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Military

CHAPTER 3

Deployment

Ranger units can quickly deploy by any means of transportation to any location in the world.

3-1. Readiness.

One ranger battalion is always in an advanced readiness condition as the Ranger Ready Force (RRF) available for immediate worldwide deployment. A second battalion is prepared to deploy later and a third battalion to follow. The regimental headquarters maintains command and control, liaison, communications, and reconnaissance elements immediately available for deployment. Higher status of readiness in response to specific world situations can be achieved.

3-2. Ranger ready force.

In order to maintain advanced readiness conditions, ranger battalions are rotated as the RRF.

a. Before taking over the duties of the RRF, battalions must do the following:

(1) Complete preparation for oversea movement (POM) qualification, to include an individual records check and required inoculations.

(2) Test fire all weapons, confirm battlesight settings, and repair or replace faulty weapons.

(3) Assemble and load on pallets the unit basic load (Classes I and V) and other supplies and equipment.

(4) Check unit-derived packing list components for accountability and serviceability.

(5) Prepare special operations troop listings.

b. During an RRF period, ranger units:

(1) Have a positive recall system for all personnel.

(2) Store enough air items for a battalion-size parachute assault.

(3) Conduct no off-post exercises, unless approved by the regimental commander.

c. Each unit keeps an alert roster and a telephone notification system for recalling personnel. The rosters ensure that the duty officer and the unit charge of quarters make a minimum number of calls. Each commander briefs personnel assigned to his unit on the recall system and tests it often.

d. Ranger units can maintain an increased readiness condition for long periods, but they should not be kept in that condition longer than needed. The effort to maintain this level of readiness will degrade the unit's training and effectiveness. If the needs of the operations dictate long periods at the highest readiness condition, provisions must be made for sustainment training. Also, added support will be required from the RSE.

e. The ranger regiment maintains a strong family support system when the unit is training or deployed on combat operations. Each member of the chain of command is responsible for family support.

3-3. N-hour sequence.

The N-hour sequence is a departure time sequence designed to help the ranger force complete all required deployment actions within a certain time. The length of the N-hour sequence depends on the readiness condition of the battalion before deployment. The N-hour sequence begins when the battalion is alerted and ends when the first elements depart. The N-hour sequence does not include travel time to the objective area.

3-4. Intelligence and security.

a. Essential elements of friendly information. Items of sensitive information and subject areas, if not secured, can be collectively analyzed by a hostile force. This analysis can reveal the intentions of a unit or compromise a mission. These items of information are designated as essential elements of friendly information (EEFI). They are never transmitted without encryption. The EEFI associated with a ranger unit alert normally are the mission, the use of staging bases, nature of the target, special terrain or weather conditions, and time limits. The ranger force commander must ensure that EEFI are not discussed outside of secure areas or made available to personnel without a security clearance and a need to know.

b. Security plans. Security plans for billets, marshalling areas, and out-loading areas must remain flexible to adapt to any situation. Certain items are always addressed in security plans. These are access control and physical security.

(1) Access control. Ranger units control access to their respective areas by allowing only authorized personnel to enter or leave. All entrances are secured and an armed guard with the access roster is posted. Access to telephones is restricted.

(2) Physical security.

(a) Equipment is open to theft and sabotage during the early phases of deployment. Units must provide guards to secure all unit and personal equipment.

(b) Weapons, ammunition, and sensitive items must be stored in a restricted area and guarded.

(c) Classified documents are open to compromise during deployment. Steps must be set up for maintenance, transportation, turn-in, and destruction of classified material. The most secure facility available must be used.

c. Rear detachment security. Security after deployment (maintained by the rear detachment) is as important as security before deployment. No information should be given to the news media from other than official sources. The rear detachment may continue to play a role in the unit cover and deception plan.

d. Tactical operations center security. Only personnel listed on TOC access rosters are allowed free entry into the TOC area. Personnel wanting to enter the TOC, who are not listed on the access rosters, are detained until their identity and purpose are proven. Such personnel are escorted at all times while within the TOC area.

e. Marshalling and out-loading area security. The ranger unit normally marshalls its personnel and equipment in the unit area, providing its own security force. The USAF security police provide this support at the departure airfield. On Army airfields, Army military police provide security. En route security is provided by the RSE.

f. Personnel and unit equipment sanitization.

