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Military

Appendix A

MOVEMENT

CONTENTS

SECTION I.      Administrative Movement and Tactical Road March

      Administrative Movement

      Tactical Road March

SECTION II.     Definitions

SECTION III.   Control Measures

SECTION IV.   Movement Formulas

SECTION V.    Brigade Tactical Road March

      Situation

      Troop-Leading Procedures

SECTION VI.   Battalion Tactical Road March

      Situation

      Troop-Leading Procedures

SECTION VII.  Company Tactical Road March

      Situation

      Troop-Leading Procedures

SECTION I. ADMINISTRATIVE MOVEMENT AND TACTICAL ROAD MARCH

Administrative Movement

An administrative movement is conducted when contact with the enemy is unlikely. Movement emphasizes efficient use of air, rail, or water transportation as well as organic transportation. Administrative movements are most often conducted in the COMMZ and in the zone of the interior. The S4 is responsible for planning administrative movements.

Tactical Road March

This is a unit move in a combat-ready posture normally conducted in the combat zone. Enemy contact is possible either during the march or soon after arrival at the unit's destination. Units normally move by tactical road marches to AAs to prepare for combat operations. The S3 is responsible for planning tactical road marches.

SECTION II. DEFINITIONS

The following are definitions used in movement and tactical road marches:

  • Close column -- Vehicles are spaced approximately 25 meters apart.
  • Open column --Vehicles are spaced 50 to 100 meters apart. Normally used during daylight, open column can be used at night with proper night-vision equipment.
  • Infiltration -- Vehicles are dispatched individually, in small groups, or at irregular intervals at a rate that keeps the traffic density down and prevents undue massing of vehicles.
  • March column -- A march column consists of all elements using the same route for a single movement under control of a single commander. The column is normally brigade-size and is composed of three elements. The head is the first vehicle of the column. The main body consists of the major elements of the column: the serials and march units. The trail party follows the main body and conducts vehicle repair and recovery, medical aid and evacuation, and emergency refueling.
  • Serial --A serial is a major subdivision of a march column and is normally battalion-size.
  • March unit --A march unit is a major subdivision of a serial and is normally company-size.
  • Reconnaissance party --The reconnaissance party conducts route reconnaissance of movement routes to determine travel times, bridge and underpass capacities, and trafficability. It identifies critical points, obstacles, and (if there is enough time) alternate routes.
  • Quartering party (Advance Party) - The quartering party reconnoiters the new AA and guides march elements to and into the new area. See Chapter 2, Preparation for Combat.

SECTION III. CONTROL MEASURES

The following are control measures used in movement and tactical road marches (see Figure A-1):

  • Critical Point.
  • Start Point (SP).
  • Release Point (RP).
  • Route.
  • Assembly Area.
  • Traffic Control Points.

SECTION IV. MOVEMENT FORMULAS

The following factors are used in movement formulas when planning movement and tactical road marches:

  • Distance factors.

-Vehicle distance is the space between two consecutive vehicles of an organized element of a column.

-Column gap is the space between two organized elements following each other on the same route.

-Traffic density is the average number of vehicles that occupy 1 kilometer of road space, expressed in vpkm.

-Length of a column is the length of roadway occupied by a column, including gaps in the column, measured from front to rear.

-Road gap is the distance between two match elements (Figure A-2 illustrates time-distance factors).

  • Rate factors.

-Speed is the actual rate at which a vehicle is moving at a given moment.

-Pace is the regulated speed of a march element, set by the lead vehicle.

-Rate of march is the average number of km traveled in any given period of time, including short periodic halts. Short periodic halts normally occur every 2 hours and last 10 minutes. Rate is expressed in kmih. It is used to compute the time required for a march element to travel from one point to another.

  • Time factors.

-Arrival time is when the head of the column arrives at a designated point.

-Clearance time is when the tail of the column passes a designated point.

-Completion time is when the last vehicle of the column passes the RP.

-PST is the time between the moment the first vehicle passes a given point and the moment the last vehicle passes the same point.

-EXTAL of one minute per 25 vehicles is always added to the calculated PST of a march element. Also add one minute for a remainder of 13 or more vehicles.

-Road clearance time is the total time a column uses to travel over and clear a section of road.

-TDIS is the time required to move from one point to another at a given rate of march.

-Time gap is the time between the rear and front of successive elements as they move past a given point.

Formulas

The following rules and formulas are used for computation of time-distance calculations. Round up fractional parts of a minute to the next higher whole minute. Round up fractional parts of an hour to the nearest two decimal places (Refer to Table A-1).

NOTE: The following sections provide examples of brigade, battalion, and company tactical road marches. Each section is organized with a situation and a step-by-step discussion of applicable troop-leading procedures.

