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Military


FM 71-3
The Armored and Mechanized Infantry Brigade


APPENDIX E
DIGITIZATION OF THE COMBINED ARMS BRIGADE


This appendix provides the conceptual underpinnings of digital warfighting at the brigade level. It is forward reaching in a number of areas. This appendix describes the potential of enhanced tactics, systems, and organizations to increasing lethality, tempo, and survivability. This appendix also describes characteristics of a flexible battlefield framework, where forces are arrayed in a noncontiguous and asymmetrical manner. The enabling means of this new style of warfighting is the enhancement of the flow of relevant combat information through digital networking.

The term "digitized" is used throughout this appendix to refer to fully-modernized units possessing digital command and control systems. Digitized units addressed in this appendix contain the full suite of Force XXI legacy systems, including:

  • The M1A2 Abrams.
  • The M2A3 BFV.
  • The BSFV.
  • The Avenger.
  • The command and control vehicle (C2V).
  • The Army battle command system (ABCS).
  • ASAS.
  • The UAV.
  • Enhanced mortar systems.
  • The Paladin/Crusader artillery system.
  • MLRS and improved firefinder system.
  • Intelligent minefield system (wide area munition [WAM]).

The digitized brigade described is composed of forces equipped with the most sophisticated automated command and control systems available. Significant enhancements in information sharing and management, among and within combat units, create conditions to improve TTPs. The digital flow of information on the battlefield results in an exponential increase in situation awareness or the ability to see the terrain, enemy, and friendly forces. Given this capability, tactical units may organize and employ themselves differently to optimize this advantage over potential adversaries. This same capability enables friendly commanders to possess an unprecedented level of control over battlefield activities both friendly and enemy.



CONTENTS
Section I. Introduction to Digitization
Section II. Digitized Doctrine and Training
Section III. Digitization of the Mounted Combined Arms Brigade
Section IV. Digitized Tactical Operations

SECTION I. INTRODUCTION TO DIGITIZATION

GENERAL

Digitization of the Army provides the combined arms commander and his staff the capability to effectively plan, coordinate, and direct the battle. This capability is derived from several digital systems that allow the entire organization to rapidly share information. These digital systems operate within the ABCS.

ARMY BATTLE COMMAND SYSTEM

The exact nature and scope of future operations cannot be predetermined. Therefore, the ABCS must be flexible to meet the full range of potential mission requirements. One aspect of this flexibility is that traditional allocations of functions to specific echelons are not static. As an example, commanders at echelons as low as battalion may be in the role of a joint task force commander in a humanitarian aid or peacekeeping mission in an underdeveloped country. In this role, they need functionality and connectivity to systems as associated with the theater commander. Another aspect driving this flexibility is the need to functionally reconfigure individual ABCS workstations as operations transition from one phase to another or as the roles and responsibilities of individuals and organizations change.

The ABCS consists of the commander, staff, doctrine, procedures and tools used to command and control forces on the tactical battlefield. The system supports both the exercise of command and imposition of control of the combined arms team. The ABCS supports the command and control processes across the range of military operations. It allows the commander and staff to:

  • Collect and organize large amounts of information.
  • Combine information from multiple sources to create more complete and useful information.
  • Process information to analyze trends, detect unusual activities, or predict a future situation.
  • Develop COA based on situational factors.
  • Exchange information efficiently among and within CPs on the battlefield.
  • Present information as graphic displays and textual summaries.

The ABCS provides automation support to commanders and their staff at each cell based on the mission and phase of operations. ABCS provides seamless connectivity from the tactical level to the national command authority using Army, Joint, and Allied standard communications. ABCS will be used regularly within garrison, during redeployment, and in the field to maintain the soldiers' proficiency at the level required to respond to the broad range of potential missions. The ABCS is composed of the following components.

Army Global Command and Control System

The AGCCS is the Army component of the global command and control system (GCCS). It will be built from applications developed by the Army worldwide military command and control system (WWMCCS), Army worldwide information system (AWIS), the standard theater Army command and control system (STACCS), and the combat service support control system for echelons above corps (CSSCS-EAC). AGCCS will provide a suite of modular applications to support logistics, medical, personnel, theater Army special operations, mobilization and deployment, Army status of readiness and training, transportation asset management, and others.

