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Military

CHAPTER 1

THE DIVISION

The division is a large Army organization that trains and fights as a tactical team. Largely self-sustaining, it is capable of independent operations. The division is a unit of maneuver, organized with varying numbers and types of combat, combat support (CS), and combat service support (CSS) units. It may be armored, mechanized, medium, light infantry, airborne, or air assault; each can conduct operations over a wide range of environments. The success of Army operations depends on the success of its divisions.

ROLE OF THE DIVISION

Historical Review

Prior to World War I, the regiment was the Army's largest fixed administrative and tactical command. During World War I, regiments combined into brigades to form infantry divisions. Each division had two infantry brigades; each brigade had two regiments. Field artillery and service units supported each brigade.

World War II divisions were infantry, armored, cavalry, airborne, and motorized. Brigade headquarters were eliminated to streamline the divisions. This meant the division commander directly commanded three regiments, supported by engineer and service units and four field artillery battalions. Regiments were still responsible for their own administration and logistics.

Combat commands replaced regiments in some armored divisions. Each combat command had attached tank and armored infantry battalions. Combat commands were tactical operations control headquarters. The logistics and administrative operations extended from division level directly to the battalions. Battalions cross-attached companies to form task forces. Cavalry provided reconnaissance and security and was grouped as the situation demanded. Armored field artillery battalions and engineer companies normally supported the combat commands.

In the late 1950s, the Army reorganized each infantry division into a "pentomic division" with five battle groups in preparation for tactical nuclear war in Europe. These groups were, in effect, large battalions. Each battle group had five rifle companies, a combat company, and appropriate field artillery and service support support. The battle groups were self-sustaining, could be

employed singly or in combinations, and remained largely unchanged during the 1950s.

The pentomic division structure was abandoned in the early 1960s when the Army adopted for all divisions the combat command organization of the armored division. Combat commands were renamed brigades. Each division had three brigade headquarters into which various numbers of battalions could be grouped. All divisions were similarly organized. Some were heavy (armored or mechanized)


ROLE OF THE DIVISION
TYPES AND CAPABILITIES
ORGANIZATION OF DIVISIONS
OTHER SUPPORT


Some were heavy (armored or mechanized) and some were light (infantry and airborne), depending on the mission and types of battalions assigned. in the mid-1960s, the Army added the air assault division. Principal differences between divisions were in the types of battalions assigned and the composition of the division base. Divisions also differed in how they entered into combat. The war in Vietnam was fought primarily with airmobile and infantry divisions.

During the 1980s, the Army fielded a motorized division and several light infantry divisions. The motorized division could rapidly deploy to a contingency area, establish or expand a lodgment, and defeat enemy forces ranging from light infantry to tank and motorized forces. Light divisions provided versatility and strategic flexibility through their capability for rapid deployment.

The early 1990s brought significant changes to the world and the Army. The motorized division was deleted from the force structure. The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the apparent end of the Cold War presented threats that were more ambiguous and regionally focused. Most of the Army was reassigned to the continental United States (CONUS) and given a mission to rapidly respond to worldwide regional crises. Force projection has become our chief strategy for supporting the power-projection element of US national security. Force projection applies to the Total Army (active, reserve, and civilian), based within or outside CONUS.

The US Army's current warfighting doctrine reflects the nature of modern warfare. It is inherently joint doctrine, recognizing the teamwork required of all the services. US Army divisions conduct Army operations both in war and other than war arenas. Their prime focus is warfighting the use of force. Their frequent requirements to use force or to provide forces in operations other than war (OOTW), however, make versatility critical. The unique capabilities of armored, mechanized, infantry, light infantry, airborne, and air assault divisions provide the US Army the flexibility to serve the national interest worldwide.

As Part of a Corps

Army corps are tailored for specific missions. Once

tailored and deployed, corps contain all the all the organic combat, CS, and CSS capabilities to conduct and sustain operations for a considerable time. Corps plan and conduct major operations and battles. They synchronize the maneuver and support of their units. Corps may be assigned divisions of any type required in war and OOTW.

Traditionally, divisions have operated as part of a US corps. (Currently the 2d Infantry Division is assigned to a Republic of Korea corps.) In corps operations, divisions normally comprise 9 to 12 maneuver battalions, organic artillery battalions, and supporting CS and CSS units. Divisions perform a wide range of tactical missions and, for limited periods, are self-sustaining. Corps augment divisions as the mission requires.

All divisions must be able to deploy and conduct offensive, defensive, and retrograde operations, and operations other than war. Airborne and air assault divisions must be able to conduct force entry operations. (See pages Types and Capabilities for specific division capabilities.)

As Part of a Joint Task Force

The division may deploy as part of a joint task force (JTF) without its traditional corps headquarters and supporting corps units. In these types of operations, a division often works directly for the joint force commander (JFC). Therefore, divisions must know joint doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures. (See joint manuals in references.) Divisions are not normally designated as a joint task force headquarters.

A JTF comprises assigned or attached elements of two or more of the military services. Typically, a JTF is established for a specific purpose in response to a crisis and is limited in scope and duration. Divisions assigned to a JTF normally conduct traditional tactical operations but may be involved in nontraditional actions, such as interagency operations or operations with the host nation.

A division in a JTF requires experienced liaison. The division may operate with or receive support from joint, multinational, interagency, or nongovernmental agencies. It will receive joint support such as joint fires, joint air defenses, national intelligence, and theater and national communications. Competent liaison to coordinate with these agencies and other headquarters helps ensure properly


executed operations. Liaison duties and requirements are addressed in Chapter 3 of this manual and detailed in FM 71-100-1, FM 71-100-2, and FM 101-5.

