air defense commander.
    1. Weapons Free: Fire at any aircraft not positively identified as friendly.
    2. Weapons Tight: Only fire at aircraft positively identified as hostile. (ADA units losing communications with higher ADA headquarters will assume weapons hold status.)
    3. Weapons Hold: Do not engage except in self defense or in response to a formal order.
  4. Hostile Criteria. An aircraft is considered hostile when:
    • It is visually identified as an enemy.
    • It attacks friendly forces or facilities by
      • Discharging smoke or spray.
      • Airdropping soldiers without prior coordination.
      • Dropping bombs or ordnance.
    • It maneuvers to attack friendly forces or facilities.
    • It meets any additional hostile criteria published in OPLANs or OPORDs.
  5. Rules of Engagement.
    1. Brigade is Not Committed. Air defense weapons are restricted to self-defense engagements only.
    2. Brigade is Committed. ROEs will be established. Commanders may establish a more restrictive weapons control status for engaging in their sector. However, they may not impose a less-restrictive status. Combined arms for air defense will be controlled and operated under weapons tight criteria.
  6. Early Warning System. The early warning system is quick, simple, and redundant in nature. The three types of early warning are digital, voice, and directed.
    1. Digital early warning track data is the primary means of early warning communication to ADA units. Voice early warning is the alternate method. The division ABMOC receives track data simultaneously from AWACS and other radar. This track data along with the WCS and ADW are transmitted using EPLRS or SINCGARS to tactically employed sensors. The sensors correlate that information with their own local track data and send it to ADA unit headquarters. The ADA units then broadcast this data over the directed early warning net to maneuver units.
    2. Voice early warning is the method of disseminating directed early warning. It is the alternative to digital early warning.
    3. Directed early warning is designed to alert a specific unit or area of the battlefield of an immediate aerial threat. ADOs will pass this early warning over their supported unit command net. Directed early warning defines:
      • LADW.
      • Hostile/friendly/unknown air threat.
      • Location.
      • Cardinal direction.
      • The element most likely affected within the force.
    An example is"DYNAMITE, DYNAMITE, TWO HOSTILE JETS, AT PL BLUE, HEADING EAST TOWARDS ASSEMBLY AREA BUDWEISER."

H-18. Army Airspace Command and Control Operating Procedures.

  1. A2C2 is the responsibility of the brigade commander for operations within brigade boundaries. While there is no formal A2C2 special staff element at brigade level, primary staff responsibility resides with the brigade S3-Air in the main CP. Other members of the brigade A2C2 element include the S2, FSO, ADA, and aviation LO, and the ALO. The element may be augmented by an air traffic services LO.
    1. Responsibilities. The primary tasks of the A2C2 staff element include:
      • Developing and coordinating airspace control SOPs, plans, and annexes.
      • Coordinating the integrating airspace user requirements within the AOs to include other services and adjacent units.
      • Identifying and resolving airspace user conflicts.
      • Approving, staffing, and forwarding requests for special use airspace to the next higher headquarters.
      • Maintaining A2C2 information displays and maps.
    2. Procedures. The brigade coordinates airspace and air control measures through the operations channels. Since it is not a formalized staff element, the brigade A2C2 staff is not equipped with assets (communications, ADP equipment) dedicated to the A2C2 mission. Coordination is accomplished via MSE, FAX , radio, or FAADC3I.
  2. A2C2 Control Measures. Methods to accomplish A2C2 vary throughout the range of military operations from war to OOTW. These methods range from positive control of all air assets in the brigade area to procedural control of such assets with any effective combination of positive and procedural control between the two extremes.
    1. Positive Control. Positively identifies, tracks, and directs air assets using radars, other sensors, IFF/SIF, digital data links, and other elements of the digital data system.
    2. Procedural Control. Relies on previously agreed to and promulgated airspace control measures such as comprehensive air defense ID procedures and ROE, graphic control measures, and coordinating altitude. Effective DTGs will be annotated with each plotted control measure. The following paragraphs are examples and definitions of graphic control measures (see FM 100-103).
      1. Standard Army Aviation Flight Route. Routes that are established below the coordinating altitude to facilitate the movement of Army aviation assets. Normally, these routes are located in the corps through the brigade rear area. Although standard Army aviation flight routes are established by corps and division, the brigade is responsible for specifying the termination points (vicinity BSA/FSB) for their respective brigade.
      2. Air Corridors. An air corridor is a restricted air route of travel specified for use by friendly Army aircraft and established to prevent friendly forces from firing on friendly aircraft. They are temporary in nature, established as required to route combat elements of the corps or division aviation brigade (or UAV) between assembly areas, holding areas, BPs, FARPs, and target EAs.
      3. Air Control Points. An easily identifiable point on the terrain or an electronic navigational aid used to provide necessary control during air movement.
      4. High Density Airspace Control Zone. A high density airspace control zone is a defined area of airspace that is requested by the maneuver force commander, normally division and above. A high density airspace control zone reserves airspace and controls which airspace users have access to the zone. The maneuver commander can also direct a more restrictive weapons status within the high density airspace control zone. The activation of the high density airspace control zone at the request of a maneuver brigade commander (and approved by the division commander and the airspace control authority) within a brigade sector requires that the brigade control all airspace use within the high density airspace control zone. The brigade A2C2 staff within the CP may serve as the controlling element, or the brigade commander may request that the division attach an air traffic services element to the brigade headquarters to assist the brigade S3 with airspace control responsibilities.
      5. Restricted Operations Zone. A volume of airspace of defined dimensions designated for a specific operational mission. Entry into the zone is authorized only the originating headquarters. This airspace control measure requires airspace control and authority approval.
      6. Airspace Coordination Area. In FS operations a restrictive FSCM that establishes a three-dimensional block of airspace in the battle in which friendly aircraft are reasonably safe from friendly surface fires. Aircraft and indirect fire are separated by time, space, and/or altitude. The purpose of the ACA is to allow the simultaneous attack of targets near each other by multiple FS means, one of which normally is air.
      7. Low Level Transit Route/Minimum Risk Route. A minimum risk route (low level transit route in NATO) is a temporary flight route recommended for Air Force use. It presents the minimum known hazards to low-flying aircraft in the control zone. The minimum risk route must be approved by the airspace control authority and avoids FS systems, air defense weapons, LZs, PZs, FARPs, and Army airfields.