Army Tactical Command and Control System

The Army tactical command and control system (ATCCS) is the integration of five battlefield functional area command and control systems (BFACS), providing situational information and decision support to commanders and staffs in the execution of the operational/tactical battle at corps and below. Within this integration of systems, the force level data base first takes form at the battalion to meet the tactical commanders requirements for common picture and situational awareness. The BFACSs are heavily oriented toward combat operations.

Force XXI Battle Command - Brigade and Below

The Force XXI battle command brigade and below (FBCB2 ) is both a system and a concept to be used by combat, CS, and CSS units across all BOSs while performing missions through the operational continuum at the tactical level. FBCB2 is a battlefield, battle command information support system supported by existing and emerging communications, sensors, and electrical power sources.

The FBCB2 is the implementation of information age technology providing increased battlefield operational capabilities. When combined with changes in doctrine and organizational design made possible by these technologies and placed in the hands of soldiers/leaders who are trained in their use, FBCB2 provides increased battlefield operational capability. Battle command in a digitized brigade requires developing new initiatives across doctrine, training, leader development, organizations, and materiel to manage information resources achieving the maximum benefits for tactical operations. FBCB2 will provide horizontal and vertical integration of the data and information generation and processing capabilities of individual soldiers as well as weapons, sensors, and support platforms. As a component of ABCS, the FBCB2 will interoperate with battlefield automated systems (BAS) in compliance with GCCS and all appropriate BASs in common operating systems as specified by GCCS. FBCB2 must interoperate with and exchange information with all ABCS battlefield functional areas (BFA).


SECTION II. DIGITIZED DOCTRINE AND TRAINING

With the publication of FM 100-5 in June 1993, a new typology, or framework for expressing tactical doctrine, was born. This new framework is termed "capability-based" and differs from the threat-based doctrine of Air Land Battle. The significant characteristic of capabilities-based doctrine is that tactical procedures are not optimized against one specific threat. Instead, tactical procedures are where they can be applied to varying threats and differing battlefield circumstances. Capability-based doctrine provides TTP as a set of common decision factors to assist in thinking and deciding upon battle actions.

Another significant distinction of capability-based doctrine is its complementary relationship with the commanders intent. Capability-based TTP serve as implementing actions taken to execute the intent of the unit commander. As such, digital operations are distinguished from conventional operations in that they place a greater emphasis on the commanders intent. This distinction is matched by the digital communications capability of the brigade.

This appendix uses the capability-based typology. In an effort to improve the clarity of expressing new concepts and TTP, comparisons are often used between conventionally-equipped and digitally-equipped units. Remember that digital units equate to the full suite of capabilities, not solely its command and control enhancements. Additionally, the coexistence of embedded and applique (bolt-on) digital systems within the Army today requires TTP to focus on general functionality and capabilities, since procedures between the two differ.

The objective of the capability-based doctrine development process is to publish refined TTP parallel to system and software developments. Like the commander's intent, unit TSOPs also increase in importance among digitally-equipped units. Digitized units are required to use their TSOPs as instruments to integrate new systems into their organization. Furthermore, unit TSOPs serve as bridges between employing individual systems and fighting the unit as a whole.


SECTION III. DIGITIZATION OF THE MOUNTED COMBINED ARMS BRIGADE

The digitized brigade possesses an increased capability to achieve success across the entire range of military operations. From large-scale combat operations to national assistance and disaster relief, the digitized brigade will have an increased capability to deliver combat power in any environment.

The digitized brigade provides unique capabilities that are distinctly different from its conventional predecessor. Emerging capabilities provide a new warfighting facet to commanders at both the tactical and operational levels. This section addresses new capabilities and limitations in generic terms. Since the development and fielding of new and enhanced systems are ongoing and dynamic, the specific characteristics of emerging systems will not be discussed in depth.

CHARACTERISTICS

The digitized brigade conducts precision mounted engagements and battles during conflict and war, and various activities during OOTW. The digitized brigade achieves tactical, operational, and in some cases, strategic objectives as part of a larger force. The brigade is uniquely capable of conducting continuous mobile operations at a high tempo with great lethality and survivability that inflict decisive effects upon an adversary.