As an ARFOR Headquarters

A JTF may designate a division under its command and control as the Army forces (ARFOR) headquarters the senior Army headquarters within the JTF. It may provide support normally associated with the Army service component within the operational area. For example, the Army normally operates ports and delivers bulk class I and class III to other service logistic bases. The ARFOR is normally responsible for all Army forces assigned in the area of operations (AO). The ARFOR designation may also bring with it specific joint force support, training, and administrative responsibilities that vary from theater to theater. The responsibilities of an ARFOR headquarters greatly surpass the division's

organic capabilities. The division will require augmentation based on a mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available (METT-T) analysis.

A division will often be designated as an ARFOR headquarters during OOTW. When the 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) was alerted as the ARFOR for Somalia in 1993, the JFC initially assigned to it forty-plus ARFOR tasks. These tasks included the initial deployment of all Army forces, command and control (C2) of coalition ground forces, civil affairs throughout the AO, and communications support for the JTF. Figure 1-1 depicts the 10th Mountain Division headquarters' initial augmentation as the ARFOR for its mission in Somalia.

The division commander could also be responsible for all land combat forces through his appointment as the joint force land component commander (JFLCC). As the JFLCC, the division commander controls all Army, Marine, and multinational ground forces in the AO.


Figure 1-1. Planned division augmentation requirements as ARFOR for Somalia


TYPES AND CAPABILITIES

Armored and Mechanized Divisions

The US Army's armored and mechanized divisions provide mobile, armor-protected firepower (Figure 1-2). Armored and mechanized divisions are normally employed for their mobility, survivability, lethality, and psychological effect (shock) on the enemy. These divisions destroy enemy armored forces. They can seize and secure land areas and key terrain. During offensive operations, armored and mechanized divisions can rapidly concentrate overwhelming lethal combat power to break or envelop enemy defenses or offensive formations. These divisions then continue the

attack to destroy fire support, command and control, and logistics elements. Their mobility allows them to rapidly concentrate, attack, reinforce, or block enemy forces. Their collective protection systems enable them to operate in a nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) environment. Armored and mechanized divisions operate best in open terrain where they gain the advantage with their mobility and long-range, direct-fire weapons.

Because of strategic lift requirements, armored and mechanized forces are slow to deploy from home or staging bases into an AO. They have high consumption rates of supplies, can deploy relatively few dismounted infantry, and have limited use in restrictive terrain.


Figure 1-2. Armored or mechanized division


Light Infantry Division

The light infantry division is one of our most rapidly and strategically deployable divisions. It fights as part of a larger force in conventional conflicts and conducts missions as part of a joint force in OOTW. (See Figure 1-3.) Its command and control structure readily accepts any augmentation forces, permitting task-organizing for any situation. The factors of METT-T largely determine the augmentations required for the division.

The optimum use of light forces is as a division under corps control, its mission capitalizing on its capabilities.

The division exploits the advantages of restricted terrain and limited visibility. It achieves mass through the combined effects of synchronized small-unit operations and fires rather than through the physical concentration of forces on the battlefield. Light division forces physically mass only when risk to the force is low and the payoff is high. The division deploys as an entity, widely dispersed to conduct synchronized, but decentralized, operations primarily at night or during periods of limited visibility.

Light force limitations include their austere CS and CSS systems, their requirement for support from the corps or joint force headquarters based on METT-T, and their need for prepared and covered


Figure 1-3. Infantry division


fighting positions for their survivability. Additionally, they have limited NBC protection for operating in an NBC environment.
Airborne Division

The airborne division can rapidly deploy anywhere in the world to seize and secure vital objectives. It conducts parachute assaults to capture initial lodgments, execute large-scale tactical raids, secure intermediate staging bases or forward operating bases for ground and air operations, or rescue US nationals besieged overseas. It also can serve as a strategic or theater reserve as well as reinforcement for forward-presence forces. (See Figure 1-4.)

The airborne division can assault deep into the enemy's rear areas to secure terrain or interdict enemy supply and withdrawal routes. It can seize and repair airfields to provide a forward operating base and airheads for follow-on air-landed forces. It is capable of all other missions assigned to light infantry divisions.

The airborne division uses its strategic and operational mobility to achieve surprise on the battlefield. Its aircraft range and its instrumentation capability enable the Air Force to accurately deliver the airborne division into virtually any objective area under almost any weather condition. All equipment is air transportable. Most is air-droppable. All


Figure 1-4. Airborne division


personnel are trained for parachute assaults and airborne operations. Engagements with enemy armored or motorized formations require special consideration. The division does not have sufficient armored protection to defeat heavier armored formations at close range. Antitank weapons in the division compensate for, but do not completely offset, this deficit.

Air Assault Division

The air assault division combines strategic deployability with tactical mobility within its AO. It attacks the enemy deep, fast, and often over extended distances and

terrain obstacles. The airmobile division of the Vietnam era provided the US Army the operational foundation, experience, and tactics for today's air assault operations. Air assault operations have evolved into combat, CS, and CSS elements (aircraft and troops) deliberately task-organized for tactical operations. Helicopters are completely integrated into ground force operations. Air assault operations generally involve insertions and extractions under hostile conditions, opposed to mere air movement of troops to and from secure locations about the battlefield. Once deployed on the ground, air assault infantry battalions fight like battalions in other infantry divisions; however, normal task organization of organic aviation results in greater combat power and permits rapid aerial redeployment. (See Figure 1-5.) The rapid tempo

Figure 1-5. Air assault division


of operations over extended ranges enables the division commander to rapidly seize and maintain the tactical initiative.

