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The following acronyms, abbreviations, and definitions are provided to aid the reader in understanding this publication.

Section I


AATArmy assault team
ABCCC airborne battlefield command and control center
ACL allowable cargo load
ADA air defense artillery
AFFOR the USAF element of a joint task force
AGL above ground level
AKZ armor kill zone
ALCC airlift control center
ALCE airlift control element
AM amplitude modulation
AMC air mission commander
APERS antipersonnel
APRT Army physical readiness test
ARFOR the Army element of a joint task force
ARSOC Army special operations command
ARSOF Army Special Operations Forces
ASG area support group
ASPC all-source production center
ATGM antitank guided missile
AWADS adverse weather aerial delivery system
BCE battle coordination element
BTMS battalion training management system
CA civil affairs
CAS close air support
CCT combat control team
CDS container delivery system
CE communications-electronics
CI counterintelligence
CINC commander in chief
COMINT communications intelligence
COMSEC communications security
CONUS continental United States
COSCOM corps support command
CP command post
CS combat support; a chemical agent
CSS combat service support
DACG departure airfield control group
DACO departure airfield control officer
DASC direct air support center
DMDG digital message device group
DOD Department of Defense
DS direct support
DSU direct support unit
DZ drop zone
EAC echelons above corps
EACIC Echelons Above Corps Intelligence Center
ECCM electronic counter-countermeasure
ECM electronic countermeasures
E&E escape and evasion
EEFI essential elements of friendly information
EOC emergency operations center
EW electronic warfare
FARP forward area rearm and refuel point
FASCAM family of scatterable mines
FAX facsimile transmission
FDC fire direction center
FEBA forward edge of the battle area
FFL friendly front lines
FIST fire support team
FLOT forward line of own troops
FM field manual; frequency modulation
FO forward observer
FORSCOM US Army Forces Command
FPF final protective fire
FPL final protective line
FRAGO fragmentary order
FSA fire support area
FSCOORD fire support coordination or coordinator
FSE fire support element
FSO fire support officer
FSS fire support station
FTX field training exercise
G3 Assistant Chief of Staff, Operations
GS general support
GSR ground surveillance radar
HAARS high-altitude, airdrop resupply system
HAHO high-altitude, high-opening
HALO high-altitude, low-opening
HE high explosive
HF high frequency
HHC headquarters and headquarters company
HSLLADS high-speed, low-level airdrop system
HUMINT human intelligence
IAW in accordance with
IFF identification-friend-or-foe
IP initial point
IRP initial rally point
ISB intermediate staging base
JACC/CP joint airborne communications center/command post
JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff
JCSE joint communications support element
JFC joint force commander
JSOC joint special operations command
JTB joint transportation board
JTF joint task force
kw kilowatt
LAPES low altitude parachute extraction system
LAW light antitank weapon
LNO liaison officer
LOC logistical operations center
LRRP long-range reconnaissance patrol
LRSU long-range surveillance unit
LTD laser target designator
LZ landing zone
MAC Military Airlift Command
MANPADS man-portable air defense system
MCC movement control center
METT-T mission, enemy, terrain, troops and time available
MI military intelligence
MILES multiple integrated laser engagement system
mm millimeter
MMC Materiel Management Center
MMEE minimum mission-essential equipment
MOS military occupational specialty
MOUT military operations on urbanized terrain
MRLS multiple rocket launch system
MTP mission training plan
NBC nuclear, biological, chemical
NCA National Command Authority
NCO noncommissioned officer
NOD night observation device
OCOKA observation, concealment, obstacles, key terrain, and avenues of approach
OCONUS outside continental United States
OPCOM operational command
OPCON operational control
OPFOR opposing force
OPORD operation order
OPSEC operations security
ORP objective rally point
PAC personnel administration center
PDF primary direction of fire
PIR priority intelligence requirements
PLL prescribed load list
POM preparation for oversea movement
PSYOP psychological operations
PT physical training
PZ pickup zone
QRE quick-reaction element
RATELO radiotelephone operator
REMAB remote marshalling base
RFL restrictive fire line
RIP ranger indoctrination program
RP rally point; release point
RPG rocket-propelled grenade
RRF ranger ready force
RRP reentry rally point
RSE ranger support element
RSTA reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition
S1 adjutant
S2 intelligence officer
S3 operations and training officer
S4 supply officer
S5 civil affairs officer
SAR search and rescue
SATCOM satellite communications)
SCIF sensitive compartmented information facility
SCOPES squad combat operations' exercises (simulation)
SCUBA self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
SEAD suppression of enemy air defense
SEMA special electronic mission aircraft
SERE survival, evasion, resistance, and escape
SF special forces
SHORAD short-range air defense
SIGSEC signal security
SKE station-keeping equipment
SLAR side-looking airborne radar
SOA special operations aviation
SOCB special operations communications battalion
SOCOM special operations command (usually, 1st SOCOM)
SOP standing operating procedures
SOSB special operations support battalion
SOTF special operations task force
SPL support platoon leader
STX situational training exercise
TA theater Army
TAACOM Theater Army Area Command
TAC Tactical Air Command
TACP tactical air control party
TACSAT tactical satellite terminal
TAMMC Theater Army Materiel Management Center
TASG theater Army support group
TDA table of distribution and allowances
TOA transfer of authority
TOC tactical operations center
TOE table(s) of organization and equipment
TRP target reference point
TTY teletype
UHF ultrahigh frequency
US United States
USAF United States Air Force
USMC United States Marine Corps
USN United States Navy
VHF very high frequency
WP white phosphorus
XO executive officer