(1) Before deployment, personnel are relieved of non-mission-essential material having intelligence value. This reduces the intelligence available to hostile forces if they capture a ranger force member.

(2) The ranger force commander sets the degree of sanitization IAW mission requirements.

(3) If strict sanitization is imposed, guidelines are issued as follows:

(a) The only personal items retained are identification card and tags.

(b) Unit insignia and markings are removed from uniforms and equipment.

(c) Personal items, such as wallets and photographs, are secured by the rear detachment commander.

(d) Personnel are briefed on how to compose and retain combat diaries. No personal diaries are allowed.

(4) The commander decides how much US currency is to be taken with the unit. '

g. Area sanitization. To avoid the compromise of classified or sensitive mission-related material, searches are conducted before and after leaving the host installation, REMAB, or ISB. These searches are held to locate and remove any material, indicators, litter, or other items that could compromise the ranger unit's mission. Unit commanders ensure that a thorough sanitization of their areas is conducted, to include dismantling rehearsal areas, destroying terrain models, erasing chalkboards, and emptying all classified and nonclassified waste containers. During their searches, commanders must pay close attention to emergency operations centers, tactical operations centers, and marshalling and loading areas. The ranger unit's intelligence officer coordinates support from local counterintelligence elements to search the area again after the ranger unit leaves.

3-5. Operations.

a. Actions upon receipt of the OPORD.

(1) Task-organize and equip units for special mission(s) IAW the warning order.

(2) Allocate/reallocate mission-essential equipment.

(3) Distribute augmentee personnel.

(4) Redistribute key personnel,

(5) Prepare a deployment time sequence.

(6) Prepare a movement plan.

(7) Prepare and maintain a current operation estimate.

b. Advance elements. A planning element is normally deployed to the REMAB/ISB or JTF headquarters in advance of the main body if the ranger force does not deploy directly to the objective area.

c. Emergency operations center. An EOC is setup by the ranger battalion headquarters. The EOC is responsible for relaying all reports to higher headquarters. It remains operational until ordered to cease.

d. Air movement. The ranger force always deploys by USAF aircraft. This is normally an administrative air movement to a REMAB or ISB. It may be followed by tactical air deployment from there. For some missions, tactical deployment begins at the unit's home station. Even if the movement is administrative, key personnel are cross-loaded. This is done under the direction of the operations section air officer based on aircraft allocations and load plans.

3-6. Logistics.

The following describes logistics readiness needs and steps for deployment.

a. Supply.

(1) Class I.

(a) Combat rations are normally palletized when the unit is RRF. These rations are to be used during the tactical operation. If the mission calls for deployment directly into the objective area, the palletized stock of rations is off-loaded in the unit area and issued as needed.

(b) Each ranger deploys with emergency combat rations.

(2) Classes II and IV.

(a) Individual clothing and equipment.

  • Individual A bags are packed IAW a predetermined packing list, tagged, and marked. They are palletized, moved to the departure airfield by the RSE, and loaded IAW the air movement plan.
  • Individual B bags are packed, assembled, and forwarded on order by the rear detachment.
  • Individual environmental equipment is issued. Equipment shortages are replenished out of stocks maintained by the RSE.

(b) Air items.

  • While the unit is on RRF, a contingency load of main and reserve parachutes is maintained by the RSE.
  • Individual and unit air items are palletized by the RSE and shipped in bulk to the REMAB or ISB.
  • For direct-deployment missions, air items and packing material are taken to the unit by the RSE.