As the building block of modular combat power, the digitized brigade conducts operations that entail the application of combat power from mobile weapon and support system platforms in a way that destroys the enemy, simultaneously in depth and decisively (ground and aerial). Embedded in these systems is the capability to plan and rehearse on the move and to more rapidly mass effects anywhere on the battlefield. They provide rapid, continuous operations (day or night ) at a high tempo. These systems also provide a common, shared situational awareness that enables commanders and staffs to make more informed decisions faster. These operations rely on mechanization and technology during their employment to maximize mobility, firepower, protection, and control. Digitized mounted forces are characterized by the ability to project, deliver, and sustain combat power in a rapid, highly lethal, and survivable manner. These forces conduct reconnaissance while mounted and dismounted, and close with and defeat enemy forces. The digitized brigade possesses sufficient combat power and leadership to control large areas of terrain in order to dominate adversaries within hostile, land-based environments during war and OOTW.

The digitized brigade is more than a technologically advanced organization. Enhancements made to TTP, organizational design, and innovative training methods are equally important to the collective effectiveness of the brigade as the technological systems it possesses. Technology is but one factor in increasing the combat potential of the brigade as a tactical organization. Technological change serves as an enabler of both enduring and new capabilities which the leadership of the US Army desires its land combat force to possess for the twenty-first century.

CORE FUNCTIONS

The digitized brigades organization, equipment, and training enable it to perform the functions outlined in the following paragraphs for the tactical and operational commander.

Project, Deploy, and Redeploy Mounted Combat Power

The digitized brigade is a strategically mobile force that can swiftly deploy in response to national command authority (NCA) directives. The brigade deploys in a streamlined fashion as delineated in FM 100-17, the Army's keystone manual for doctrine on deployment, utilizing the joint operation planning and execution system (JOPES) and the time-phased force development process (time-phased force and deployment data [TPFDD] and time-phased force and deployment logistics [TPFDL]). Theater onward movement is a complex, transitional phase of the deployment process. Timely transition from theater arrival to establishing a tactical posture is critical in an environment where adversaries attempt to prevent massive troop buildup in their region. The digitized brigade rapidly merges its soldiers and equipment, reconfigures and tailors units, conducts marshaling and staging area activities, and moves to tactical assembly areas during this critical phase. The digitized brigade achieves this through links to CSS systems that allow it to prepare faster by sharing and updating information and data bases while in transit. The digitized brigade conducts rapid recovery and redeployment upon mission accomplishment.

Conduct Decisive Operations

The digitized brigade performs combat operations to achieve decisive outcomes for the tactical and operational commander. Digitized brigades operate as part of a larger force to fight engagements and battles that defeat the adversary's will and destroy his means of resistance. Decisive operations are conducted at an accelerated tempo, and orchestrated in a near-simultaneous manner to deny the adversary options to counter friendly actions against him. These operations value the rapid defeat of enemy formations by the effects of dominating maneuver and firepower to achieve objectives quickly and with minimal casualties and collateral damage. The digitized brigade attacks and defends during decisive operations.

Conduct Security Operations

Upon conflict termination, the digitized brigade conducts post-conflict operations. This period is characterized by residual combat activity still underway within the theater of operations. Various activities and missions are conducted during this period to restore order, reestablish host-nation infrastructure, organize and control buffer zones, and prepare for hand-over to peacekeeping forces. The digitized brigade possesses the versatility needed to accomplish critical tasks during this lethal transition period.

Conduct Information Operations

The digitized brigade performs tactical operations for the purpose of gaining or denying information for the combatant commander. The digitized brigade is uniquely capable of performing tactical missions that achieve tactical, operational, or strategic outcomes for the purpose of determining enemy information capabilities as well as degrading these capabilities to establish friendly information superiority. The digitized brigade performs information operations to support the combatant commander in setting the conditions for decisive operations. These operations and activities include tactical deception, EW, R&S, target acquisition, OPSEC and physical destruction of enemy information systems.

Conduct Operations Other Than War

The digitized brigade is capable of conducting various OOTW activities. The modular command and control and logistics systems of the brigade make it an attractive force package to plug into ad hoc task organizations commonly employed in these operations. The specific roles and missions of the mounted force in OOTW are still maturing.