Medium Division

On 26 April 1994, the Army Chief of Staff approved a concept for medium divisions in the Army National Guard. These divisions will be patterned after the 2d Infantry Division in Korea. The current division design consists of one armored, one mechanized, and one light infantry brigade with traditional division CS and CSS units. (See Figure 1-6.) This division is designed to provide commanders with operational flexibility. When fielded and trained, the medium division's strengths and limitations should be similar to that of armored divisions.

ORGANIZATION OF DIVISIONS

All divisions are generally organized with a similar basic design (Figure 1-7). This design comprises a division headquarters and headquarters company (HHC), three ground maneuver brigades, an aviation brigade, a division artillery, a support command, a cavalry squadron, an air defense artillery battalion, an engineer battalion or brigade, a signal battalion, a military intelligence battalion, a military police company and, in most cases, a chemical company.

The division headquarters provides command and control for the division's organic, attached, or supporting units. The headquarters company provides logistics support and personnel for the division headquarters and staff sections. Ministry teams in each division unit provide religious support


Figure 1-6. Medium division



Figure 1-7. Basic division design
to soldiers and their families. These teams provide worship opportunities, pastoral care, religious education, and spiritual fitness. The headquarters company is normally located near the division's main command post (CP).

Ground Maneuver Brigade

The maneuver brigade headquarters provides the C2 facilities necessary to employ maneuver and fires. The only unit permanently assigned to the brigade is the brigade headquarters and headquarters company. The necessary combat, CS, and CSS units to accomplish the brigade mission are attached, under operational control (OPCON), or placed in support of the brigade. The brigade's headquarters company furnishes logistics support (including equipment and personnel) and security for the brigade headquarters staff sections.

The brigade normally controls from two to five attached maneuver battalions. It can be employed in autonomous or semiautonomous operations when properly organized for combat. FM 7-30 and FM 71-3 contain details on employment of the brigade.

Ground maneuver battalions and additional units are placed in a command relationship to the brigade headquarters. This allows the division to accomplish missions in any environment. As units are added to brigades and the division, the division support command is modified to meet changes in the division's supply, maintenance, and medical requirements.

Aviation Brigade

The aviation brigade is a maneuver force of organic, attached, and supporting Army aviation units.


They include attack, air assault, reconnaissance, electronic warfare (EW), and general support units. The division and aviation brigade commanders can tailor the brigade for virtually any combat, CS, and CSS operation to accomplish division missions.

The brigade is most effective when its aerial forces concentrate at critical times or places to destroy units and exploit enemy vulnerabilities. The brigade extends the division capability to simultaneously strike the enemy throughout his depth and from multiple directions. When employing the aviation brigade, the division commander considers that-

  • Attack helicopters are significantly less effective when employed in direct attacks against enemy forces in prepared defensive positions.

  • Aviation units have limited NBC decontamination capabilities.

  • Adverse weather, such as extreme heat and cold, blowing snow and sand, and heavy rain or fog, may hinder aviation operations.

  • Currently, only a portion of the aviation brigade's helicopter assets are fully night capable.

  • Aviation units have only a limited ability to task-organize below battalion level.

  • With proper support or augmentation, the aviation brigade headquarters is capable of planning for, employing, and controlling a task-organized combined arms force.

The aviation brigade commander may be required to operate over great distances with his forces spread throughout the division's AO. This makes timely and accurate coordination difficult. Coordination is the aviation brigade staff's most important function.

Echelons above corps (EAC) and corps aviation assets are organized into tailored brigades or regiments. These aviation brigades may augment or support the division. Aviation units in these organizations include attack helicopter and assault helicopter battalions, medium helicopter and theater aviation companies, and command aviation battalions.

FM 1-111 is the doctrinal base for aviation brigade operations.

Division Artillery

The division artillery (DIVARTY) is the division's primary organic indirect fire support organization. It normally comprises cannon and rocket artillery. When available, close air support, attack helicopters, EW assets, artillery resources of higher headquarters, and naval surface and missiles augment the DIVARTY's fires. Fire support systems neutralize, suppress, or destroy enemy forces.

The DIVARTY provides close support, interdiction, and counterfire fire support to division operations. Additionally, the DIVARTY-

  • Controls organic and attached field artillery units.

  • Provides fire support elements (FSEs) capable of continuous operations to the division's main, tactical, and rear CPs.

  • Acquires targets through ground and air observations, and weapons-locating radars.

  • Provides liaison sections as required and fire support sections and fire support teams (FISTs) to designated maneuver elements of the division.

  • Assists maneuver commanders in integrating and synchronizing all fire support assets with their scheme of maneuver.

  • Supervises FSEs during the execution of the fire plan.

The division artillery commander is the principal advisor to the division commander on fire support matters. As the fire support coordinator (FSCOORD), he prepares, plans, coordinates, and synchronizes lethal and nonlethal fires with the division commander's intent and concept of operation. The division normally receives additional field artillery support from the corps or joint force commander. This support could include cannon and multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) battalions or brigades. Although the corps or joint force commander may keep some field artillery under his direct control, he normally-

  • Attaches field artillery (FA) brigades or battalions to the division.