SECTION V. BRIGADE TACTICAL ROAD MARCH

Situation

The 23d AD deployed to Europe at the start of hostilities, drew POMCUS stocks, and moved by rail to occupy STAGING AREA FRANK in the COMMZ. The division completed uploading equipment and conducting resupply when it was ordered to conduct a road march to occupy FORWARD AA JOHN in the 10th Corps rear area as corps reserve. The 1st Brigade will conduct a road march as part of the 23d AD (see Figure A-3).

Troop-Leading Procedures

Following is an example of brigade troop-leading procedures for a tactical road march.

Step 1. RECEIVE THE MISSION

1. The time is now 241800Z Nov 19xx. The 23d AD tasked 1st Brigade to be in AA JOHN NLT 251500 Nov 19xx. After initial time analysis, 1st Brigade's restated mission is as follows: "Move 250300 Nov 19xx along ROUTES RED and BLUE to occupy A-A JOHN NLT 25 1500 Nov 19xx."

2. The assistant brigade S3, tasked with planning the movement, performs the initial time analysis, with the following results:

  • Receive mission
  • Issue WO
  • Reconnaissance elements move
  • Quartering parties move
  • Issue movement order
  • Main body begins movement

241800 NOV 19xx

241830

242000

242200

242100

250300

3. The mission that will follow movement drives the planning process. Movement start times and completion times usually depend on the mission immediately following completion of the movement. The staff will often find itself planning a movement as part of a larger operation.

4. Coordination. Higher headquarters may specify routes and times for brigade movement. There may be times, however, when the brigade must move, but must coordinate on its own with the appropriate movement control authority for road clearances and movement times. The staff must also coordinate for CS and CSS during the movement. LOS are dispatched early in the planning phase to improve coordination. Liaison with higher headquarters is made to keep abreast of route priorities and critical points on the routes of march. For example, other units may be crossing brigade units' routes of march. Liaison with area support commands ensures that the brigade will receive the logistical support needed to meet mission requirements.

Step 2. ISSUE A WARNING ORDER

1. WARNING ORDER.

2. A/23d Engr Bn attached to 1-10 Armor

3. Situation. 8th CAA is preparing to attack in 10th Corps sector. 10th Corps defends in sector NLT 251800 NOV 19xx.

4, Mission. 1st Brigade moves 250300 Nov 19xx along ROUTES RED and BLUE to occupy AA JOHN NLT 251500 NOV 19xx.

5. 1-91 Mech and 1-11 Armor provide scout platoons to conduct route reconnaissance along ROUTES RED and BLUE, respectively, at 242000 Nov.

6. Quartering parties move by infiltration after 242200 Nov.

7. OPORD at 242100 Nov 19xx at brigade CP.

8. MOPP 1 throughout.

9. Acknowledge.

Step 3. MAKE A TENTATIVE PLAN

1. Estimate of the Situation.

a. S2, Intelligence Estimate. The S2 initiates IPB. He analyzes terrain, weather, and the enemy in and around the area over which the brigade will move. He determines the effects of these factors on the brigade's mission.

b. S3, Operations Estimate. The S3 analyzes the friendly situation and the time required to execute the mission (see Figure A-4).

(1) Friendly situation for 1st Brigade (at 97 percent strength).

(a) The S3 must know subordinate unit TOES to accurately calculate movement times.

(b) Additional areas to analyze are discipline, training, leadership, morale, maintenance, and supply.

(2) Time analysis, PST. The brigade will move on two routes. Since there are five battalion units in the brigade, we can have three battalions move on one route while two battalions move on the other route. We must calculate the longest PST to ensure the brigade clears the RPs before 251500 Nov 19xx.

  • Density. By SOP, vehicle interval during daylight movement is 100 meters. This corresponds to a density of 10 vpkm.
  • Speed. By SOP, speed is 24 kmph for daylight movement.
  • EXTAL = no. of vehicles
                             25
  • Time gaps. By SOP, there are five minutes between march serials and two minutes between march units. Time gaps must be included in calculations because, otherwise, we would be calculating PST for one continuous column of vehicles. There is one less time gap than there are march units.

c. S1, Personnel Estimate.

d. S4, Logistical Estimate. Logistical status of the brigade is currently excellent. The S4 determines how much fuel will be required by the brigade upon arrival in AA JOHN.

2. The Tentative Plan. The tentative plan for the march consists of the task organization and maneuver for the march.

a. Task Organization.

b. Maneuver. The brigade will move with 1-91 Mech, brigade CP, and 1-10 Armor in order on ROUTE RED and 1-11 Armor, 1-50 FA, and 1st FSB in order on ROUTE BLUE.

c. March Table Calculations.