H-19. Signal Procedures.

  1. Operations.
    1. Call signs and frequencies will change daily at 2400 hours (local time) unless in contact with enemy forces. Call signs and frequencies will not change when any battalion-size element is engaged with enemy forces.
    2. The CPs priorities for signal support and installation are:
      • Combat net radio.
      • MSRTs.
      • Mobile subscriber route phones, FAX, and CT.
  2. Brigade Responsibility.
    1. Coordinate with the signal battalion on procedures to pick up their signal support teams.
    2. Provide logistics to signal support team.
    3. Include the signal team chief on all new site reconnaissance and planning meetings. Provide the signal team advance notice before relocation to accomplish coordination with the signal battalion.
  3. Signal Support Team Responsibility.
    1. Install, operate, and maintain multichannel and TACSAT.
    2. Coordinate signal support requirement with the units SO.
  4. Mobile Subscriber Equipment.
    1. The brigade COMSEC office of record will distribute U-and M-key MSRT and U-key. Maneuver control system to unit battalion SOs.
    2. Keys will be tagged as follows:
      • U110X (on the KYK-13 or KYX-15).
      • U = key tape.
      • 110 = HUS location.
      • X = edition.
    3. Keys will change over at 1200 hours on the last day of each month.
    4. The frequency plan for MSRTs will be downloaded from a radio access unit at a location and time directed by the signal battalion.
    5. Each CP and staff section is responsible for the installation of their section's MSE. Sections are responsible for laying their own wire or cable and tagging the wire at both ends with subscriber information (section number, subscriber listing, J-Box number, pair number).
    6. Mobile Subscriber Equipment Support Allocation (see Table H-8).

Table H-8. Mobile subscriber equipment support allocation.
UNIT/COMMAND POST SEN

Main Command Post
Rear Command Post
Direct Support Artillery
Aviation Battalion
Engineer Battalion