  • Assigns tactical missions to FA brigades and battalions, making them more responsive to the fire support needs of the division.

Corps 155-millimeter and MLRS battalions are organized similar to divisional artillery battalions.


However, the corps artillery battalions have no organic FSEs, FISTs, or target acquisition means. The division usually provides supporting corps artillery units with target acquisition. Corps artillery battalions have a liaison section to liaise with supported units.

FM 6-20-2 provides further detail concerning DIVARTY operations.

Engineer Brigade

Divisional engineers accomplish mobility, countermobility, survivability, and limited general engineering missions and tasks. Additionally, they perform infantry combat missions and tasks when required. Armored and mechanized divisions have an organic engineer brigade; light, airborne, and air assault divisions have only an engineer battalion organic to the division. Divisional engineers-

  • Provide a C2 headquarters for all engineers operating in support of the division.

  • Prepare and maintain essential combat routes in the forward battle area to include timely repair of essential bridges, fords, and culverts.

  • Provide, maintain, and emplace short-gap assault bridges for the division. (Light, airborne, and air assault divisions have no organic bridging. Armored and mechanized divisions have no organic float or fixed bridging.)

  • Assist in the assault breach of obstacles and fortified positions.

  • Perform obstacle reduction as part of breaching operations.

  • Conduct engineer reconnaissance and provide limited military geographic information.

  • Provide field engineering advice and assistance to all divisional elements, and provide equipment support to maneuver units in preparing selected strongpoints and battle positions for weapon systems.

  • Emplace, and assist in emplacing, tactical minefields.

  • Prepare and execute other tactical obstacles to degrade enemy mobility.

  • Prepare reserve targets for demolition, such as bridges, roads, railroads, and airfield runways.

  • Perform area damage control and repair air landing facilities within their capabilities.

  • Conduct infantry operations when required.

  • Provide limited general engineering.

A division, when fully committed, normally requires a corps combat engineer battalion and a combat support equipment company to augment its organic engineer units. Corps provide additional engineer units based on a METT-T analysis. The airborne, light, and air assault divisions have limited haul and earth-moving capabilities. This reduces their capacity for obstacle creation and reduction, protective shelter construction, and combat route missions (mobility, countermobility, and survivability).

The engineer brigade commander (the engineer battalion commander in lighter divisions) serves as the division engineer. He coordinates the efforts of all engineers working within the division sector. He requests support from a higher headquarters based on his engineer estimate and the commander's concept for the operation. The division engineer recommends the engineer task organization to support all division plans. Additional assets may be attached, under OPCON, or in direct support (DS) of the division.

Corps engineer units often reinforce a division. In addition to being attached, placed under OPCON, or in direct support, corps general support (OS) engineer units may perform OS missions in a division's area. Corps or EAC engineer units available to support the division include combat and combat heavy engineers, medium girder bridge (MOB) companies, and float bridge companies. Combat support equipment companies, additional terrain analysis and topographic detachments, and mission-designed engineer teams are also available.

FM 5-71-100 details division engineer operations.

Division Support Command

The division support command (DISCOM) provides division-level CSS to all organic assigned and attached elements of the division. It furnishes limited CSS to nondivisional units in the division area. The DISCOM routinely performs the functions of


arming, fueling, fixing, moving, and sustaining soldiers and their systems.

The DISCOM commander's role is complex. He is a brigade-level commander and the division's principal CSS operator. He exercises full command authority over organic units in the support command. He also has a close relationship with the division 64 and the assistant division commander for support (ADC-S) because of their overlapping interests. Although the division 04 has coordinating staff responsibility for logistics planning and develops division-level plans, policies, and priorities, the DISCOM commander advises the division staff during the formulation of plans, estimates, policies, and priorities. The ADC-S, on the other hand, commands and supervises all rear area operations.

The 63, with the 64, and DISCOM commander normally locate the CSS elements in the division rear area. The forward support battalions (FSBs) provide direct support to brigades and are positioned in the brigade support areas (BSAs). The remaining DISCOM units are located in the division support area (DSA) to provide area support to divisional units in the DSA and backup support to the FSBs. Elements from the FSBs and DSA may be echeloned to temporarily provide support forward of their support areas. These forward elements are called FLEs (forward logistics elements). (See Figure 1-8.) FLEs for BSAs may be critical when rapidly advancing over great distances. A FLE from the DSA may support division security force operations. Additionally, corps support organizations may use FLEs for special support requirements and to rapidly resupply as far forward as possible.






Figure 1-8. Organization for support

The DISCOM provides the following combat service support:

  • Support of class I (to include water purification, and limited distribution), II, III, IV, V (transfer), VI, VII, VIII, and IX supplies.

  • Personnel to operate one ammunition transfer point (ATP) per FSB. (Ammunition supply points (ASPs) and ATPs in the division rear area are operated by a nondivisional ammunition company.)

  • Direct support maintenance and reinforcing support of FSBs for authorized division equipment.

  • Material (supply and maintenance) management for the division.

  • Surface transport for personnel, mail, supplies, and equipment to accomplish division logistics and administrative missions, to include supplemental ground transportation to support emergency requirements.

  • Automatic data processing (ADP) support for division CSS activities.

  • Material collection and classification facilities.

  • Limited capability to carry reserve supplies based on a METT-T analysis (normally for three-to-eight-day operations).

  • Specific aviation maintenance support for the aviation brigade in armored and mechanized divisions.