Section II


ADVANCE FORCE. An operation requiring the immediate deployment of US forces with the intent to negate a threat before the deployment of follow-on forces is required.

AIRLAND BATTLE DOCTRINE. An approach to military operations that realizes the full potential of US forces. Two notions (extending the battlefield and the ability to integrate conventional, nuclear, chemical, and electronics means) are combined to describe a battlefield where the enemy is attacked to the full depth of his formation.

AREA OF INFLUENCE. A geographical area wherein a commander is directly capable of influencing operations by maneuver or fire support systems normally under his command or control.

AREA OF INTEREST. That area of concern to the commander, including the area of influence, areas adjacent thereto, and extending into enemy territory to the objectives of current or planned operations. This area also includes areas occupied by enemy forces who would jeopardize the accomplishment of the mission.

AREA OF OPERATIONS. That portion of an area of conflict necessary for military operations. Areas of operations are geographical areas assigned to commanders for which they have responsibility and in which they have authority to conduct military operations.

CHALK. One specific aircraft load.

CLANDESTINE OPERATIONS. Activities to accomplish intelligence, counterintelligence, and other similar activities sponsored or conducted by governmental departments or agencies, in such a way as to ensure secrecy or concealment. (They differ from covert operations in that emphasis is placed on concealment of the operation rather than on concealment of the identity of the sponsor.)

COMMUNICATIONS INTELLIGENCE (COMINT). The interception and processing of foreign communications passed by radio, wire, or other electromagnetic means, and by the processing of foreign encrypted communications, however transmitted. Interception comprises search, intercept, operator identification, signal analysis, traffic analysis, crypto-analysis, study of plain text, the fusion of these processes, and reporting the results.

COMMUNICATIONS SECURITY. The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny to unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretations of the results of such study. COMSEC includes crypto-security, physical security, and transmission security.

COUNTERINTELLIGENCE. That aspect of intelligence activities, both offensive and defensive, designed to detect and neutralize or destroy the effectiveness of hostile foreign intelligence activities and to protect information against espionage, personnel against subversion, and installations and materiel against sabotage.

COVERT OPERATIONS. Operations that are so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor. They differ from clandestine operations in that emphasis is placed on concealment of identity of the sponsor rather than on concealment of the operation.

DECEPTION. Those measures designed to mislead the enemy by manipulation, distortion, or falsification of evidence to induce him to react in a manner prejudicial to his interests.

DEMONSTRATION. A show of force in an area where a decision is not sought. It is similar to a feint but does not make contact with the enemy.

DRILL. A drill focuses on a "chunk" or "slice" of battle and is targeted at small units. Drills are critical collective tasks that require a high degree of proficiency from a small unit. Generally, small units "drill" collective tasks that require rapid responses by unit members in the absence of detailed orders from unit leaders.

ELECTRONIC COUNTERMEASURES. That division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemy's effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum.

ELECTRONIC INTELLIGENCE (ELINT). The technical and intelligence information derived from foreign noncommunications electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than atomic detonations or radioactive sources.

ELECTRONIC WARFARE. Military action involving the use of electromagnetic energy to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of the electromagnetic spectrum and action that retains friendly use of the electromagnetic spectrum.

ELECTRONIC WARFARE SUPPORT MEASURES (ESM). That division of EW involving actions taken to search for, intercept, identify, and locate sources of radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition. ESM provides a source of information needed for immediate action involving electronic countermeasures, electronic counter-countermeasures, avoidance, targeting, and other tactical employment of forces.

ESPIONAGE. Actions directed toward the acquisition of information through clandestine operations.

EVACUATION/SAFEGUARD. The use of US forces to evacuate US citizens or allies from a hostile or potentially hostile area, or to safeguard US personnel or property.

EXFILTRATION. The removal of personnel or units from areas under enemy control by stealth, deception, surprise, or clandestine means. Exfiltration is a method of extracting ranger units.