1
1
1
1
1

  1. Combat Net Radios. All radios will be operated in the secure mode. While in the secure mode, fixed call signs may be used. If it is necessary to operate in a nonsecure mode, only call signs or suffixes contained in SOI will be used.
  2. FM Communications.
    1. Primary FM nets:
      • Command. For commanders, XOs, S3s, and authorized CPs to relate commander information.
      • Intelligence Net. S2/intelligence gathering and dissemination. The S2 for operations at the main CP is the NCS.
      • A/L Net. For logistical operations. The CSS cell at the brigade rear CP is the NCS.
    2. VINSON Guidance.
      1. VINSON is used by the NCS to distribute variables over the FM radio.
      2. Units/staffs will coordinate with their signal support element to ensure their MX-10579 or other electronic counter-countermeasures fill devices are marked and loaded with the correct variables before operation. Information concerning net descriptions, call signs/suffix, frequencies, signs and countersigns, smoke and pyrotechnics, frequency hopping, variables and supersession information is contained in the basic generator unit or the electronic notebook.
      3. Subordinate units use unique VINSONTEK fills. All FM nets internal to that respective unit use the TEK in VINSON-fill position 2.
      4. Organic brigade units cross-attached within the brigade receive new parent units TEK via manual remote keying. Subordinate elements receive these variables via manual remote keying or automatic remote keying operations.
    3. Generation of Cryptovariables. The brigade SOs must ensure cyptovariables generated are distributed to all subordinate battalions.
    4. Variable Changeover.
      • Changeover to be determined based on the tactical situation; however, if possible, occurs every Friday at 1200 local time. When possible, all combat net variables are changed physically using a KYK-13 or KYX-15. Manual keying operations are performed only when absolutely necessary.
      • The brigade TEK/RKV is to be changed manually.
      • Units are to use their specific variable on their internal nets.
    5. All non-SINCGARS radios operate "new squelch on."
    6. Retransmission or relay priority is to the:
      • Unit command/operations net.
      • Unit intelligence net.
      • Unit A/L net.
  3. AM-Voice Operation (Long-Range Command Net). The AM-voice operation should be activated only on order of the division's main CP TOC or the division's TAC CP.
  4. Courier.
    1. The brigade S3 will coordinate with the division G3 operations for daily courier operations.
    2. The tactical situation determines the courier schedules.
  5. Wire. Priority of wire installation to the main CP:
    • S3 operations cell.
    • S2 section.
    • FSE.
    • Others.
  6. Tactical CP Radio Nets (see Table H-9).

Table H-9. Tactical command post radio nets.

ELEMENT

PRIORITY NETS

Brigade Commander

Division Command/OI Net
Brigade Command OI Net

S3

Brigade Command
Division Command

S2

Brigade OI
Division OI

Fire Support Element (If available)

Fire Support Coordination Net
Fire Direction 1

Engineer/Chemical/Air
Defense Artillery

Brigade Command
Division Command

  1. Command group radio nets are established based on the personnel organized within the command group.
    1. Main CP Radio Nets (see Table H-10).

Table H-10. Main command post radio nets.

ELEMENT

PRIORITY NETS

S3 Element

Division Command
Brigade Command (NCS)
Division Command (AM)

S2 Element

Division Intelligence
Brigade Intelligence (NCS)

Fire Support Element

Brigade FSC
Fire Direction 1
Division FSC

A2C2 Aviation

Battalion Command
Air Defense Coordinator
AM Air Force

Engineer Element

Brigade Command
Engineer Battalion Command

  1. Rear Command Post Radio Nets (see Table H-11).

Table H-11. Rear command post radio nets.

ELEMENT

PRIORITY NETS

S1/S4

Brigade Administrative/Logistics (NCS)
Brigade Administrative/Logistics AM

Military Police

Brigade Administrative/Logistics

S5

Rear Operations

H-20. Intelligence and Security Procedures.

  1. General Security Procedures.
    1. Units must sweep evacuated CPs, buildings, bivouac areas, and assembly areas to ensure no classified or sensitive material is left behind.
    2. All classified material will be secured.
  2. Named Area of Interest/Target Area of Interest Designation Procedures. The S2 controls and maintains the brigade NAIs designations as shown in Table H-12.
Table H-12. Named areas of interest/target areas of interest designation procedures.

ORIGIN

DESCRIPTION

Brigade (Tactical, Main,or Rear Command Posts)
1st Battalion
2d Battalion
3d Battalion
Aviation Battalion
Light Infantry Battalion

Numeric only (31-60)
Begin with J (J1, J2)
Begin with K (K1, K2)
Begin with N (N1, N2)
Begin with O (O1, O2)
Begin with X (X1, X2)