  • CSS information and advice, except for division manning and personnel service support (PSS), to the division commander and his staff.

  • Division-level combat health support on an area basis. This includes medical treatment, intradivision evacuation of patients, medical logistics, and unit-level maintenance of medical equipment.

  • Operations to protect enemy attempts to disrupt CSS operations.

  • Stores of unclassified maps for distribution within the division.


The DISCOM depends on the following:

  • Corps medium helicopter units for airlift needed to support logistics requirements of the division when such airlift capabilities are not organic to the division or airlift requirements exceed the division's capabilities.

  • Nondivisional field service or appropriate teams for laundry, bath, clothing, and mortuary affairs services unless organic augmentations are authorized.

  • Appropriate elements of the corps and division for legal, personnel, administrative, and finance services.

  • Corps support group (CSG) elements that support larger attached units (normally battalion-sized) or nondivisional units which are operating in the division area.

Although the division has its own organic CSS units, it relies on corps and corps support command (COSCOM) units to sustain the division for continuous operations. (It may also coordinate through civil affairs staff for available host nation (HN) support.) Subordinate to the COSCOM are CSGs, a medical brigade, and a transportation group. Corps support groups provide the command and control of the COSCOM's logistics units with one CSG supporting each committed division and one CSG supporting the corps rear. Typically, the forward CSG provides direct support to the division while the rear CSG provides both DS and GS. Each CSG includes supply and services, transportation, and intermediate direct support maintenance (IDSM) units.

The medical brigade supporting the corps provides hospitals in general support of the division and direct support air and ground medical evacuation. The medical brigade's general support to the division also includes medical logistics, blood, and other health services as required. FMs 63-2, 63-2-1, 63-20, and 63-21 detail division support operations.

Division Cavalry Squadron

The division cavalry squadron performs reconnaissance and security for division operations. This helps the division commander to maneuver his brigades and battalions and attack the enemy at the most critical points.

The division cavalry squadron, consisting of ground and air troops, is highly mobile. It is ideally suited for economy of force missions as well as reconnaissance and security missions. It must be properly task-organized, augmented, and supported, however, to perform guard and cover missions. During combat operations, the cavalry squadron normally works for the division commander and usually performs missions as one squadron vice detached troops. The squadron-

  • Provides the division commander with real-time information on the enemy and terrain during operations.

  • Performs security operations, providing timely warning and force protection to the division. This preserves combat power and prevents premature deployment of the division.

  • Fills gaps between units and establishes physical contact with divisional units and adjacent units.

  • Facilitates the division's movement with reconnaissance, establishing contact points and passage points, and coordinates with higher and adjacent headquarters.

  • Performs reconnaissance and security operations in the division's rear area.

  • Performs damage control and combat operations in the division's rear area when tasked as, or as part of, a tactical combat force (TCF).

FM 17-95 details cavalry squadron operations.

Air Defense Battalion

The division air defense artillery (ADA) battalion retains the division's freedom of maneuver, protects critical division assets, destroys enemy aircraft before they release their ordnance, and denies the enemy aerial reconnaissance. To accomplish these missions, the division ADA battalion-

  • Engages and destroys very low enemy helicopters, fixed-wing "leaker" aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

  • Denies enemy aircraft local air superiority over the division AO.

  • Disseminates early warning.


  • In some situations, provides fire against surface targets when its systems are not required in the air defense (AD) role.

  • Provides air defense and airspace coordination and liaison to each maneuver brigade and division command post.

  • Denies enemy reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) activity.

The division commander sets the priorities for air defense protection and allocates available ADA resources. He considers the relative criticality of each unit or asset to his concept of operations, the vulnerability and recuperability of units or assets, and the anticipated threat. The ADA battalion commander integrates coverage of ADA weapons systems in and adjacent to the division area. He is the division commander's principal advisor on air defense.

Corps and EAC systems significantly expand the density, altitude, and range of air defense coverage over the division. This coverage may include joint and combined fixed-wing interceptors, high-altitude ADA missile units, and forward area low-altitude airspace units. Corps air defense brigades contain both forward area air defense (FAAD) and high-to-medium-altitude air defense (HIMAD) units. FAAD and HIMAD assets protect corps assets and reinforce the division's air defenses. The division's ADA battalion commander is the air defense coordinator (ADCOORD). He integrates the division's AD plan with both corps and EAC air defenses and integrates any OPCON AD units.

FM 44-100 details AD operations and procedures.

Military Intelligence Battalion

The military intelligence (MI) battalion provides the division dedicated intelligence, counterintelligence (CI), and EW support, including communications intercept, direction finding (DF) capability, and electronic attack. The MI battalion responds to both the G2- and G3- assigned intelligence, CI, and EW requirements and missions. The MI battalion receives, analyzes, and disseminates intelligence information for echelons above division (EAD) as well as from assets within the division.

The battalion can provide-

  • An MI company in direct support of each ground maneuver brigade and one company in general support to the division.

  • Ground surveillance radar coverage (AN/PPS-5B or like radar).

  • Enemy prisoner-of-war (EPW) interrogation, counterintelligence, and operations security (OPSEC) support.

  • Ground-based intercept and DF of enemy tactical communications. Intercept systems at division include the AN/PRD-12, the AN/TRQ-32A(V)2 (Teammate), and the AN/TSQ-138 (Trailblazer). Follow-on to these systems is the ground-based common sensor (GBCS) capable of intercept, DF, and jamming of enemy communications systems, and DF of noncommunication systems.