Step 4. START NECESSARY MOVEMENT

During preparation of the tentative plan or just after its completion, necessary movement of key elements is initiated. Movement at this time is normally confined to reconnaissance and C2 units. C2 units may consist of MCTs, MPs, CPs, retransmission units, liaison elements, and quartering parties. MCTs and MPs can set up traffic control points. A CP, normally the TAC CP or a jump CP, can occupy a position along the route to take over C2 from the main CP while it moves. Retransmission units locate along the route to assist in communications. Often, a follow-on mission after the movement requires an LO to go forward early. In a passage of lines, the brigade may send the TAC CP forward early to collocate with the stationary unit's CP. Quartering parties reconnoiter, secure, and prepare the new AA for occupation by the brigade and guide the units into their new positions. Quartering parties may also do the same for AAs along routes where refueling may take place. In many cases, CSS elements may accompany quartering parties to conduct refueling during or immediately after the march.

These units must leave far enough in advance of the main body to complete the performance of their tasks. They often move by infiltration, with the reconnaissance units moving first to clear the way for following units. Subordinate units must be responsive in detaching the personnel necessary to support the movement. This should be a matter of SOP.

Step 5. CONDUCT RECONNAISSANCE

Prior to departure of the main body, reconnaissance of the routes and AAs along the routes is crucial to successful movement. Reconnaissance provides early warning of situations which will disrupt the movement plan. Since the brigade does not have an organic reconnaissance capability, it normally relies on scout platoons of the leading battalions. The scouts normally stay under control of the parent battalions. The battalions then provide information to brigade. The brigade may employ cavalry if it is attached from division. Engineers may be attached to reconnaissance units. The normal mission for these units is to conduct route reconnaissance. Tasks include determining trafficability; reconnaissance of surrounding terrain, lateral routes, and built-up areas along the route; evaluating overpasses, underpasses, and culverts; locating and clearing all obstacles; determining bypass routes; and finding and reporting all enemy activity that can influence movement along the route.

Additionally, reconnaissance units can perform area reconnaissance of AAs. Area reconnaissance tasks include reconnoitering all terrain within the area as well as tasks associated with route reconnaissance.

Before starting a march, each major unit of a serial reconnoiters its route to the SP and determines and announces the times for major units of the serial to arrive at and clear the serial SP. A thorough reconnaissance of the route leading to the SP will assist units in crossing the SP on time. Each serial must conduct its own reconnaissance.

Step 6. COMPLETE THE PLAN

1. Intelligence. The staff receives information gathered during reconnaissance to complete the plan. The staff also receives information from higher headquarters.

2. Maneuver. Brigades normally march on two routes. Movement in and out of AAs to those routes must be planned so units will not block the movement of other units.

3. Fire Support. Fires are planned on identifiable terrain features and on possible enemy positions along the route of march. FS plans can also be made for the support of positions in the new AA.

4. Mobility, Countermobility, and Survivability. Engineer elements can accompany reconnaissance units to assist in determining road and bridge capacities. Engineer equipment, moving with either reconnaissance parties or quartering parties, can be used to clear obstacles or improve routes.

5. Air Defense. The brigade conducting movement often benefits from the air defense coverage of the command through which it is passing. The brigade, however, must still employ passive air defense measures. Actions on air attack are governed by SOP. Brigade air defense units can be prepositioned along the route to provide overlapping air defense coverage and coverage of air avenues of approach. For longer moves, however, air defense units should be integrated into the march column.

6. Combat Service Support. Forces should begin a move fully supplied. At halts and on arrival at the final destination, every opportunity should be taken to refuel. Halts for refeuling should be scheduled in advance by the unit commander. Halt locations should be large enough and halt periods long enough to accomplish refueling of company-size units. Sufficient fuel and lubricants should be carried in unit tins. Alternatives for refueling the units include the following: move the brigade and refuel after fuel vehicles arrive in the AA area behind the combat units; move fuel vehicles with each serial and refuel immediately upon arrival in the new AA; move fuel vehicles with quartering parties and conduct fast refueling immediately upon arrival in the new AA; or refuel along the route using one of the methods just described. For long marches, plan to refuel during a halt along the route so vehicles will not enter the AA with empty fuel tanks.

