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APPENDIX E

COMBINED OPERATIONS

When US forces are deployed to a host country, tactical operations are usually joint in nature. US forces normally work with or in support of the military and paramilitary forces of the host country.

E-1. NATURE OF COMBINED OPERATIONS

Combined operations require written agreement as to authority, jurisdiction, and procedural and organizational matters. The legal basis for combined operations is usually a treaty or operational agreement between the US and the host country.

a. US forces must plan to coordinate and work with the military or paramilitary forces. Commanders and staffs must be prepared to establish workable arrangements quickly, once introduced into a host country, if not performed before deployment. Every situation is unique and depends on the extent of involvement of US forces and the nature of the operations.

b. Planning for factors that must be considered benefits combined operations. Chief considerations are:

  • Command and control.

  • Intelligence.

  • Operational procedures.

  • Combat service support.

E-2. COMMAND AND CONTROL

US forces establish the following:

a. Organization of the combined force.

b. Overall command of the force.

c. Roles and missions of the combined-force.

d. Procedure for exchange of LOs with language ability or interpreter support, and determine the level of exchange.

e. Understanding of differences, abilities, and personal characteristics of host country military leaders.

E-3. INTELLIGENCE

US forces establish procedures for--

a. Dissemination of military intelligence and use of intelligence assets by partners.

b. Coordination of intelligence operations.

c. Sharing of high-technology intelligence abilities.

E-4. OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES

US forces establish plans and procedures for--

a. SOPs that ensure effective cooperation.

b. Assignment of responsibility for certain operations based on special abilities of the force.

c. Determination of difference in tactics, techniques, and procedures.

d. Determination of difference in equipment, radios, and maps.

e. Detailed planning and rehearsals.

f. Determination of allied unit recognition.

g. Rear operations coordination, planning, and responsibilities.

h. Use of combat support assets.

E-5. COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

US forces establish plans for--

a. Exchange of liaison officers.

b. Coordination support from local resources and facilities.

c. Determination of equipment and ammunition compatibility.

d. Support in a tactical emergency.




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