CAPABILITIES

The digitized brigade possesses new and enhanced capabilities separate from its predecessor. In addition to those of the conventional brigade, the digitized force possesses the capabilities outlined in the following paragraphs.

Enhanced Command, Control, and Communications

The digitized brigade exploits its automated C3 system to maintain an increased level of situational awareness and to make more informed decisions regarding tactical employment. Automated information functions allow better staff integration and synchronization of combat multipliers with maneuver forces during the conduct of combined arms operations. C3 enhancements make the digitized force more adaptive to interface with differing higher headquarters, such as a parent division, other divisions, a corps headquarters, or a joint task force headquarters. The employment of ASAS provides a revolutionary new capability for tactical commanders to access and use national and theater intelligence products.

Space and aerial-based communication systems provide a significant communication enhancement to the digitized brigade. It greatly extends the effective ranges of vehicular communications systems, which facilitates tactical dispersion without loss of control. The use of local and wide area networks and combat net radio enhances the tactical organizations flow of information and expands the level of control of the commander.

Fights Tactical Engagements

The digitized brigade is capable of conducting decisive engagements at an increased operational tempo. The brigade transitions between missions at an accelerated rate, to create a momentum that enemy forces cannot contend with. The digitized brigade exploits its capability of continuous, rapid operations to gain and maintain control of battlefield activities, time, and physical space.

The digitized brigade uses all its enhanced capabilities to maximize the effectiveness of its combat power at the decisive points on the battlefield. Technological, organizational, and procedural enhancements facilitate efficient use of combat multipliers, in a synchronous fashion, to create an overwhelming effect on the adversary. The brigade uses its enhanced C3 capability to better integrate joint assets into tactical operations.

Technological Superiority

The digital brigade brings increased lethality to the modern battlefield. This recognition may serve as a viable deterrent in preventing escalation of future regional crises once a technological force is committed in theater. The presence of a technologically superior tactical force in a crisis theater may prevent a crisis from escalating to the level of combat, or buy time for political solutions to take effect. If escalation occurs, the digitized force is poised to rapidly conduct tactical operations to meet military objectives.

Operational Maneuver

The digitized brigade can conduct deep, independent maneuver to achieve operational objectives for the combatant commander. Enhanced mobility, situational awareness, and protection capabilities enable the digitized brigade to maneuver to positions of operational or tactical advantage in depth. Once in position, the digitized brigade possesses sufficient protection and firepower to dominate the physical space for periods of time determined by its sustainment methods.

Influence Greater Volume Of Physical Space

The digitized brigade is capable of influencing a larger volume of physical space than conventional units. Greater situational awareness of the tactical situation and environment allows the digitized brigade to operate at greater distances without loss of command and control. Greater dispersion facilitates control of a larger area of the battlefield, as well as denying an adversary the ability to determine friendly intentions by templating. The empowerment of subordinates caused by digitization makes subordinate tactical units more capable of independent action. Two factors that relate to the expansion of physical or battle space are the ability to see or know the environment and the lethal reach or strike range of the unit. The elements of know and strike are not the sole determinants of a commanders physical battle space.

Force Modularity

The digitized brigade has the unique ability to tailor its organizational structure to meet mission demands without reduction in command and control and sustainment functions. The adaptive use of automated networks allows the digitized brigade to reconfigure itself in numerous variations without loss of situational awareness or force coherence. This pliability extends to the capability of operating under different headquarters. Commanders of the digitized brigade must consider human factors and the implications to leadership and cohesion when using this capability. The digitized brigade is more effective than conventional forces in integrating attached assets and systems into missions and operations which it is controlling.

Precision Movement and Maneuver

The digitized brigade possesses significant enhancements in the area of precision navigation. Automated terrain analysis systems and improved terrain imagery products increase the brigades knowledge of the geographic environment. Global positioning systems (GPS) and position navigation systems embedded in weapons platforms enable the force to move with unprecedented precision. The results of this capability are:

  • Increased effectiveness in synchronizing the movement and maneuver of forces.
  • Hazard avoidance such as contaminants, obstacles, and refugees.
  • Accurate battle reporting (location).
  • Enhanced planning and engaging of targets.

When this capability is integrated with information and combined arms tactics, the digitized brigade possesses a precision maneuver capability unmatched by conventional mounted forces.