7. Command and Control.

a. SOPs and the movement order constitute elements of OPCON. The responsibility for movement control rests with the tactical commander, who executes control through his XO, the brigade MCO. SOPs associated with movement govern march discipline and serve as basic planning factors for preparation of the movement plan.

b. The commander and operations officer will move near the front of the column to provide leadership and be in a position for C2. A helicopter is very useful for movement control.

c. The XO, with overall responsibility for staff coordination and experienced in C2, serves as the MCO for a brigade. The XO plans and coordinates with higher headquarters and supervises actions associated with the unit movement plan. The commander is left free to move about the march column as his presence is required and to be at points of decision ready to command as the tactical situation demands.

d. The XO is assisted by his normal brigade staff as well as by MPs, cavalry/scouts, and other attachments as necessary. With the XO monitoring execution of the plan, the commander and his operations officer retain flexibility to refine the order as necessary, to respond to emergencies during movement, and to remain prepared to enter battle with lead units.

e. March columns move under radio listening silence. It is broken only out of tactical necessity. A brigade officer should locate initially at the SP. The brigade TAC CP will often move forward early to collocate with the CP of a unit through which the brigade will have to pass. If a CP is needed somewhere along the route, the brigade may dispatch a jump CP from the main CP. Retrans teams are located along the route to ensure continuous communications. Traffic control points are located along the route. A special movement control net, perhaps the net of the unit most involved in movement control, may have to be established. All elements use directional antennas and transmit on low power, when possible.

f. March discipline is absolutely essential throughout the movement. Adherence to march standards is the responsibility of the individual unit or column commanders. Deviation from specified routes and times may interfere with other movements and can have serious consequences. Unexpected interruptions must be dealt with by the commander immediately, and appropriate reports must be rendered. Any decision made must not interfere with the overall movement plan.

g. It is critical that units cross their SP at the prescribed time. Failure to do so results in unequal dispersion between march units. This interrupts the flow of units and necessitates adjustments to the march tables. It also affects the arrival time at the RP. Units failing to cross their SP on time must adjust their speed and rate. This adjustment must be made to fit the march table. Brigade officers should be positioned at the SP and the RP to monitor unit progress through those points.

h. MCTs are normally provided by MPs and cavalry/scouts. MPs are organized, equipped, and trained to meet requirements of movement control. They will often be tasked to satisfy competing requirements such as dealing with stragglers, refugees, and EPW. Cavalry/scouts can be a good tool for movement control. After reconnoitering routes, they can set up traffic control points if MPs are not available.

i. Each MCT should consist of at least three personnel with a radio and a strip map. An MP platoon can provide up to nine teams. A scout platoon provides up to six teams. The responsibilities of the MCTs are to--

(1) Control traffic at key points (traffic control points).

(2) Guard and evacuate EPWs.

(3) Control refugees and stragglers. MCTs must be thoroughly familiar with information contained in the march table to accurately monitor movement.

j. The mission of MCTs is to enforce the movement plan and SOP. They make corrections to violations and help units along the route. MCTs use three basic movement control measures in accordance with STANAG 2025 to control battlefield movement. They operate traffic control points to control movement at critical points. They use mobile patrols to travel a given area looking for and eliminating movement problems. The brigade command group also does this. MCTs also erect temporary signs to regulate, guide, and control movement along routes.

k. At traffic control points, the team leader maintains communications and keeps a record of unit movement through the traffic control points. He also compares unit movement with march table requirements. A second soldier monitors the flow of traffic. A third member of the team provides security. The team occupies positions from which it can fight.

l. If an element is late, the MCO will adjust the rate of march or vehicle interval of that element and all follow-on units, When a unit becomes lost, the MCO makes necessary adjustments to the movement table and ensures through the chain of command and traffic control points that follow-on elements adhere to new guidance. The intent of the new guidance is to close the gap created by lost serials or march units. When the lost element is found, it is reoriented and moved back toward the nearest traffic control points along the route. It is inserted into the march column, usually at the end of column.

m. The position of forces, mission requirements, time, and routes available may force convergence of units at a point along their routes. Similarly, unanticipated convergence may occur. It is necessary to prevent congestion by allowing columns to move through a convergence point separately, or together in coordinated fashion. The coordination becomes a function of the gap built into serials of the two columns and of strict traffic control by the MCT at the traffic control points where units converge. The rates of march of the converging units must be reduced to prevent a buildup of congestion at the convergence area.

n. MCTs locate and redirect stragglers in the direction of the nearest straggler collection point. For large numbers of stragglers, MCTs (normally MPs) set up straggler collection points to help them return to military control. If there are too many stragglers for the brigade to handle, the MCO requests assistance from the division provost marshal.

o. The MCO takes action to control refugee movement only when the volume of refugees threatens movement along the routes. He notifies division of the problem and requests assistance. MCTs stop or redirect refugees at traffic control points.

Step 7. ISSUE THE ORDER

A movement order is a kind of OPORD. It can also be an annex to a larger OPORD. It is composed in the five-paragraph format. Information in the movement order normally includes destination, routes, orders of march, rates of march, intervals, speeds, communications, and location of the commander. Much of the information in the SOP will not need to be included in the order. Products that normally are included with the movement order are a movement overlay/strip map and a movement table. Movement graphs are used as planning tools and are not normally issued with a movement order. The following is a sample OPORD/movement order.