  1. Document Security.
    1. Do not carry or distribute written classified tactical orders forward of a battalion CP. Top-secret material must always be under armed guard and in the possession of an individual with a top-secret clearance.
    2. Remove classified material immediately from personnel wounded or KIA to prevent its capture or compromise.
    3. Do not permit classified material, except SOIs, to be carried in aircraft flying over enemy lines.
    4. Emergency Destruction of Classified Material.
      1. Personnel carrying classified material must be prepared to destroy that material in the event of imminent capture. The senior leader present makes the decision to destroy it.
      2. Each CP vehicle will have thermite grenades in a readily available and marked location. Every member of the CP will be familiar with destruction plans and how to use thermite grenades.
    5. Actions on Loss or Compromise of a Classified Document.
      1. Inform higher headquarters by fastest secure means if information has been or may have been compromised which impacts tactical operations.
      2. Conduct an immediate, thorough search in the event a document is missing.
  2. Personnel Security. Commanders report AWOL personnel who have access to classified information to the S2 at the brigade main CP.
  3. Counterespionage, Countersabotage, Countersubversion, Disaffection, or Compromise.
    1. Report all known or suspected activities of sabotage, subversion, espionage, disaffection, or compromise of friendly information to the unit intelligence officer.
    2. Segregate from other EPWs persons apprehended in the act of espionage, sabotage, subversion, disaffection, or compromise, or those found in circumstances that indicate they were employed covertly by the enemy.
  4. f. Enemy Prisoners of War.
    1. Use the five "Ss" (search, silence, segregate, safeguard, and speed to the rear) when processing EPWs.
    2. Tag EPWs and documents and material of possible intelligence value with the minimum following information: DTG, location of capture, capturing unit, and the circumstances of capture.
    3. Escort EPWs to the unit EPW collection point. Do not take EPWs near CPs, TOCs, FDCs, or radios.
      1. Committed battalions establish an active EPW collection point and designate one future EPW collection point near the MSR or supply route. The brigade S4 recommends the location of the brigade EPW collection point (and future location) to the brigade S3 for approval.
      2. Battalions must guard and evacuate captured EPWs to brigade collection points. The brigade S4 will coordinate with the division PM for transporting EPWs to the division collection point.
      3. Battalions evacuate wounded EPWs to battalion-level aid stations. The battalions will evacuate treated and released EPWs to the EPW collection point at brigade.
      4. Conduct tactical interrogation at the unit level only for information of immediate tactical value. Personnel must not unnecessarily delay evacuation of EPWs.
      5. To aid follow-on interrogation of EPWs:
        • Screen for NBC contamination and decontaminate as required.
        • Give medical aid as necessary.
        • Give food and water only to sustain life. Do not give EPWs comfort items such as candy or cigarettes.
        • Report EPW capture.
        • Guards and escorts should be firm but fair when dealing with EPWs. They must not allow other friendly personnel to conduct unnecessary conversations with the EPW.
        • Evacuate EPW in the following order:
          • Field grade or higher ranking officers.
          • Intelligence officers.
          • Security and chemical personnel.
          • Others.
    4. After interrogation, EPWs are placed in the following categories for evacuation:
      • Category A: EPWs of most interest, including general officers and persons with knowledge of intelligence, NBC, PSYOP, logistics, communications, and cryptographic operations.
      • Category B: EPWs of some limited intelligence value.
      • Category C: EPWs of no immediate tactical value.
      • Category D: EPWs of no intelligence value.
  5. Captured Documents and Equipment.
    1. As with EPWs, captured documents and equipment fall into these established categories. They are:
      • Category A: documents and equipment of immediate tactical or strategic value.
      • Category B: cryptographic items.
      • Category C: items of lesser value to intelligence.
      • Category D: items with no apparent value.
    2. Report enemy equipment that is new, unusual or NBC-related, or documents that appear to be of immediate tactical value.
    3. Tag captured documents and evacuate them by the fastest means. Do not mark or deface documents. Do not destroy documents unless recovery by the enemy is imminent. Never destroy captured medical supplies. Report any destruction of captured material.
    4. Contact the S4 for explosive ordnance disposal for assistance in the recovery and evacuation of captured munitions and explosives. Report with other captured materiel.
  6. Use of Challenge and Password.
    1. All assigned or attached units will use challenges and passwords found in current division SOIs.
    2. Change the challenge and password at 1200 hours each day.
  7. Reconnaissance and Surveillance.
    1. All units will conduct reconnaissance patrols unless otherwise directed.
    2. Battalions in contact must report information or intelligence derived from patrols to the S2 at the TAC CP.
    3. Battalion-level plans are submitted to the S2 at the main CP not later that one hour after the MSC occupies a static position. Units in the BSA submit plans directly to the FSB CP.

H-21. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Procedures.

  1. Mission-Oriented Protective Posture.
    1. The division will designate the minimum MOPP level. The brigade commander and battalion commanders may increase or decrease the MOPP level as needed, but they may not decrease the MOPP level below the established minimum level without prior approval by the next higher commander.
    2. MOPP Uniform. At the various levels of MOPP, soldiers must comply with Table H-13.