Enhanced Force Protection

The digitized brigade is capable of employing multiple force protection measures to increase the survivability of the force. The digital battle command system provides the brigade with early warning of hostile activity and the means to respond. This enhanced command and control capability allows the brigade to maximize tactical dispersion for protection and to converge or mass when needed. This translates into a greater ability to achieve tactical deception and OPSEC. Additionally, the precision movement capability mentioned earlier reaps significant benefits in avoiding hazardous areas common to the modern battlefield and enhances its potential to achieve surprise during combat operations.

Lethality

Preliminary simulation exercises and field trials demonstrate that digitized forces have greater means to turn potential combat power into actual combat power on the competitive battlefield. This capability is enabled primarily by situational awareness enhancements of seeing the enemy, friendly units, and the terrain. The FBCB2 system also gives the digitized force improved means to execute actions based on the enhanced situational awareness the unit shares. Because of these enhancements, digitized commanders can transfer a greater amount of potential combat power, particularly the effects of firepower, to actual decisive points (time and place) on the battlefield than non-digitized units.

Versatile Employment

Future combat operations will be conducted within various battlefield frameworks at the operational and tactical levels. These frameworks will range from linear or symmetrical patterns to the nonlinear or fluid. The fluid battlefield framework poses significant challenges to conventional units in the areas of force protection, fratricide, command and control and sustainment. The enhancements made in these areas by digitization enable the brigade to better adapt and operate within the fluid environment.

WEAPON SYSTEMS

Mounted Maneuver Platforms

The mounted direct-fire maneuver platform system provides significant improvements in lethality, survivability and fightability required to defeat advanced threats. Improvements include a commanders independent thermal viewer, an independent commanders weapon station, position navigation equipment, a distributed data and power architecture, and a radio interface unit that allows the user to rapidly transfer situational data and overlays to compatible systems on the digital battlefield.

The lightly armored direct-fire maneuver platform provides cross-country mobility, mounted firepower, and protection from artillery and small-arms fire to mounted and cavalry operations, and support to dismounted operations. It also possesses the capability to interface with the other maneuver platforms on the digital battlefield. It will possess the following capabilities:

  • Command and control and navigation software.
  • Digital communications.
  • Commanders independent thermal viewer.
  • Combat identification system.
  • Digital logistics reporting.

Line-of-Sight Antitank

The line-of-sight antitank (LOSAT) system provides antitank fire to fix and destroy enemy armored formations. The LOSAT consists of a kinetic-energy missile (KEM) launcher mounted on an armored vehicle chassis. The key attraction of LOSAT is the tremendous overmatch lethality of the KEM that defeats all future predicted armored combat vehicles.

Indirect Fire Platform

The indirect fire platform system provides the primary indirect FS to the digitized brigade. This system includes

  • An on-board ballistic computer and navigation system.
  • Secure radio communications.
  • An improved cannon and gun mount.
  • Automatic gun positioning.
  • Automotive improvements.
  • Improved ballistics.
  • NBC protection.
  • Drivers night sight capability.
  • Built-in test equipment.

The indirect fire platform has improved responsiveness, survivability, lethality, and reliability.

Advanced Field Artillery Systems and Future Armored Resupply Vehicle

The advanced field artillery systems (AFAS) and future armored resupply vehicle (FARV) are the Army's next generation indirect fire cannon and artillery systems for the mounted force. Together, these systems provide an overmatching firepower capability that will support the force commanders goal of dominating the maneuver battle. They incorporate advanced technologies to increase accuracy, rate of fire, survivability, and ammunition handling speed. These systems also decrease crew size.

Multiple Launch Rocket System

The multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) is a free flight, area free, artillery rocket system that supplements cannon artillery fires by delivering large volumes of firepower in a short time against critical, time-sensitive targets. The MLRS accommodates the launching of a new family of munitions, including the Army TACMS.

Air Defense Platforms

Avenger

The Avenger is a lightweight surface-to-air missile/gun weapon system mounted on a HMMWV. It is operated by a two-man crew for air defense in daylight or at night, and in clear or adverse weather conditions. The system incorporates an operators position with displays, fire control electronics, and the Stinger vehicle-mounted launcher.

Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle

The BSFV is a lethal weapons platform that enhances the firepower and survivability of air defense assets on the battlefield. The capabilities of BSFV mounted and dismounted weapons systems are designated to be used primarily in an air defense role. The Stinger is the primary air defense weapon in the BSFV. It is used during engagements against fixed-wing and rotary-wing targets. The 25-mm chain gun complements Stinger capabilities of the BSFV. When the Stinger team is dismounted, the 25-mm gun provides coverage for the Stinger teams dead space. The coaxial-mounted machine gun is used against air and ground targets.

Man-Portable Antitank System (Javelin)

The man-portable antitank system provides high lethality against conventional and reactive armor. It will replace the Dragon. The Javelin consists of two major components: a reusable command and launch unit (CLU) and a missile sealed in a disposable launch tube assembly. The command launch capability incorporates an integrated day/night sight and provides target engagement capability in adverse weather and countermeasure environments. The CLU may be used in the stand-alone mode for battlefield surveillance and target detection. The system weighs less than 49 pounds and has a maximum range of 2,000 meters. The Javelin's key feature is its utilization of fire-and-forget technology.

The Dismounted Soldier

The dismounted soldier is equipped with a comprehensive protective ensemble that will provide the individual soldier, whether mounted or dismounted, the best protection available from enemy fires, battlefield hazards, and the environment. It will enhance the individual warrior and small-unit operational effectiveness through a modular system that integrates miniature electronic components for command, control, and communications; computers; and intelligence. The system will also include the following:

  • Head-mounted displays.
  • Wide field of vision mobility sensors.
  • Thermal sight with integrated eye-safe laser rangefinder and compass.
  • Combat identification.
  • Personal status monitor.
  • Chemical agent sensors.
  • Medical monitoring.
  • Lightweight power sources for microclimatic conditioning.
  • Small arms ballistic protection.
  • Integrated chemical-biological respiratory protection.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS

The Digital Battle Command System

Information is the single most important ingredient in support of the commanders intent and the integration of combat functions in terms of time, space, and purpose. This overarching automated software communications system supports the digitized brigade with a seamless, streamlined, and simple to use information system. This system enhances battle command down to the individual soldier and weapon systems. It is capable of obtaining information from data bases both vertically and horizontally, without formally requesting that information through command channels. The commander has the capability to pull information from other data bases to keep current with the rapid changes of a dynamic battlefield. The proliferation of battlefield automation systems coupled with the tempo of operations necessitates the holistic integration of the digital battle command system as an integrated, interoperable seamless system. This system enhances the commanders ability to see a detailed picture of the battlefield, to maximize force survivability, and to facilitate integration of combat functions within the brigade organization. It also permits the communication of the commanders vision of the battlefield and facilitates the dissemination and understanding of the commanders intent. Characteristics of this system include:

  • On-the-move operations.
  • Digital map capability.
  • High throughput capability.
  • Universal protocols.
  • Modular capability.
  • Still frame or video imagery capability.
  • Redundancy.
  • Universal platform integration capability.

Intelligence System

The intelligence system will provide combat leaders the all source intelligence needed to view the battlefield and more effectively conduct the land battle. It is designed to operate in a joint environment across the spectrum of conflict. This intelligence system provides a tactically deployable automation and data processing capability in order to:

  • Receive and correlate data from strategic and tactical intelligence sources/sensors.
  • Produce enemy situation displays.
  • Disseminate intelligence information.
  • Nominate targets.
  • Manage collection requirements.
  • Provide OPSEC support.

Indirect Fires Data System

The indirect fires data system is the multiservice automated FS command and control and communication system that satisfies the FS command and control operations requirements. This system provides integrated, automated support for the planning, coordination, and control of all FS assets (FA, mortars, CAS, NGF, attack helicopters, and offensive EW), execution of counterfire, interdiction, and suppression of enemy targets.

Forward Area Air Defense Command and Control System

The FAAD command and control system provides automated assistance in the performance of FAAD operations, such as planning, early warning, positioning, and engagement. In addition, this system enhances the management of Army airspace. This comprehensive system consists of subsystems that are equipped with computers, displays, and voice and data communications equipment to aid accumulation, processing, and distribution of a correlated air picture and command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I) data. Early warning is accomplished by receipt of air tracks from external sources such as the AWACS and HIMAD.