Step 8. SUPERVISE

1. Security. March security is the responsibility of every person in the march. Vehicle commanders assign sectors of observation to their personnel in the vehicle so there is a 360-degree observation capability. Each vehicle commander designates an air guard to provide security, or specific vehicles may be designated as air guard vehicles. If a specific vehicle is an air guard vehicle, the crew (less driver) orients on air observation only rather than air and ground observation.

2. Halts. Halts are made for resting, messing, refueling, maintenance, adjusting schedules, and allowing other traffic to pass. When a column halts for even a short period, its advance, flank, and rear security establishes outposts distant enough to provide, as a minimum, early warning to the main body. The main body is disposed to counter enemy threats and facilitate the adoption of a predetermined defense.

3. Short Halts. By SOP, there will be 10-minute halts every two hours during the march. All march units will halt at the designated time, form a herringbone or coil, disperse, and establish local security. Traffic guards will be posted at the front and rear of each march unit. Units will conduct during-operations maintenance checks.

4. Long Halts. Long halts are planned in advance The length of time of the halt is added to the total travel time. Locations for halts are normally selected to allow all vehicles to clear the road and disperse. Long halts can be used for refueling.

5. Unscheduled Halts. Unscheduled halts may be caused by unforeseen developments, such as obstacles, traffic congestion, or equipment failure. If a halt is necessary, the unit's first priority is to establish security. Each unit forms a herringbone. Each vehicle commander makes contact with the vehicle to his from to determine the cause of the halt and take necessary corrective action.

6. Air Attacks. If attacked by enemy air, units must take necessary defensive measures. Leaders must prevent the moving force from being split up and, after the attack, must get the force moving again as soon as possible.

7. NBC Attack. The unit commander must decide either to depart the contaminated area or to continue through and decontaminate. Upon encountering contaminated terrain, the unit should begin NBC monitoring and reconnaissance; it should mark and bypass the area. In all instances, appropriate reports must to be rendered immediately.

8. Contact with the Enemy. Upon contact with the enemy, the principles of a meeting engagement apply. The commander must ensure that his freedom of action is maintained Immediate reports should be rendered.

SECTION VI. BATTALION TACTICAL ROAD MARCH

Situation

The 1-11 Armor receives a WO from 1st Brigade at approximately 241830 Nov 19xx and immediately begins preparing to conduct its movement.

Troop-Leading Procedures

Following is an example of battalion troop-leading procedures for a tactical road march.

Step 1. RECEIVE THE MISSION

1. Task Analysis.

a. Start movement at 250341 Nov 19xx along ROUTE BLUE to AA JOHN NLT 241500 Nov 19xx.

b. Provide scout platoon to conduct route reconnaissance along ROUTE BLUE at 242000 Nov.

c. Move quartering party at 242200 Nov.

d. MOPP 1.

After receipt of the brigade movement order, the task analysis is updated to include the following:

e. Move through CP 9.

f. occupy AA 1-11.

g. Conduct refueling immediately upon arrival in AA 1-11.

2. The battalion S3 restates the mission as," 1-11 Armor moves at 250341 Nov 19xx along ROUTE BLUE to occupy AA 1-11 at NB7108."

3. Time Analysis. The time analysis produces the following:

  • Receive mission
  • Issue WO
  • Reconnaissance elements move
  • Receive brigade movement order
  • Quartering parties move
  • Issue movement order
  • Start movement

241830 Nov 19xx

241900

242000

242100

242200

242200

250341

Step 2. ISSUE A WARNING ORDER

As soon as it learns of a new mission, the staff issues a assistant to alert the units.

Step 3. MAKE A TENTATIVE PLAN

1. Estimate of the Situation. The assistant S3 analyzes the friendly situation and the time required to execute the movement.

a. Friendly Situation of 1-11 Armor (97 percent strength):

Additional areas to analyze are discipline, training. leadership, morale, maintenance, and supply.

b. Time Analysis.

2. Tentative Plan.

a. Task Organization.

b. Maneuver. The battalion will move with Co A, Co B, CP, Co C, battalion trains, Co D, and trail party in order along ROUTE BLUE to AA.

c. March Table Calculations. Make the following calculations:

  • Calculate TDIS. Make a sketch of the route(s). Determine the distance between critical points. Then calculate TDIS between critical points (see Figure A-8).
  • Calculate PST. Make a sketch of the march column. For each serial, determine the number of vehicles and the number and length of time gaps.
  • Make calculations for the first march unit by determining arrival times and PST at each critical point.
  • Make calculations for the following march units by adding the time gap (10 minutes in this case) to the previous unit's PST (see Figure A-9).