  • Ground-based electronic attack of enemy communications through such systems as the AN/TLQ-17A(V)3 (Trafficjam). The follow-on system will be the GBCS.

  • Airborne intercept, direction finding, and electronic attack of enemy communications through the AN/ALQ- 151(V)1 (Quickfix).

  • Measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) through the remotely monitored battlefield sensor system (REMBASS).

  • Joint surveillance target attack radar system (JSTARS) ground station modules (GSMs) or common ground stations (CGSs) to brigade level capable of receiving JSTARS and UAV down-linked imagery.

  • A commander's tactical terminal (CTT) capable of receiving Guardrail-collected signal intelligence (SIGINT).

  • Receipt of national level imagery intelligence (IMINT) and SIGINT through the mobile integrated tactical terminal (MITT).

  • Access to national and theater intelligence through a Trojan special purpose integrated remote intelligence terminal (SPIRIT). The Trojan SPIRIT provides access to worldwide, multiechelon data bases. It also provides reporting and dissemination via voice, data, and facsimile.

  • Long-range surveillance (LRS) units in some divisions (by MTOE).

  • An MI company in direct support of each ground maneuver brigade and one company in general support to the division.

  • Ground surveillance radar coverage (AN/PPS-5B or like radar).

  • Enemy prisoner-of-war (EPW) interrogation, counterintelligence, and operations security (OPSEC) support.

  • Ground-based intercept and DF of enemy tactical communications. Intercept systems at division include the AN/PRD-12, the AN/TRQ-32A(V)2 (Teammate), and the AN/TSQ-138 (Trailblazer). Follow-on to these systems is the ground-based common sensor (GBCS) capable of intercept, DF, and jamming of enemy communications systems, and DF of noncommunication systems.

  • Ground-based electronic attack of enemy communications through such systems as the AN/TLQ-17A(V)3 (Trafficjam). The follow-on system will be the GBCS.

  • Airborne intercept, direction finding, and electronic attack of enemy communications through the AN/ALQ- 151(V)1 (Quickfix).

  • Measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) through the remotely monitored battlefield sensor system (REMBASS).

  • Joint surveillance target attack radar system (JSTARS) ground station modules (GSMs) or common ground stations (CGSs) to brigade level capable of receiving JSTARS and UAV down-linked imagery.

  • A commander's tactical terminal (CTT) capable of receiving Guardrail-collected signal intelligence (SIGINT).

  • Receipt of national level imagery intelligence (IMINT) and SIGINT through the mobile integrated tactical terminal (MITT).

  • Access to national and theater intelligence through a Trojan special purpose integrated remote intelligence terminal (SPIRIT). The Trojan SPIRIT provides access to worldwide, multiechelon data bases. It also provides reporting and dissemination via voice, data, and facsimile.

  • Long-range surveillance (LRS) units in some divisions (by MTOE).


Emerging technology will soon enable provision of UAVs.

The division MI battalion conducts G2-tasked intelligence collection operations according to the division commander's priority intelligence requirements (PIR) and information requirements (IRs) through the analysis and control element (ACE). The ACE is organic to the MI battalion, and operates under the direction of the G2. Additionally, the MI battalion conducts G3-tasked EW operations missions per the commander's EW priorities.

The MI battalion coordinates and directs corps and EAC intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) assets supporting the division. An MI brigade performs IEW support at the corps level. It provides general support to the corps and, on occasion, may reinforce the division's intelligence efforts. When required, intelligence, imagery, EW, OPSEC support, and interrogation assets directly support the divisions.

FM 34-series (military intelligence) manuals provide the foundations for MI operations.

Signal Battalion

Signal support to the division is a collective and integrated application of communications, automation, and information services and systems. The signal battalion uses three distribution systems to cover the division's AO. They are the area common user system, the combat net radio (CNR) system, and the automatic data distribution system. Their integrated operation forms the division communications system.

The signal battalion's primary missions are-

  • To install, operate, and maintain a division communications system that supports C2, intelligence, fire control, CS, and CSS communications requirements.

  • To provide internal communications at all echelons of the division headquarters, to include the division tactical, main, and rear CPs and the DSA.

  • To provide special staff and technical assistance to the commander and staff for planning and employing all division communications assets.

The division signal battalion commander manages information resources for the division commander. He recommends communication priorities and employment to the commander and G3 based on the tactical situation, frequencies, and equipment available. He plans, coordinates, and provides staff supervision of communications-electronics and associated activities, official mail, distribution, and publication reproduction within the division. The signal battalion commander directs and controls the division's signal support resources and activities to meet all commanders' information requirements. Signal units attached to or supporting the division will be under OPCON of the division signal battalion commander unless otherwise assigned or attached.

The hub of the division's communications system is the divison's mobile subscriber equipment (MSE). This communications equipment provides-

  • Common user and dedicated circuits for support of units in the division area.

  • Gateway circuits to corps, joint service, or other nations' communications systems.

  • Capability to respond to changes in division organization for combat and relocation of units, CPs, and installations.

The corps signal brigade links the division communications system to corps and higher echelons. The resulting architecture provides deployed forces with secure global, voice, and digital data communications. If required for special missions, corps and EAC signal assets can augment the division's existing signal capabilities.

Specific responsibilities for the signal staff and the signal battalion are contained in FM 101-5 and FM 11-50.

Military Police Company

The division military police (MP) company performs four primary missions in support of division operations:

Battlefield circulation control (BCC), including route reconnaissance and surveillance, main supply route (MSR) regulation and enforcement, straggler and refugee control, intelligence collecting and reporting, and information dissemination.