Table H-13. Standardized mission-oriented protection posture levels.
MOPP LEVELS
MOPP
Equipment
MOPP
READY
MASK
ONLY
MOPP
ZERO
MOPP
1
MOPP
2
MOPP
3
MOPP
4
Mask Carried Worn Carried Carried Carried Worn 1 Worn
Overgarment Ready 3 NOTE Available 4 Worn1 Worn 1 Worn 1 Worn
Vinyl Overboot Ready 3 NOTE Available 4 Available 4 Worn Worn Worn
Gloves Ready 3 NOTE Available 4 Available 4 Available 4 Available 4 Worn
Helmet
Protective Cover
Ready 3 NOTE Available 4 Available 4 Worn Worn Worn
Chemical
Protective
Undergarment
(CPU)
Ready 3 NOTE Available 4 Worn1 Worn1 Worn1 Worn1
  1. In hot weather, coat or hood can be left open for ventilation.
  2. The CPU is worn under the BDU (primarily applies to SOF) or CVC coveralls.
  3. Must be available to the soldier within two hours. Second set available in six hours.
  4. Within arms reach of soldier.
NOTE: Items can be ready or available at the commander's discretion.
  1. (continued)
    1. Mask Only. Mask only is a "by exception" level. This condition applies to soldiers in vans, tanks, and similar shelters not penetrable by any means. Soldiers do not need to wear protective overgarments or rubber gloves if they are protected from direct skin exposure to liquid or solid contamination.
  2. Required NBC Teams. Each battalion will establish the following NBC teams to support tactical operations:
    • NBC control party.
    • Radiological monitoring and survey teams.
    • Chemical survey team.
    • Chemical monitoring team.
    • Decontamination team.
  3. NBC Alarms and Warnings.
    1. Standard alarms within the brigade for NBC attack are:
      • Vocal: "GAS, GAS, GAS" for suspected chemical or biological attack; "FALLOUT" for arrival of radioactive fallout.
      • Sound: metal on metal.
      • Visual: hand-and-arm signals.
    2. Chemical Threat Warning. The chemical threat warning system reflects the latest intelligence estimate regarding the enemy's NBC activity. The brigade chemical officer, S2, and the S3 recommend the chemical THREATCON based on intelligence estimates and reports. The NBC Cell is responsible for disseminating the chemical threat serial.
    3. Chemical Threat Serial (see Table H-14).
Table H-14. Chemical threat serial.

SERIAL

PROBABILITY OF
ATTACK

RECOMMENDED MINIMUM
MOPP LEVEL

0
1
2
3
None
Low
Medium
High
0
0
1
2

  1. Nuclear, Biological, Chemical Reporting Procedures. Immediately notify the brigade main CP of the enemy's first use of NBC weapons. Use and transmit the prescribed NBC-1 message format to the NBC section. (Two positive M256 detector tests constitute positive identification of chemical agents.)
  2. Marking Contaminated Areas.
    1. The unit detecting the contamination will mark NBC-contaminated areas, using the standard markings prescribed in FM 3-3. Request assistance in NBC reconnaissance through the NBC section.
    2. Commanders may only elect not to mark contaminated areas to obtain a tactical advantage; they must advise any unit assuming responsibility for the area of contamination of its location.
    3. Changes in the status of contaminated areas are to be reported to the NBC section.

H-22. Engineer Procedures.

  1. The engineer battalion commander directs the missions of all engineers in the brigade AOs.
  2. Priority of transport of Class IV and V materiel to obstacle site is as follows:
    • Organic engineer units.
    • Supported unit.
    • Other units as directed.
  3. Countermobility Procedures.
    1. Temporary Obstacle Marking. As the engineer (or other) forces breach a lane, it must be marked in the following manner (use GPS to locate lane entrances).
      • Mark the right and left limit of the entrance with VS17 aircraft marking panels with the orange side facing friendly traffic. Use pickets, from 5 to 6 feet long, to form a tripod on which to attach the panel.
      • Use backup entrance markers (sections of empty T-rations containers) with the shiny side toward friendly traffic.
      • During reduced visibility, mark entrances with green and IR chemlights or both. Place chemlights in holders or otherwise modify them so they will be visible only to friendly traffic.
      • The day signal for traffic to proceed is purple smoke on the downwind edge of the open lane. Backup is a gray smoke grenade. There will be picket tripods every 25 meters or closer, as required, with engineer tape to define the limits of the lane.
      • The exit will be marked approximately 10 meters beyond the edge with picket tripods and panels with the red side facing traffic. Night signals will be red chemlights or IR and red chemlights in holders or otherwise modified to shine away from the enemy.
    2. STANAGs and minefield and/or obstacle marking methods must be observed as time and resources allow.
  4. Scatterable Mine Procedures.
    1. Long-duration scatterable minefields are emplaced only on approval of the division commander, the Assistant Division Commander for Maneuver (ADC-M), Chief of Staff, or G3.
    2. Short duration (anything under 6 hours) scatterable minefields may be delegated to task force commanders.
  5. Battalion Responsibilities.
    • Units guard all targets within their sectors of responsibility.
    • Units cover with fire all obstacles within their sectors of responsibility.
  6. Route Maintenance and Repair (Mobility). The brigade rear CP coordinates all requirements for route maintenance with the division rear CP.
  7. Standard Obstacle Packages (see Tables H-15 through H-21).

Table H-15. Triple standard concertina 100 meters.