Step 4. START NECESSARY MOVEMENT

The scout platoon, tasked to conduct reconnaissance by brigade, departs at 242000 Nov. This should provide time for the scouts to perform their mission. When possible, engineers and engineer equipment for road repair should be attached to the scouts.

By SOP, unit quartering parties rendezvous with the battalion quartering party OIC at a predesignated location and move at 242200 Nov. This location could be the TF SP. Fuel vehicles move with the quartering party. These will be positioned by unit quartering parties so that march units maybe refueled quickly as they enter their respective AAs.

Step 5. CONDUCT RECONNAISSANCE

The scout platoon performs route reconnaissance of ROUTE BLUE. Engineers, if attached, can assist in determining the capability of the route and overpasses to handle brigade traffic. Brigade later adds the task of performing area reconnaissance of AAs for 1-11 Armor, 1-50 FA, and 1st FSB. The scout platoon, although tasked to perform the mission by brigade, remains under battalion control. The battalion will relay scout platoon reports to brigade.

The march units also conduct reconnaissance of routes out of the AA to the SP. This ensures that units cross the SP on time.

Step 6. COMPLETE THE PLAN

1. Intelligence. The battalion staff receives information from the reconnaissance party and passes the information to brigade. Additionally, the staff receives information from brigade.

2. Maneuver. Battalions normally march on a single route. Commanders conduct coordination with adjacent units to prevent congestion as the battalion moves out of the AA. If necessary, the battalion planners designate routes for specific units to use out of the AA to prevent conflicts.

3. Fire Support. Fires are planned on identifiable terrain features and on possible enemy positions along the route of march. FS plans can also be made for the support of positions in the new AA.

4. Mobility, Countermobility, and Survivability. Engineer elements can accompany reconnaissance units to assist in determining road and bridge capacities. Engineer equipment, moving with either reconnaissance parties or quartering parties, can be used to clear obstacles or improve routes.

5. Air Defense. The battalion employs passive air defense measures such as air guards. When attacked, the battalion disperses off the road. It then continues to move as soon as possible. Air defense units are integrated into the column to provide continuous air defense coverage. Active air defense measures include engaging enemy aircraft with massed small arms fire.

6. Combat Service Support. The battalion should begin the move fully supplied. Fuel vehicles will move with the battalion quartering party. At AAs, company quartering parties will emplace fuel vehicles at concealed locations within their areas so the company can conduct fast refueling using the service station method, If this method is not possible, units conduct refueling using the tailgate method. The battalion field trains normally march with the brigade trains. In this case, however, the brigade commander has decided to maintain unit trains until arrival of the brigade in the new AA.

7. Command and Control.

a. The commander and operations officer will move near the front of the column. The XO serves as the MCO. The jump CP may move to the new AA with the quartering party to assist in C2 during the march and occupation of the AA.

b. During the conduct of the march, commanders ensure their units maintain march discipline and security.

c. Radio listening silence will normally be imposed. It should be broken only when the unit is attacked, when critical points are missed by more than 10 minutes, or by higher headquarters.

Step 7. ISSUE THE ORDER

Following is an example of an OPORD. See Figure A-10 for Battalion operations overlay.

Technique: Prepared march tables based on standard task organizations, intervals, and march rates will greatly simplify march planning. PST calculations can already have been accomplished.

Step 8. SUPERVISE

1. Security. During the march, the companies maintain security through observation, weapon orientation, dispersion, and camouflage. Commanders ensure there is 360-degree observation. Main weapons are oriented on specific sectors outward from the column. The first elements cover the front, following elements cover alternate flanks, and the last elements cover the rear.

2. Air Security. Air security is maintained with an air guard in each vehicle. Specific vehicles can also be designated as air guards, providing air observation exclusively.

3. Short Halts. By SOP, there will be 10-minute halts every two hours during the march. All march units will halt at the designated time, form a herringbone or coil, maintain dispersion, and establish local security. Traffic guards are posted at the front and rear of each march unit. Units will conduct during-operations maintenance checks.

4. Long Halts. Long halts are planned in advance. The length of time of the halt is added to the total travel time. Locations for halts are normally selected to allow all vehicles to clear the road and disperse. Long halts can be used for refueling.

5. Unscheduled Halts. Unscheduled halts may be caused by unforeseen developments such as obstacles, traffic congestion, or equipment failure. If a halt is necessary, the unit's first priority is to establish security. Each unit forms a herringbone. Each vehicle commander makes contact with the vehicle to his front to determine the cause of the halt and take necessary corrective action.

6. Obstacles. The scout platoon should eliminate obstacles within its capability. If an obstacle cannot be eliminated, it should be bypassed. If it cannot be bypassed, the battalion will have to breach it. Following units move at decreased speed or get off the road.

