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APPENDIX G

Training

G-1. Application and guidance.

a. To prepare for combat, ranger units train on missions derived from their analysis of operational and contingency plans and the ranger mission training plans (MTPs). Training guidance is in doctrinal manuals, field circulars, and soldier's training publications. Training must ensure that the ranger unit is skilled in all basic light infantry skills and in ranger-unique skills. In the final analysis, good training depends upon the leadership and teamwork of ranger unit officers and NCOs.

b. Everything rangers do should prepare them to perform well in combat. Ranger units train IAW the battalion training management system (BTMS) concentrating on basic skills and on live-fire, hands-on training.

c. An effective training program breeds high morale and few discipline-related problems. Some qualities of ranger units that have good training programs are as follows:

(1) Leaders who can solve problems.

(2) A thorough and continuous analysis of the unit's mission.

(3) Validated training objectives.

(4) Attention to the basics (move, shoot, and communicate).

(5) Multiechelon sustainment training.

(6) Standardized procedures.

(7) Physical and mental strength.

(8) Live fire as an integral part of training.

(9) Safety as a basis to all operations.

(10) The use of night and adverse weather and difficult terrain as combat force multipliers,

d. When all training is planned with realism, rangers will be in training situations that require the same attention as in battle. Realism and stress in training result in faster learning and better retention of skills. Training objectives must be clear with measurable standards to determine proficiency. Rangers and ranger units must train to the standards that will be expected in combat.

e. Examples of unit training goals include:

(1) Developing each member of the chain of command to perform his duties with competence, confidence, and pride.

(2) Maintaining small unit integrity during all training and support activities. Accomplishing tasks as units.

(3) Ensuring that all tasks for training are keyed to mission needs and weaknesses. Assets--ranger's time, money, and materiel--are expended only after thorough planning.

(4) Training to standard.

(5) Developing and maintaining discipline and esprit to ensure the abilities of each ranger and all units are achieved.

(6) Emphasizing use of the ranger mission training plan (MTP) for each echelon of the organization.

(7) Emphasizing the basics.

(8) Maintaining a high level of physical fitness.

(9) Working together within the ranger regiment and other elements of the special operations forces community.

(10) Developing a unit atmosphere of quick reaction under stress. Encouraging and rewarding individual initiative. Accomplishing unit missions IAW the commander's intent.

G-2. Philosophy.

a. To be effective, training should be physically and mentally challenging. Each ranger will then have a sense of purpose, accomplishment, and satisfaction. Training is evaluated by the results rather than hours of training. Units that are well trained today need reinforcement training to sustain readiness. Training management must be continuous. Training managers must use the time available to improve training efficiency. Cyclic training will not produce the desired results. The "train-to-correct deficiencies" method is needed. The training managers must analyze weaknesses, conduct prescriptive and reinforcement training, and reevaluate their unit's training status. The process that is used to develop and maintain a continuous training and evaluation program is shown in Figure G-1.

Figure G-1. The Army training and evaluation program.

b. Individual and collective training must be integrated within a unit training program. Training of the individual ranger, leaders, and units at each level must occur at the same time. The ranger commander or leader plans and conducts training for every member of his unit.

c. Ranger commanders analyze operational and contingency plans to determine unit missions and translate the associated tasks into training objectives. These objectives form the basis of the unit training program. The regimental headquarters provides training guidance in a formal regimental training plan. Commanders at lower levels program, supervise, and conduct training within their units.

d. All members of the chain of command are responsible for training. The NCO leader or first-line supervisor conducts individual and small unit collective task training. The officer plans individual training in his unit and directs and conducts collective training.

e. Centralized development of training objectives and decentralized training builds well-trained units and outstanding leaders. Authority and responsibility for the detailed planning, scheduling, conducting, evaluating, and supervising of training are delegated to the lowest element capable of managing this training. Higher headquarters is responsible for establishing objectives, monitoring and evaluating training, and issuing general guidelines.

f. Multiechelon training and evaluation means using all assets and time available to improve combat readiness. The multiechelon structure of the ranger MTP provides a basis for units to be continually trained and evaluated by internal evaluation. Each leader must know his mission tasks and train to accomplish those tasks to the set standards.

G-3. Mission analysis.

a. Mission analysis is continuous for a good training program. The selection of training missions or tasks results from analysis of the unit's overall mission. (See Figure G-1 above.) Tasks and subtasks are then placed in order of priority.

b. The trainer must identify countertasks for the opposing force (OPFOR). The countertasks should be such that an OPFOR that meets the standards for its countertask will be successful. Both sides have a chance to win.

c. The trainer should then develop combat drills and situational training exercises (STXs), if not furnished by the proponent school.

G-4. Unit training.

a. Responsibility. Ranger commanders at all levels are responsible for all training and management described herein and current Army training doctrine. This includes individual and collective training at all levels. Units must train to the standards specified in training objectives.

b. Management. The training management model for commanders is:

  • Set objectives.
  • Provide resources.
  • Coach subordinates.
  • Measure results.
  • Provide feedback.