(c) General supplies. The RSE maintains pallets of common contingency items and special equipment. Pallets are picked up by the out-loading support unit and moved to the unit area for issue or moved with the other pallets to the departure airfield.

(d) Bulk supplies. Barrier material is identified, relocated, palletized, and out-loaded IAW the air movement plan.

(3) Class V.

(a) The unit basic load of ammunition is secured, palletized, and loaded by the RSE IAW the air movement plan.

(b) For direct deployment missions, selected pallets are taken to the unit area and ammunition is issued. The convoy route is coordinated through the post EOC, and secured by the RSE.

(c) Designated items are rigged by the RSE for airdrop, if enough time exists before movement to the REMAB or ISB begins.

(4) Class VI. Personnel deploy with comfort items as needed.

(5) Class VII.

(a) All weapons and sensitive items not deployed are assembled and secured by the rear detachment personnel.

(b) Unit vehicles are prepared for airland or airdrop.

(c) Inoperable mission-essential equipment is repaired or replaced.

(d) Special equipment requests are forwarded to the logistics section as they are identified.

(6) Class VIII.

(a) Individuals deploy with one set of individual Class VIII items.

(b) Unit medics deploy with modified aidbags.

(c) Controlled medical items (less drugs) are palletized and deployed with section supplies. Controlled drugs are secured and issued to unit aidmen on order.

(d) Medical supply chests are maintained in the unit aid station.

(7) Class IX.

(a) Units deploy with initial prescribed load list (PLL) items.

(b) Critical PLL shortages are identified to the RSE for follow-on issue.

b. Maintenance.

(1) Upon alert, priority maintenance or replacement of key items of equipment is coordinated by the logistics officer. Only minimum mission-essential equipment is replaced.

(2) Items to be returned from supporting maintenance activities are identified, and pickup is coordinated by the property book officer.

c. Out-loading coordination and support.

(1) Upon alert, the RSE provides a liaison officer to the ranger logistics section.

(2) The support platoon leader (SPI,) attends the air movement conference and coordinates the following:

(a) Movement times (for both troops and equipment) to the departure airfield.

(b) Steps for weighing and joint inspection of the pallets and vehicles upon arrival at the departure airfield control group (DACG).

(c) Limitations on the pallet height and weight due to aircraft type, allowable cargo load (ACL), and availability.

(d) Changes in the planned number of pallets due to the mission requirements or airframe availability.

(e) Rigging and loading of the heavy drop and supply bundles.

(3) Empty pallets are placed in position for loading by the RSE in coordination with the SPL.

(a) Companies and staff sections prepare pallets.

(b) For airdrop operations, vehicles are prerigged at the unit location. On order, vehicles are driven to the heavy drop rigging site. The SPL and the officer in charge of the rigger detachment coordinate for a rigging site and the delivery of the required air items to that location. Rigging is done by the RSE, and supervised by a member of the ranger unit. Loading aboard the aircraft is IAW the air movement plan and supervised by RSE and USAF aerial port personnel.

(4) The DACG is provided by the host installation. Upon arrival at the DACG area, unit personnel and equipment are under the control of the DACG. As the deployment begins, a member of the ranger unit is present at the DACG to ensure an orderly loading of personnel and equipment.

(5) The DACG plans for troop-holding areas in the event of delayed or aborted aircraft.

(6) Unit movement data are maintained by the air officer in the operations section.

3-7. Communications-electronics.

a. Alert notification communications. Alert notification of the ranger battalions by the regiment is done by secure communications means. Units in local training areas are informed by radio or through their assigned range field telephone. Units operating out of normal FM radio range during RRF periods set up a high frequency net, or other communications, to their higher headquarters.

b. Telephone service. Strict control is maintained over key telephones being used during unit alert. Care is taken to ensure that COMSEC and OPSEC violations do not occur. All telephones are assumed to be monitored; classified, sensitive, or official information is not discussed.

c. Radio communications.