Command and Control Vehicle

The C2V is a fully tracked, armored vehicle that ensures a mobile, responsive, and survivable command and control platform for the digitized brigade. The C2V provides command and control capabilities from battalion through corps level and will accommodate the overarching command and control software system.

Battle Command Vehicle

The BCV solves the tactical problem of how to access battlefield information data systems to obtain critical intelligence and operational information for decision making. The BCV will be tailored to satisfy commanders needs. Each BCV has four internal workstations and is staffed with a commander, an operations officer, an intelligence officer, and an FSO. Each workstation has software that is commensurate with workstation functions and desired redundancy.

Army Airborne Command and Control System (A2C2S)

The A2C2S provides the corps commander down through the battalion commander a highly mobile command and control system. The current configuration is mounted in the rear of a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter. This system is a fully integrated digital platform that combines intelligence information from both national (including JSTARS) and battlefield assets along with long distance digital communications radios to provide the commander a better chance to make combat effective decisions. This system is capable of carrying a staff of five. Normal configuration includes a commander, an intelligence officer, an FSO, an operations officer, and an LO.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

This system provides R&S and target acquisition capabilities to the digitized brigade in excess of 150 kilometers beyond the FLOT, day or night, and in limited visibility and adverse weather conditions. This UAV is intended for employment in environments where real-time information feedback is needed, manned aircraft is unavailable, or excessive risk or other conditions make it less prudent to use manned aircraft.

Target Surveillance and Attack Radar System

This system provides TACAIR and ground commanders with near real-time wide area surveillance and deep targeting data on both moving and fixed targets during daylight and at night and in all weather conditions. It can detect, locate, track, classify, and assist in attacking targets beyond the FLOT. Operators aboard the aircraft downlink data in near real-time to multiple ground station modules and transfer the data to ground commanders.

Remote Sensor System

This remote sentry system provides low-cost lightweight, autonomous, remote, wide area, ground-based surveillance and target acquisition during daylight and in limited visibility conditions. This is accomplished through both imaging sensors (forward looking infrared) and nonimaging sensors (acoustics, magnetic, and seismic). These sensors provide compressed target image hand-off to reconnaissance elements.

SUPPORT SYSTEMS

Obstacle Breaching System (Grizzly)

This system is equipped with a full-width mine-clearing blade and a power-driven excavating arm. While buttoned-up, the two-man crew can operate the blade and the arm and drive the vehicle from either crew station. The mission of the Grizzly is to provide an in-stride breaching capability to overcome simple and complex obstacles. The system will breach a full-width lane and clear lanes to allow a maneuver force mobility through minefields, rubble, tank ditches, wire, and other obstacles.

Heavy Assault Bridge System (Wolverine)

The heavy assault bridge system is operated by a two-man crew. It will support a military load crossing 70 at 16 kilometers per hour and will support the mounted maneuver platforms. The bridge is launched from under armor in 5 minutes and retrieved in 10 minutes. The mission of the heavy assault bridge is to support crossing gaps. The heavy assault bridge increases force mobility by allowing units to transit gaps such as tank ditches, road craters and partially damaged bridge sections.

Wide Area Munitions (Hornet)

The Hornet has a stand-off detection and engagement capability. It attacks from the side or top at ranges up to 100 meters and provides a mobility kill to a designated target array. The Hornet can be used as a stand-alone tactical minefield or to reinforce a conventional obstacle. The Hornet can be rapidly employed along exposed flanks during movement as a situational obstacle to disrupt enemy counterattacks.

SERVICE SUPPORT SYSTEMS

Tactical Vehicles

The family of medium tactical vehicles consists of a common truck chassis. This tactical vehicle system will perform line haul, local haul, unit mobility, unit resupply and other missions in combat, CS, and CSS units. It is equipped with digital communications systems that enhance situational awareness and increase the capability to throughput supplies and equipment directly to the user.

Force Provider System

The force provider system provides the forward soldier a brief respite from the rigors of combat. Its primary function is to improve the quality of life for combat soldiers on extended operations in remote areas.