7. Enemy Indirect Fire. Should the battalion come under attack by enemy indirect fire, the unit in contact will continue to move. The remainder of the battalion attempts to bypass the impact area.

8. Air Attack. If attacked by enemy aircraft, the march unit that is attacked will disperse off the road into covered and concealed positions and engage the aircraft with all available automatic weapons. The rest of the battalion moves to covered and concealed areas until the engagement ends. The movement resumes as soon as possible.

9. Ambush. Ambushes will be fought through without delay. The march unit in the kill zone will increase speed, fight through, and report the ambush. The battalion will conduct a hasty attack to destroy the ambush force.

10. Disabled Vehicles. Disabled vehicles must not obstruct traffic. Disabled vehicles are moved off the road, and their status is reported immediately. Each crew establishes security and posts guides to direct traffic. The trail party recovers the vehicle whether the crew repairs it or not.

11. Contamination. Units should always try to avoid contamination. Contaminated units should decontaminate as soon as possible. Upon encountering contaminated terrain, the unit should begin NBC monitoring and reconnaissance: it should mark and bypass the area. In all instances, appropriate reports must be rendered immediately.

SECTION VII. COMPANY TACTICAL ROAD MARCH

Situation

The company commander of Company B receives a WO from battalion at approximately 241900 Nov 19xx. He immediately begins preparing his unit to conduct the movement.

Troop-Leading Procedures

Following is an example of company troop-leading procedures for a tactical road march.

Step 1. RECEIVE THE MISSION

The company commander conducts a task analysis and time analysis.

1. Task Analysis/Restated Mission.

a. Move at 250354 Nov along ROUTE BLUE.

b. Occupy AA B.

c. Provide a quartering party to quarter the AA.

d. Move through CP 9.

e. Refuel in the AA.

f. Restated mission: B Co moves at 250354 along ROUTE BLUE to occupy AA B (MA715095).

2. Time Analysis.

  • Quartering party departs
  • Receive the mission
  • Issue a WO
  • Reconnoiter route to the SP
  • Issue movement order
  • Stand-to
  • Move from AA
  • Cross SP

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Step 2. ISSUE A WARNING ORDER

The company commander issues a WO immediately after receiving a WO from the battalion. After receiving the movement order, the company commander issues another WO with updated information for his subordinates.

Step 3. MAKE A TENTATIVE PLAN

1. Estimate of the Situation.

a. The company commander conducts a map analysis of the route and the new AA.

b. He determines the assets available to him: 14 tanks, one Stinger team, the FIST, one M88 VTR, one medical Ml13, one two-and-one-half ton truck, and two HMMWVs. The 1SG takes the maintenance track and one man from each platoon to conduct quartering party operations.

c. The company commander uses the march table provided in the battalion movement order to determine the time required to accomplish the mission.

2. The Tentative Plan.

a. Task organization.

  • 1st Plt.
  • 2d Plt.
  • 3d Plt.
  • Combat trains.
  • Stinger team.

b. Maneuver. The company moves from the AA, through CP 9, along ROUTE BLUE to AA B with the following order of march: 1st Plt, company and FIST, 2d Plt, 3d Plt, XO, combat trains. The quartering party will meet us at the RP. We will conduct fast refuel as we enter the AA. Occupation of the AA: 1st Plt, AA1; 2d Plt, AA2; 3d Plt, AA3; combat trains, AA4.

Step 4. START NECESSARY MOVEMENT

The company quartering party departs to rendezvous with the battalion quartering party and battalion fuel vehicles for their movement to the new AA.

Step 5. CONDUCT RECONNAISSANCE

The company commander and the platoon leader of the lead platoon, 1st Platoon, conduct reconnaissance of the route from their present AA, through CP 9, to the SP. During the reconnaissance, they also do a time check to determine how long it takes to move to the SP from AA positions. The commander coordinates with the other company commanders to prevent movement conflicts as the units move out of the AA.

Step 6. COMPLETE THE PLAN

1. Intelligence. While in AA positions, the company is normally connected to battalion by landline. The company can be given intelligence information from battalion using landline communications. The company commander must otherwise rely on map reconnaissance, personal reconnaissance, and the reconnaissance information obtained by his platoons.

2. Maneuver.

a. Getting the company out of its AA positions and moving on time in the dark can often be difficult. Company commanders should set stand-to early enough to give their units time to get organized for the move out of the AA. Unit leaders should rehearse, or at least discuss how the unit will move out of the AA.

b. The company normally conducts a march in column formation. A combat column can be used if there is no traffic traveling in the other direction. In the corps rear this is unlikely since there are so many units using the existing road net. Additionally, The roads often will not be wide enough to go into combat column. The normal order of march is shown in Figure A-11.