DESCRIPTION

NUMBER

WEIGHT

CUBE

Pickets, Long (U-Shaped) 54 536 63.7
Wire, Barbed (Reel) 1 92 00.9
Pickets, Short (U-Shaped) 4 16 0.24
Concertina (Roll) 20 617 21.0
1,261 85.84

Table H-16. Abatis (20 in dia trees) or bridge demolition (2-lane, class 60).

DESCRIPTION

NUMBER

WEIGHT

CUBE

Explosive, C4 173 lbs 173 3.6
Detonating Cord 1,000 ft 77 0.6
Time Fuze 20 ft 5.1 .
Nonelectric Caps 19 neg neg
Electric Caps 1 neg neg
Fuze Lighter 1 neg neg
Mine, AT M15 8 398 9.5
Mine, AP M16 8 90 1.6
743 15.3

Table H-17. Road crater M-180.

DESCRIPTION

NUMBER

WEIGHT

CUBE

Demo Kit M180 5 895 32.20
Mine, AT M15 6 294 7.00
Mine, AP M16 4 45 0.79
1,234 39.99

Table H-18. Road crater standard (31 by 18 by 6 feet).

DESCRIPTION

NUMBER

WEIGHT

CUBE

40-lb Shape Charge 7 455 13.10
40-lb Crater Charge 7 364 9.66
1-lb TNT (Booster) 7 neg neg
Detonating Cord 350 ft 7 .90
Time Fuze 20 ft neg neg
Electric Delay Caps 1 neg neg
Electric Caps 1 neg neg
Nonelectric Caps 1 neg neg
Fuze Lighter 1 neg neg
Mine, AT M15 6 294 7.08
Mine, AP M16 4 45 0.79
1,185 31.53

Table H-19. Row minefield M-15 (100 by 10 meters); three-strip surface laid.

DESCRIPTION

NUMBER

WEIGHT

CUBE

Mine AT M-15 100 4,900 120.0

Table H-20. Survivability positions (15).

DESCRIPTION

NUMBER

WEIGHT

CUBE

Sheet 3/4-inch Plywood 15 960 30.0
Pickets, Short (U) 120 480 7.2
Sandbags, Unit 6,000 1,500 60.0
2,940 97.2

Table H-21. Demolition pack.

DESCRIPTION

NUMBER

WEIGHT

CUBE

Explosive C4 173 lbs 173 3.6
Detonating Cord 1,000 ft 154 1.2
Time Fuze 20 ft 10 0.2
Nonelectric Caps 19 neg neg
Electric Caps 1 neg neg
Fuze Lighter 1 neg neg
327 5.0

H-23. Fire Support.

  1. Purpose. To direct procedures for the coordination and control of FS assets available to the brigade.
  2. Target Numbering System (see Figures H-22 through H-26). All the division's indirect-fire targets will be designated by a two-letter, four-digit number. The letters "I" and "O" are not used because they can be confused with numbers. The first letter is assigned to the corps. The second letter is assigned within the division according to Table H-22.

Table H-22. Second letter assignments.
. Division
Division Artillery
1st Brigade
2d Brigade
3d Brigade
Aviation Brigade
A
B
C
D
E
F

Table H-23. Assignment of blocks of numbers for brigade echelons.

NUMBER

ASSIGNED TO

. 0001-1999 Fire Support Cell
2000-2999 Fire Support Officer, Lowest Number
Maneuver Battalion or Squadron
3000-3999 Fire Support Officer, Second Lowest
Numbered Maneuver Battalion
or Squadron
4000-4999 Fire Support Officer, Third Lowest Numbered
Maneuver Battalion or Squadron
5000-6999 Additional Fire Support Officers
7000-7999 Fire Direction Center, Direct Support Artillery
8000-8999 Counterfire Targets

Table H-24. Subassignment of blocks of number for battalion echelons.

NUMBER

ASSIGNED TO

. 000-199 Fire Support Cell
200-299 FIST, Company A
300-399 FIST, Company B
400-499 FIST, Company C
500-599 FIST, Company D
600-699 FIST, Company E
700-799 Additional FISTs and COLTs
800-899 Battalion Mortar Platoon, Scouts, or Howitzer Battery
900-999 As Required

Table H-25. Target number assignments for division troops.
Cavalry Squadron
Rear Command Post Fire Support Element
Tactical Command Post Fire Support Element
Engineer Brigade
Air Defense Artillery Battalion
Military Intelligence Battalion
Main Command Post Fire Support Element
A 0001-0499
A 0500-0999
A 1000-1249
A 1250-1499
A 1500-1749
A 1750-1999
A 2000-9999

Table H-26. Current laser pulse repetition frequency code distribution.
1st Brigade Fire Support Officer
2d Brigade Fire Support Officer
3d Brigade Fire Support Officer
Aviation Brigade Fire Support Officer
.
Cavalry Squadron Fire Support Officer
Division Left Flank
Division Right Flank
Division Fire Support Element (Reserve)
351-358, 361-368, 371-378, 381-388
171-178, 181-188, 211-218, 221-226, 341-348
231-238, 241-248, 251-258, 331-338
261-268, 271-278, 281-288, 311-318, 321-328, 411-418
441-448, 451-458
111-118
121-128, (allocated in plans and orders)
421-428, 431-438

  1. Laser Pulse Codes. In the division, laser pulse codes will be managed by the division's FSE, including codes for attack helicopters.