Area security, including rear area reconnaissance and surveillance; security of designated critical assets, special ammunition, personnel, units, convoys, facilities, and MSR critical points; area damage control operations; intelligence collection; NBC detection and reporting; rear security; antiterrorism; response force operations; and base and installation defenses.

  • EPW and civilian internee operations, including collection, evacuation, temporary internment, strength accounting, and EPW accountability.

  • Law-and-order operations, including law enforcement, criminal investigation, and US military prisoner confinement.

One MP platoon is normally placed in direct support of or attached to each committed maneuver brigade for limited BCC, area security, and EPW collection support. Remaining MP platoons provide general support to the division rear area.

If tasked as a response force, the division MP company will task-organize available assets. This may require reprioritizing other MP missions because of limited MP assets within the division. This weighting of MP support may require a reduction of MP direct support to committed maneuver brigades and augmentation from the corps MP brigade.

Augmentation from the corps MP brigade is also required when the division conducts a river crossing or passage of lines operation. If augmentation is not available, MP platoons in DS to committed maneuver brigades revert back to MP company control for the duration of the operations.

The provost marshal (PM) is a division special staff officer. He decides which missions are critical and prioritizes them based on the division's mission, concept of operation, and commander's intent. He tasks available MP assets to meet mission priorities. The division PM usually operates from the rear CP. He coordinates, monitors, and advises the command on all MP operations. The MP company commander normally collocates with the division rear CP in the DSA to direct the use of his MP unit.

Finally, the division normally receives one corps MP

company to support sustained operations. Like the divisional MP company, this attached corps MP company works under the staff supervision of the provost marshal. FM 19-1 details MP operations.

Division Chemical Company

The division chemical company is found in all divisions except light infantry. It reduces the effects of enemy NBC weapons and counters enemy sensor systems by using smoke and obscurants on division combat operations. Its primary focus is NBC reconnaissance, decontamination, and smoke generation.

The division chemical officer and his staff are normally included in the chemical company table of organization and equipment (TOE). The chemical officer advises the division commander on NBC defense procedures, employment of smoke, NBC reconnaissance, and decontamination. He estimates the effects of enemy nuclear detonation, makes fallout predictions, and operates a 24-hour NBC warning and reporting system at the main CP. He also advises the commander on the use of supporting chemical units. He exercises staff supervision over the division chemical company and chemical defense units placed in support of the division.

Several NBC organizations and detachments provide added NBC defensive capabilities to the division. Corps chemical units may support corps CS and CSS units operating in the division area and may reinforce the divisional chemical company. Other sources for chemical support to divisions are mechanized or motorized smoke units, NBC reconnaissance units, NBC decontamination units, and dual purpose (light divisions only) smoke and decontamination companies. When additional companies are attached to or under OPCON of a division, a separate chemical battalion headquarters and headquarters detachment may be needed for command, control, and coordination (C3). It will report directly to the division chemical officer for operational taskings.

FM 3-100 provides the doctrinal base for chemical company operations.

Division Band
The division band enhances unit cohesion and soldier morale and supports civil-military, multi-national, and recruiting operations with its music. During OOTW, the band can support civil affairs and psychological operations. Division band activities often improve national and international relations.


During battles and engagements, when the band's musical role is impractical, the commander may direct that the band perform other missions or tasks. These could include division main CP security, perimeter defense, and EPW security at the division collecting point. In these roles, the band is normally placed under OPCON of the appropriate unit commander or staff and, if possible, employed as a single unit. The band must be able to reassemble and perform its primary mission, music, when circumstances permit. In February 1991, during Operation Desert Storm, the 3d Armored Division Band played musical marches along the Kuwaiti and Iraqi border as the division's troops began the ground campaign.

OTHER SUPPORT

Air Support

The theater air force component commander or joint force air component commander normally provides air support. Combat air forces are organized, equipped, and trained to support ground operations. This support may come from US Air Force, Navy, and Marine units or supporting air assets from other nations. Air missions that support the division include-

  • Counterair, both offensive and defensive.

  • Air interdiction (Al).

  • Close air support (CAS).

  • Surveillance and reconnaissance.

  • Airlift.

Offensive counterair operations normally support the division throughout the enemy territory. Targets may include forward arming and refueling points, forward operating bases, and aviation C3 facilities.

Defensive counterair operations destroy threat aircraft attempting to penetrate friendly airspace. These operations are closely integrated with division FAAD operations. They protect ground forces and permit freedom of operations.

Air interdiction operations destroy, neutralize, or delay the enemy's military potential before it can be used against friendly forces. Al is keyed to the commander's overall operation, but particularly to the division deep fight. The division identifies, prioritizes, and nominates Al targets to its higher headquarters for attack. Mission-type air requests for Al provide the tactical air force flexibility in planning and executing these missions. Al, like other fire support, is most effective when its effects are synchronized with the division commander's scheme of maneuver and it supports his plan for simultaneous attacks throughout the enemy's depth.

Close air support is an air action by fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft against hostile targets in close proximity to friendly forces. CAS requires detailed integration of each air mission with the fires and movement of the supported force. CAS can therefore occur many places on the battlefield. CAS assets may come from the Air Force, Navy, or Marines, or multinational units. Regardless of who provides the assets, CAS responds to the needs of ground commanders.