3. Fire Support. The company commander and FIST plan fires on easily identifiable terrain features and on possible enemy positions along the route of march. FS plans can also be made for the support of positions in the new AA. The FIST receives a copy of the battalion FS plan from the battalion FSO. The company commander disseminates the consolidated FS plan to his subordinates.

4. Mobility, Countermobility, and Survivability. Engineer equipment normally accompanies the reconnaissance party to reduce obstacles. If the company encounters an obstacle, it develops the situation and reports to battalion. Reduction of the obstacle will probably require engineer support. The company either bypasses the obstacle or participates in battalion actions to overcome the obstacle.

5. Air Defense. During a road march, the company employs air guards in each vehicle, The air guards on tanks are usually the loaders. Machine guns are normally oriented upward. The Stinger team can be employed near the front of the column for earliest engagement of attacking aircraft. Another option would be to split the team, employing the gunner on the maintenance APC near the rear of the column to engage aircraft attacking from that direction. The Stinger gunner, however, will not be able to monitor the early warning net.

6. Combat Service Support. Before the company moves, it should be fully uploaded and topped off with fuel. Fuel vehicles may accompany the company during a road march, move forward with the quartering party to refuel the company at a distant location, or move under control of their parent unit to refuel the company after the company has occupied its AA positions. If the fuel vehicles move with the quartering party, the quartering party normally sets them up to refuel the company as it moves into its AA positions.

7. Command and Control. The commander is normally near the front of the column. The FIST is normally with him. The XO is near the rear. The 1SG normally leads the quartering party. If not, the 1SG leads the combat trains. The company normally moves in radio listening silence, but monitors the battalion and company command nets. Radio listening silence is broken only during emergencies (see Figure A-12).

Step 7. ISSUE THE ORDER

The order is issued orally, Information includes changes to task organization, enemy and. friendly situation, and mission, Execution includes intent. The scheme of maneuver should contain information on order of march, route, speed, interval, unit AA positions, refueling instructions, and stand-to. Designate priorities of fire and disseminate the FS plan. Provide necessary instructions for air defense and for actions at obstacles. CSS should include location of combat trains and any instructions not covered by SOP. Command and signal should include location of the commander and signal instructions. The order should be accompanied by an operations overlay or strip map showing arrival times at critical points.

Step 8. SUPERVISE

1. Security. Each vehicle's loader is designated as air guard. He is also responsible for rear security. Machine guns are pointed skyward. Vehicles alternate gun tube orientation to cover both sides of the road. Each vehicle has 360-degree observation.

2. Security During Halts.

a. Short and Long Halts. By SOP, there will be 10-minute halts every two hours during the march. Long halts will be scheduled by the battalion. The company will halt at the designated time, form a herringbone or coil, maintain dispersion, and establish local security. Mounted security is maintained at all times. Traffic guards are posted at the front and rear of each march unit. Units will conduct during-operations maintenance checks.

b. Unscheduled Halts. The unit's first priority is to establish security. The company forms a herringbone. Each vehicle commander makes contact with the vehicle to his front to determine the cause of the halt and take necessary corrective action.

3. Air Defense. If attacked by aircraft, move away from the axis of attack. Occupy covered and concealed positions. Engage aircraft with all available weapons.

4. Artillery. If attacked by artillery, button up and continue to move out of the impact area.

5. Ground Attack. If the company is engaged by the enemy during a road march, it should conduct actions on contact:

a. Return Fire.

b. Seek Cover.

c. Report.

d. Develop the Situation.

6. Disabled Vehicles. Move disabled vehicles off the road and report their status immediately. The company continues to move. The crew establishes security and posts guides to direct traffic. The crew works to repair the vehicle within its capability. The combat trains maintenance section either repairs the vehicle or requests the vehicle be recovered by the trail party. In any case, the crew awaits the arrival of the trail party to continue the move or to be recovered.

7. Break in Column. The leading element in front of which the break took place slows approximately 10 kmph from march speed for one minute. It speeds back up to normal road march speed when the break is closed. If a TC has lost sight of the vehicle to the front and is not sure he is going in the correct direction, there is a danger he has taken a wrong turn. In cases such as this, following vehicles tend to continue to follow the wayward vehicle. To continue in the wrong direction will make matters worse. The TC, therefore, should stop his vehicle along the side of the road and request assistance from his platoon leader.

8. Assembly Area Occupation. The company must clear the RP and quickly move from the RP to its AA. The following method accomplishes this. The 1SG, in the maintenance Ml13, meets the company at the RP and leads the company toward the AA. The platoon quartering party personnel are dispersed along the route, awaiting the arrival of the company. The 1SG stops the column at a designated location just long enough for the platoon quartering party personnel to get on the lead vehicle of each platoon. The quartering party personnel then direct the platoons into their positions (see Figure A-13).



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