H-24. Army Aviation Procedures.

  1. Attack Helicopter Battalion.
    1. The mission of the attack helicopter battalion is to destroy massed, moving, enemy armored and mechanized forces and other forces with aerial firepower, mobility, and shock effect. The attack helicopter is a combat maneuver unit. It is normally employed as a battalion and uses aerial firepower and maneuver to mass combat power alone or to complement other maneuver forces as a member of the combined arms team. Attack helicopter units also perform reconnaissance and security missions.
    2. The commander tactically employs the attack helicopter battalion through coordination of attack helicopter companies, CS, and CSS elements. The missions that an attack helicopter battalion can expect to be employed on are varied, but the three methods of employment are:
      • Continuous Attack. This method of attack exerts constant pressure on the enemy throughout the battle. It is characterized by one company in the battle, a second company in a holding area ready to provide relief and the third company in the FARP. This method of attack provides the most flexible and efficient use of FARPs.
      • Phased Attack. This method of attack increases the initial firepower of the battalion on the enemy. It is characterized by initially employing one company to start the attack with the second company quickly phased into the battle from a different BP. When either of the first two companies is low on fuel or ammo, the third company is phased into the attack to continue the battle. One FARP may support the attack, however, the use of two FARPs is more responsive.
      • Maximum Destruction. This method enables the commander to deliver as much combat power as possible into the battle and overwhelm the enemy with massed fires. It is characterized by employing all three companies simultaneously from different BPs. Depending on the location and efficiency of the FARP, the entire battalion may be out of the battle for 20 to 90 minutes after expending fuel or ammunition.
    3. The following are critical aspects of attack helicopter operations:
      • The mission statement for attack missions should include the objective, objective location, and the expected results of the attack (destroy, attrit, disrupt, overwatch, or deny/delay avenues of approach).
      • When used as a main or supporting attack, attack helicopter units should have their own axis of advance (separate from the ground maneuver force axis of advance).
      • Firing positions for attack helicopters should be at least 1 kilometer apart from each other.
      • Attack helicopters -
        • Are capable of attacking targets within 500 meters of friendly troops.
        • Have the capability to destroy moving-point targets.
        • Can deliver, guide, or help guide smart laser munitions.
        • Are vulnerable to enemy air defense and counterair.
        • Have limited loiter times before having to return for fuel.
        • May sometimes sacrifice destruction of armored systems to carry rockets to destroy "soft" targets.
  2. Assault Helicopter Battalion.
    1. Assault helicopters are used to accomplish a variety of missions. The versatility, agility, and speed of assault helicopters performing combat (air assault), CS, and CSS missions can be a significant combat multiplier to any ground commander employing those assets.
    2. The commander tactically employs the assault helicopter battalion in the following ways:
      • Air Assault Operations. Air assaults are deliberately and precisely planned and executed combined arms operations. Assaults allow the air assault task force to strike over extended distances, terrain barriers, and man-made barriers to attack the enemy when and where he is most vulnerable, using speed and surprise as its main weapon.
      • CS Missions. Assault helicopters performing air movement missions transport combat forces whose main mission is to engage and destroy enemy forces. These operations differ from air assaults in command and control relationships and in classification of the mission. Air movements do not usually result in the task organization of aviation assets as a member of the combined arms team (air assaults generally do). Aviation assets are not considered to be maneuver assets when performing air movements. Other CS missions performed include command and control missions where the aircraft will act as the commanders airborne command center or AIRTAC and combat search and rescue. While these missions will take the aircraft into a combat situation, they are not combat missions.
      • CSS Missions. CSS air movements are those involving the use of Army airlift assets for other than air assault or CS operations. As with CS air movements, they do not generally result in task organization of aviation assets into the combined arms team. These air movements, conducted only in the close and rear battle areas, are commonly used to transport troops, equipment, ammunition, fuel, and supplies around the battlefield.
    3. The following are critical aspects of assault helicopter operations:
      • The maneuver unit must provide the ground tactical plan, commanders intent, and graphics to the unit supporting the mission.
      • Take sun and lunar data into account when selecting PZs and especially LZs. Landing into a full moon close to the horizon on night-vision goggles is like flying unaided.
      • Take into account the advantages of single versus multiple LZs listed in FM 90-4 when developing the landing plan. When fighting an armored or mechanized force, the LZ must be placed in armor/mechanized restrictive terrain to prevent the antiarmor task force from being trapped on the LZ.
      • The ground commander must provide his "abort criteria." That is, how many aircraft loads he can afford to lose before the mission will probably fail and should be called off.
      • The ground maneuver unit must provide the LO with a loading plan/airloading table, bump plan, and air movement table for the mission.
      • Coordinate for Pathfinder support, if available. Pathfinders can provide PZ/LZ clearing, marking, and even set up a tactical nondirectional beacon at a RP, if coordinated.
      • Select and secure the LZ or PZ.
      • Provide LZ and PZ control, six-digit grid location of LZ and PZ, and frequencies and call signs to the aviation unit.
      • Brief the aviation POC on the current enemy and friendly situations, FS measures, and control measures.
      • Provide slings, nets, and a qualified rigger for external loads.
      • Provide ground guides and hook-up personnel for external-load operations.
  3. Air Cavalry Squadron.
    1. The divisional cavalry/air reconnaissance squadron performs the full range of reconnaissance (route, zone, area), limited security (screen), and other operations (passage of lines/battle handover, facilitate movement, restore command and control, area damage control, economy of force, and deception operations) for the division commander. In essence, it is the eyes and ears of the division. In the light division, it also gives the commander an additional resource that can deliver mobile, reactive firepower.
    2. The commander tactically employs the air cavalry squadron through the full range of reconnaissance, security, and other operations with some limitations on specific missions.
      1. An air cavalry squadron will require augmentation to conduct a guard mission. METT-T and the degree of protection required determines the amount of augmentation.
      2. The only cavalry organization that can do a cover without considerable augmentation is the armored cavalry regiment.
  4. Aviation Planning Factors (see Tables H-27 through H-31).