Palletized Load System

The palletized load system is a tactical vehicle consisting of a prime mover with an integral self-load/unload capability. It performs line and local haul, unit resupply, and other missions in support of modernized, highly mobile organizations. The palletized load system also greatly improves ammunition transport efficiency and productivity in the supply distribution role. It reduces dedicated personnel, materiel-handling equipment, line haul, and heavy cargo transport vehicle requirements in the current ammunition distribution system.

Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Reconnaissance System (Fox)

NBC reconnaissance systems are armored vehicles equipped with a fully integrated NBC detection, warning, and communication capability. They detect, identify, and mark areas of NBC contamination. They also collect soil, water, and vegetation samples for later analysis. Hazards to the crew are minimized through the inclusion of vehicle NBC collective protection that provides overpressure with heating and cooling for crewmen.


SECTION IV. DIGITIZED TACTICAL OPERATIONS

MISSIONS

The nature of digital operations is the continuous transition between offensive and defensive activities aimed to overwhelm the enemy. The digitized brigade can employ both defensive and offensive characteristics associated with them. Leaders of the digitized brigade must fully understand doctrinal offensive and defensive fundamentals and recognize that in execution of tactical engagements they must be applied simultaneously. The digitized brigade performs the missions outlined in Table E-1 in support of information, decisive, and security operations.

Table E-1. Digitized brigade missions.
INFORMATION OPERATIONS DECISIVE OPERATIONS SECURITY OPERATIONS
Screen Attack Cover
Movement and contact Defend Delay
Demonstration Relief
Feint OOTW activities
Raid Post conflict operations

OPERATIONS

Information Operations

The digitized brigade conducts specific missions to gain or destroy enemy information capabilities. These missions are conducted as part of larger operations to set conditions for decisive operations. The conceptualization, planning, and execution techniques are similar. Information missions are complicated, lethal, and difficult to control. These operations are conducted to obtain information and to test enemy dispositions, strengths, and reactions. Units conducting information operations must rapidly transition to decisive operations to exploit unexpected opportunities. The digitized brigade conducts movement and contact, screening force, feint, demonstration, and raid missions in support of information operations.

Decisive Operations

The digitized brigade conducts rapid, decisive operations to defeat the enemy with minimal casualties. The brigade attacks and defends to achieve this end. The real distinctions between attack and defense for the digitized force is the intent of the commander and the requirement to deny terrain to the enemy. The principle of simultaneity is paramount to the success of decisive operations. The brigade conceptualizes, plans, and executes decisive operations to attack the enemy at multiple critical points with the attacks occurring almost simultaneously. It conducts information activities to identify the critical points of the engagement, including a decisive point, and assigns specific tasks and purposes that its subordinate elements must achieve. The brigade commander and staff orchestrate and control the near-simultaneous actions of the subordinate elements, and they also employ assets of which they retain control to create the conditions and synergy required to bring the enemy to a rapid defeat.

The digitized brigade assigns the critical points of the engagement as missions to the subordinate elements. These missions have specific tasks and purposes and are linked together by a unified concept of the operations and commanders intent. The brigade commander may retain control of selected assets for employment against specific critical points when he determines that he and his staff will be better suited than the subordinate staffs to control tempo, achieve synchronization, or use these assets unique capabilities. An example of assets retained for brigade control are attack aviation, BAI, MLRS/Army tactical missile system (ATACMS), SOF direct action teams, PSYOP teams, and EW assets.

In addition to identifying and assigning critical points, the brigade commander determines what action will destroy the enemy. This action is identified as the decisive point. The brigade aggressively seeks to maintain the initiative, control time, and deny the enemy the ability to employ any options. By clearly identifying the decisive point, the commander has specified an end state which, in the absence of orders, allows any unit on the battlefield to achieve.

Security Operations

Security missions are conducted to enhance freedom of action by reducing vulnerability to hostile acts, influence, or surprise. The digitized brigade performs security missions as part of a larger force. A security mission may be assigned to the brigade from division to economize combat power by assigning smaller forces to provide security so larger forces can be freed for commitment to the main effort. The digitized brigade will be expected to employ its enhanced information and intelligence capabilities to secure a larger volume of physical space than its conventional predecessor. The brigade may conduct covering force, delay, and relief missions and OOTW activities to provide security during combat operations.


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