(1) Voice communications.

(a) A secure radio net is set up early in the deployment. The ranger unit EOC, the installation EOC, and the RSE EOC operate in this net. A liaison officer from the ranger unit is placed at the installation EOC.

(b) The ranger support element liaison officer, attached to the logistics section, operates a secure voice station on a separate logistics net to the RSE EOC and the RSE commander.

(2) Cryptographic material. During RRF, COMSEC codes and enabling equipment are kept available to set up the secure voice net.

3-8. Remote marshalling base and intermediate staging base.

a. Ranger units can deploy from their CONUS base directly to the objective area. A more common method would be for the ranger unit to deploy first to either a REMAB or an ISB before insertion into the area of operations. (See Figure 3-1.)

Figure 3-1. Deploying ranger units.

b. The REMAB is a secure base to which the entire ranger unit, including organic and attached support elements, deploys and where mission planning continues. The REMAB is normally within the geographical area encompassed by the command authority of the theater or JTF commander. This ensures that the CSS elements providing support to the ranger unit are operating within their normal area. It prevents or lessens out-of-sector support requirements for CSS elements.

c. The REMAB also provides a secure location for the ranger unit to conduct detailed planning and coordination with the controlling headquarters staff. In the REMAB, the ranger force commander conducts rehearsals, refines and modifies plans, determines PIR, and coordinates with the proper intelligence source to receive that information. It is in the REMAB that specialist augmentees to the ranger force are integrated into the unit, if they have not already joined. Specially trained supporting units, such as aviation and communications elements, also join the ranger force at the REMAB. The REMAB must provide--

(1) Access to the controlling headquarters staff.

(2) Physical security of billeting, planning, maintenance, and communications areas.

(3) Mess, billeting, latrine, and shower facilities for the ranger force and its supporting elements.

(4) Access to a C-141 or C-130 capable airfield, possibly with all-weather operations.

(5) Access to secure communications and processed mission intelligence.

(6) Access to rehearsal areas where sites can be built and live-fire rehearsals can be conducted.

(7) Access to the unit locations of major supporting elements, such as naval landing craft or Army aviation units.

(8) An external security force and an active counterintelligence agency.

(9) Vehicular transport for troop lift, equipment transfer, and administrative use.

(10) Access to maintenance support facilities.

(11) Medical support facilities to augment the ranger force medical personnel.

(12) Covered area to allow for packing of parachutes and rigging of airdrop loads.

d. The ISB is a more austere location. Elements of the ranger force deploy to an ISB to perform final planning, coordination, and task organization. The unit's organization and composition are finalized for movement to the objective area. The ISB is normally not occupied for long periods. Ranger units may deploy to the ISB from the REMAB or CONUS. Deployment to the ISB is more common when terrain or distance precludes insertion to the objective area directly from the REMAB or CONUS. Quick-reaction missions often involve the use of an ISB. Facilities needed at the ISB are limited to the following:

(1) Austere messing arrangements for the combat elements of the ranger force and its attachments.

(2) Austere billets or rest areas.

(3) Water point.

(4) Fuel for aircraft and vehicles.

(5) Areas for test firing of weapons.

(6) Covered and concealed areas for assembly of the ranger force and rigging of parachutes and door bundles.

(7) Austere airfield support facilities, possibly capable of all-weather operations.

(8) Remote location far away from civilians or traffic routes.

(9) Security and counterintelligence elements.

(10) Secure communications.

e. The REMAB and ISB should be located in an area similar in terrain and climate to the objective area. Time spent at the REMAB or ISB lets the ranger force begin acclimatization. Ranger units train yearly in all climates and emphasize physical conditioning. This allows acclimatization quicker than units not as well trained or conditioned. However, ranger units still need an acclimatization period if the terrain and climate of the objective area are different from that of their CONUS base. Not enough acclimatization means that the ranger force could be less efficient, especially when the objective area is hot, dry, or at a great altitude.



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