Table H-27. AH-64.

ARMAMENT

Hellfire Missile 8,000 m
Rocket Hydra 70 9,000 m
Gun 30 mm 4,000 m

OPTICS

TADS/DAY TV Lowlight, Daytime
TADS/FLIR Day, Night, Weather

NAVIGATION

Heading attitude reference
system (combination of
inertial navigation and
Doppler navigation). Also,
GPS in most models.
.

FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS

Max Speed (Level) 164 knots
Normal Cruise 100 knots
Deep, X-FLOT 120 knots
Endurance 2:30

Table H-28. AH-1.

ARMAMENT

TOW Missile 3,750 m
Rocket Hydra 70 9,000 m
Gun 20 mm 1,500 m

OPTICS

Telescopic Sight Unit Day Only
See-Night FLIR Day, Night, FLIR

NAVIGATION

Doppler

FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS

Max Speed (Level) 140 knots
Normal Cruise 100 knots
X-FLOT 120 knots
Endurance 1:45

Table H-29. OH-58D.

ARMAMENT

Hellfire Missile 8,000 m
ATA Stinger 5,000 m
Rocket Range Hydra 70 7,000 m
Gun .50 cal 1,600 m

OPTICS

Mast Mounted Stinger Day, Night, Weather
Pilots use ANVIS-6 to fly the aircraft at night. .

NAVIGATION

Attitude heading reference system
similar to AH-64, but considered better.
.

FLIGHT
CHARACTERISTICS

Max Speed (Level) 125 knots
Normal Cruise 100 knots
Endurance 2:30

Table H-30. UH-60.

ARMAMENT

Two M60D 7.62 MGs (self-protection only) .

OPTICS

Pilots use ANVIS-6 to fly the aircraft at night. .

NAVIGATION

Doppler Navigation or GPS .

FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS

Max Speed (Level) 156 KNOTS
Normal Cruise 120-145 KNOTS
Endurance 2:15

TRANSPORTATION CAPABILITIES

EMPTY GW INCL
CREW/FUEL
MAX GW MAX HOOK
UH-60A 14,000 20,250 8,000
UH-60L 14,250 22,000 10,000

Table H-31. CH-47D.

ARMAMENT

Two M60D 7.62 MGs (self-protection only) .

OPTICS

Pilots use ANVIS-6 to fly the aircraft at night. .

NAVIGATION

Doppler Navigation or GPS .

FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS

Max Speed (Level) 170 KNOTS
Normal Cruise 120-145 KNOTS
Endurance 2:30

TRANSPORTATION CAPABILITIES

EMPTY GW INCL
CREW/FUEL
MAX GW MAX HOOK
CH-47D 30,000 50,000 26,000


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