EXTRACTION. The removal of personnel or units from areas under enemy control by any means, to include exfiltration, airland, airmobile, or amphibious.

FEINT. A diversionary supporting attack conducted to draw the enemy's attention from the main effort. It is normally executed by brigades and small units. Feints are usually shallow, limited objective attacks that go in before or during the main attack.

GUERRILLA WARFARE. Military and paramilitary operations conducted in enemy-held or hostile territory by irregular and predominantly indigenous forces.

HIGH-INTENSITY CONFLICT. A war between the US and any other nation or nations in which both belligerents use the most modern technology and all resources in intelligence, mobility, firepower (including NBC), command, communications and control, and service support.

HUMAN INTELLIGENCE. Intelligence derived from information provided by human resources.

INFILTRATION. The movement through or into an area of territory occupied by either friendly or enemy troops or organizations. The movement is made either by small groups or by individuals, at extended or irregular intervals. When used in conjunction with the enemy, it implies that contact is avoided. Infiltration is a subset of insertion.

INSERTION. Placement of troops and equipment into an operational area by any means.

INTERDICT. To isolate or seal off an area by military means; to prevent, hinder, or delay the use of an area or route by enemy forces.

INTERDICT LINE OF COMMUNICATIONS. An attack to seal off an area or to deny use of a route or approach.

JOINT TASK FORCE. A JTF may be constituted and designated by the Secretary of Defense or by the commander of a unified command, specified command, or an existing JTF. Normally, it performs missions having specific, limited objectives or missions of short duration. It dissolves when it has achieved its purpose. The joint task force commander is responsible to the commander, known as the establishing authority, who created the JTF. The JTF is composed of elements of two or more services operating under a single JTF commander. The JTF commander has operational control over the entire force and may have direct command of his own staff with representatives from the other services. He exercises logistics coordination or control only as necessary to meet his subordinate commanders' logistics needs.

LIAISON. That personal contact or communication maintained between elements of military forces to ensure mutual understanding and unity of purpose and effort.

LINE OF COMMUNICATIONS. All routes (land, water, and air) that connect an operating military force with one or more bases of operations and along which supplies and military forces move.

LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT. Limited politico-military operations conducted to achieve political, social, economic, or psychological objectives. It is generally confined to a specific geographic area and is often characterized by operational constraints imposed on ranger units by political and economic considerations. It may involve intermittent combat against regular threat military forces, but it more often involves conflict with irregular, security, or paramilitary forces of a country or group involved in an operation that is counter to the best interests and national security of the United States. It is characterized by relatively low levels of combat and constraints placed on the weaponry, tactics, and movements of the ranger force. It may involve counterterrorist or antiterrorist operations and generally occurs before a pro forma declaration of war.

MID-INTENSITY CONFLICT. War, declared or undeclared, between the US and the regular forces of one or more nations and their respective allies, if any, in which the belligerents use the most modern technology and all resources in intelligence, mobility, firepower (excluding nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons), command, communications and control, and support. They are used for limited objectives under definitive policy limitations as to the extent of destructive power that can be used or the extent of geographical area that might be involved.

MILITARY STRATEGY. Art and science of using the armed forces of a nation to secure the objectives of national policy by application of force or the threat of force. Military strategy sets the fundamental conditions for operations.

NATIONAL COMMAND AUTHORITY. This includes the President and Secretary of Defense or the duly deputized alternates or successors. Commonly referred to as NCA.

OPERATIONAL COMMAND/CONTROL. Operational command (OPCOM) and operational control in joint force terminology both refer to the authority exercised by joint commanders over subordinate service components. Those terms are not interchangeable in joint operations. OPCOM applies to the authority exercised by commanders of unified commands. OPCON is the authority that subordinate joint task force commanders exercise in the conduct of specific operations. The authority that military departments exercise over their respective components is commonly referred to as command less operational command.

OPERATIONAL LEVEL OF WAR. The operational level of war uses available military resources to attain strategic goals within a theater of war. It is the theory of larger unit operations. It also involves planning and conducting campaigns. Campaigns are sustained operations designed to defeat an enemy force in a specified space and time with simultaneous and sequential battles. The disposition of forces, selection of objectives, and actions taken to weaken or to outmaneuver the enemy all set the terms of the next battle and exploit tactical gains. They are all part of the operational level of war. In AirLand Battle doctrine, this level includes the marshalling of forces and logistical support, providing direction to ground and air maneuver, applying conventional and nuclear fires in depth, and employing unconventional and psychological warfare.

OPERATIONS SECURITY. Those measures designed to protect information concerning planned, ongoing, and completed operations from unauthorized disclosure. It includes all actions a command takes to deny the enemy information about friendly units and their operations.

ORDER OF BATTLE (OB). The identification, strength, command structure, and disposition of the personnel, units, and equipment of any military force.