Within the division, CAS planners are fire support personnel and members of the tactical air control party (TACP), along with the G3 . Generally, the corps allocates several planned CAS sorties to the division in response to division requests and priorities. The division G3 may further distribute sorties to subordinate brigades. Planned requests are scheduled or on-call. Immediate CAS normally responds to a ground commander's request in emergencies.

Surveillance and reconnaissance provide timely and accurate information on the location, composition, activities, and movement of enemy forces and monitor the results of friendly operations. Visual, imagery, electronic, and weather air reconnaissance support is available to the division. Tactical surveillance and reconnaissance are essential for assessing division CAS and Al missions. The division 62 coordinates all fixed-wing surveillance and reconnaissance requirements.

Airlift increases the division's mobility and rapidly delivers supplies and equipment to division forces. The 63 has primary responsibility for combat airlift requirements. The 64 administers and supervises airlift support to current and future operations. CSS use of airlift includes the movement of replacement personnel and supplies and the aeromedical evacuation of patients.

See Chapter 3 for air request procedures.


Navy and Marine Support

Combat units normally submit requests for naval gunfire or aviation support through the air and naval gunfire liaison company (ANGLICO). (If an ANGLICO is not attached, units submit requests through normal fire support channels.)

The ANGLICO provides qualified Navy and Marine Corps personnel to advise on the capabilities, limitations, and employment of naval gunfire and navy and marine aviation support. They also advise on organization and communications needs to request, direct, and control this support. One liaison company supports one division. Requests for ANGLICO support go to the corps, JFLCC, ground force commander, or JFC, as appropriate. JP 3-09 and FMs 6-30 and 6-20-30 detail request procedures.

Special Operations Forces

Special operations forces (SOF) include Army Special Forces (SF), Rangers, special operations aviation (SOA), psychological operations (PSYOP), and civil affairs (CA) units. (SOF support may also include special operations forces from other services.) PSYOP and CA activities habitually support both conventional and unconventional units throughout the battlefield. Doctrinally, SF, Rangers, and SOA are theater-level assets that help accomplish strategic, operational, or tactical objectives through special operations.

Rangers, SF, and SOA normally operate under the theater's special operations command (SOC) or JTF headquarters, but there may be exceptions. In an offensive operation, a division could link up with, and have temporary tactical control (TACON) of; an SF unit. In this situation, the SF unit may assist the division with tactical missions (reconnaissance, intelligence). Normally, a special operations command and control element is attached to the division and provides the interface between deployed SF units and the division headquarters. Finally, the division can nominate targets to corps for execution by SF and Ranger units.

Psychological Operations
Echelons above division PSYOP units influence political,
military, economic, and ideological actions that support both longterm and immediate division objectives. A tactical PSYOP company from the corps PSYOP battalion is normally attached to or placed in direct support of the division. The PSYOP company is normally controlled through a division PSYOP support element (DPSE) located with the division's main CP. The division may coordinate additional operational-and strategic-level PSYOP assets to assist in the mission if needed.

The EAD tactical PSYOP companies use loud-speakers, audiovisual equipment, and leaflets to influence specified target groups of people within the division's AO. Under supervision of the division G3, the tactical PSYOP teams disseminate propaganda designed to lower the morale and combat efficiency and fragment the loyalty of enemy military forces throughout the division battlefield. The company may also support division deception operations. In the division rear area, PSYOP forces work closely with civil affairs units to gain the trust and confidence of the local civil population and minimize civilian interference with division operations.

Civil Affairs

During operations, the division normally has a corps CA battalion attached. Under staff supervision of the division G5, the battalion headquarters analyzes the division mission for CA requirements and prepares the CA annex to the division plans and orders. lt provides and facilitates civil-military cooperation and interface between the division and foreign civil authorities or foreign military forces.

The battalion provides specialized CA technical support throughout the division area and normally attaches CA teams to each major subordinate element of the division. These teams function as CA staff elements for the units to which they are attached. They plan, coordinate, and supervise the supported commanders' directed CA activities.

Civil affairs personnel assist the division by identifying available local resources, facilities, and support required to accomplish the mission. They coordinate US requirements for and assist in acquirng these resources. CA units minimize local population interference with military operations and help locate and identify population centers in the division's area of operations.


The CA element also assists the commander in meeting legal and moral obligations to the local population. This assistance requires civil affairs personnel to know international agreements (Hague and Geneva Conventions, status of forces agreements), national laws, US laws, and executive directives that define the commander's moral and legal responsibilities to civil populations.

Finally, civil affairs personnel review current plans and future operations with applicable laws and agreements, provide advice, and assist the commander in meeting his obligations. (See Army and joint CA publications in references.)

In geographic regions where the indigenous government remains operational during US military operations, CA personnel working for the G5 interface with the local government officials. This interface allows the commander to coordinate with the civil sector for logistics support and population control as well as to gain information and intelligence from host nation contacts.

Other Support Relationships
Army, joint, and multinational units or elements may perform missions within the area of operations of a corps, division, brigade, or battalion with which they have no formal command or support relationship. (See Figure 1-9.) Parent units sustain their
elements dispersed throughout the battlefield unless they are attached for support. When mission requirements exceed the support capabilities of their parent units, dispersed elements may coordinate for support with the division controlling the area of operations. These units are responsible for the terrain they occupy and are integrated into the overall operational plan. The division rear CP assigns a coordinating staff and or a host unit as the nondivisional unit's point of contact (POC) with the division.



Figure 1-9. Nondivisional units and
divisional POC





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