RAID. Usually a small-scale operation, involving a swift penetration of hostile territory to secure information, confuse the enemy, or destroy his installations. It ends with a planned withdrawal upon completion of the assigned mission.

RANGER MISSION. To conduct strike, raid, or special light infantry operations. Execution of ranger missions is normally directed by the National Command Authority. Rangers also support operational-level commanders during operations of limited duration when allocated or assigned by the theater commander.

RECONNAISSANCE. A mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy; or to secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographical, or geographical characteristics of a particular area.

SEARCH AND RESCUE. The use of aircraft, surface craft, submarines, specialized rescue teams, and equipment to search for and rescue personnel in distress on land or at sea.

SEIZURE. As an operational purpose, the capture of a voluntarily restricted portion of an enemy-controlled territory. Capture of an isolated land mass such as an island is usually categorized as a seizure.

SEIZE KEY FACILITY. An attack on an installation with the intent of holding it for a short period. Normally, rangers would make the assault to seize and secure an installation for follow-on forces.

SERVICE COMPONENT. Each service component commander is responsible for recommending the proper use of his forces and for accomplishing operational tasks assigned by the joint commander. He is also responsible for his service in matters of internal administration and discipline; training in own service doctrine, techniques, and tactics; designation of specific units to meet joint requirements; logistics functions normal to the component; tactical employment of service component forces; and service intelligence matters.

SHOW OF FORCE. A mission carried out to demonstrate US resolve, whereby US forces are deployed to defuse a situation that may be harmful to US interests or national objectives.

SIGNAL INTELLIGENCE (SIGINT). A generic term that includes COMINT and ELINT. Activities concerned with the collection and processing of foreign electromagnetic emissions for the purpose of producing intelligence information.

SITUATIONAL TRAINING EXERCISE. An STX is a short, mission-oriented exercise in which a group of closely-related collective tasks are trained, using a doctrinally preferred method of executing these tasks to established standards. An STX is drill-like in nature, but it is more complex and flexible than a drill. It usually involves a larger unit than a drill.

SPECIAL OPERATIONS. Military operations conducted by specially trained, equipped, and organized DOD forces against strategic or tactical targets in pursuit of national, military, political, economic, or psychological objectives. Special operations may support conventional military operations, or they may occur independently when the use of conventional forces is either inappropriate or infeasible. Sensitive peacetime operations, except for training, are normally authorized by the NCA and conducted under the direction of the NCA or designated commander. Special operations may include unconventional warfare, counter-terrorist operations, collective security, psychological operations, and civil affairs measures.

SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES. All civil affairs, psychological operations, ranger (active component), and special forces units within the US Army, US Army Reserve, and National Guard.

SPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND. The major subordinate command to FORSCOM exercising command and control of all active component Army special operations forces not placed under the operational command of unified or specified commands.

STRATEGIC LEVEL OF WAR. Military strategy uses the armed forces of a nation to secure the objectives of national policy by applying force or the threat of force. Military strategy sets the fundamental conditions for operations.

STRIKE. An attack that is intended to inflict damage on, seize, or destroy an objective. Sometimes referred to as direct action missions.

SURVEILLANCE. The systematic observation of aerospace, surface or subsurface areas, places, persons, or things by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, or other means.

TACTICAL. Pertaining to the employment of units in combat.

TACTICAL LEVEL OF WAR. Tactics are the specific techniques smaller units use to win battles and engagements that support operational objectives. Tactics employ all available combat, combat support, and combat service support. Tactics involve the movement and positioning of forces on the battlefield in relation to the enemy, the provisioning of fire support, and the logistical support of force before, during, and following engagements with the enemy. At corps and division, operational and tactical levels are not clearly separable, but they are guided by the same principles. An operation designed to defeat any enemy force in an extended area does so through operational maneuver and a series of tactical actions.

TACTICAL COMBAT INTELLIGENCE. That knowledge of the enemy, weather, and geographical features needed by a commander in the planning and conduct of combat operations. It is derived from the interpretation of information on the enemy and the environment.

TARGET ANALYSIS. A detailed and systematic examination of processed intelligence to identify and locate targets.

UNIFIED COMMAND. A unified command is established and designated by direction of the President. The command is organized under a single unified CINC and has a broad, continuing mission. The CINC is responsible to the Secretary of Defense for accomplishing his broad and continuing mission and operates under the strategic and operational direction of the JCS. A unified command is composed of assigned forces of two or more services. These forces, as service components, are under the operational command of the unified commander. The CINC exercises operational command authority through service component commanders. When tasked by higher authority, he may establish a subordinate JTF to conduct specific missions. Under emergency conditions, the CINC has the authority to use all facilities and supplies of assigned forces to accomplish his mission.

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