G-5. Individual training.

There are three elements basic to a well-trained individual ranger. He must be physically fit, be proficient in the use of his weapon, and have the psychological commitment to fight the enemy.

a. Individual training is the responsibility of the first-line supervisor under the supervision of the chain of command. It is conducted using performance-oriented techniques under battlefield conditions. New skills must be developed and practiced, and acquired skills must be reinforced throughout the training year. A high level of proficiency must be maintained through continuous training and practice.

b. Trainers should use peer instruction. Commanders ensure needed resources are available to conduct challenging individual training. Ranger units schedule and conduct this training and evaluate individual proficiency.

c. Flexibility in planning and scheduling is necessary. The goal of all individual training must provide for reinforcement training to offset the effects of the forgetting curve. (See Figure G-2).

Figure G-2. The learning curve and forgetting curve.

d. The command sergeants major, unit first sergeants, and staff section sergeants are the keys to an effective training program. These senior NCOs must counsel, guide, and critique junior NCOs in training preparation and execution. Fire team leaders, section chiefs, and squad leaders coordinate and present individual training.

e. The NCO supervisors must ensure that the ranger is trained in the skills required for the specific military occupational specialty (MOS) and in those skills used daily. Not all training can be acquired in an office. For example, all rangers must maintain a high skill level with their weapons, be trained in NBC subjects, and be capable of performing contingency missions.

G-6. Collective training.

a. Guidance. Collective training trains crews, teams, squads, platoons, companies, and battalions to do their missions. The ranger MTP is used to plan training and evaluate the unit's weaknesses and strengths. If a ranger commander receives new training requirements or missions, they should become part of the collective training program. The ranger MTP describes the combat tasks to be performed by every echelon of the ranger battalion. It is a plan for organizing, conducting, and evaluating the year-round unit training program.

b. Responsibility. The ranger unit commander is responsible for the conduct of collective training and for all other training in his unit. Practical exercises emphasize the techniques of terrain use, movement, and effective employment of weapon systems. Training under stress will be conducted to move the unit to a higher plane of combat readiness.

c. Drills. Drills are written for small units--for example, fire team and squad, crew and section--and describe an action that is shorter than an entire STX. Drill training objectives cover both individual and collective skills (critical collective tasks) and list them together for effective group action. Drills must be mastered in order to react to rapidly changing situations in combat. The trainer can interrupt the execution of a drill to provide necessary training on individual or collective skills.

d. Situational training exercise.

(1) The STXs are short, mission-oriented tactical exercises in which a group of closely related collective tasks are trained. They are like drills but are more complex and flexible. They usually involve a larger unit than does a drill. They integrate leader training, leader tasks, drills, and separate individual tasks into a realistic setting. Trainers may execute STXs as written or tailor them to meet specific unit requirements. An STX is not standardized, but it must have a firm doctrinal base.

(2) Due to their design and purpose, STXs apply mainly to platoon- and company-size units. This does not preclude the development of STXs or similar exercises for unit staffs and headquarters. They combine "how-to-train" specifics for selected collective tasks with the "what-to-train" specifics found in doctrinal manuals and other documents.

G-7. Performance-oriented training.

a. Performance-oriented training emphasizes hands-on performance. Training is conducted to ensure a level of proficiency, rather than established number of hours of required training.

b. Performance-oriented training has precise training objectives and makes good use of resources. Training objectives serve as the basis for preparing, conducting, and evaluating all training.

G-8. Evaluation.

a. A training program must include an evaluation of training (planned and conducted). An evaluation plan must:

(1) Provide immediate feedback to the trainer.

(2) Recognize effective trainers.

(3) Evaluate all units in the conduct of training to provide for a comparison of training programs.

(4) Be flexible to unit needs; provide general and specific evaluations based on the level of training within the unit.

(5) Be in effect at all times.

b. Major considerations for training evaluations include:

(1) Ranger unit commanders establish and maintain an effective internal and external evaluation program.

(2) The director of each staff element is responsible for training evaluations within his area of staff responsibility with emphasis on low-density MOS groups.

(3) The operations officer of the ranger organization develops and validates training and evaluation plans.

c. Evaluation of training must be done vertically from the major task (mission) down through subtasks (collective tasks) to the leader and individual tasks. In selection of individual tasks for evaluation, priority should be given to critical individual tasks that impact on the success of the collective task or mission.

d. The critique and after-action review, after each major training event, are the most important aspects of training. The after-action review takes place immediately after completion of a training task (individual or collective). The individual(s) self-analyzes and critiques the training event. Then after a formal critique of the training, the individuals) trains to standard (not to time).

G-9. Field training.

a. Considerations. Ranger commanders schedule training under field conditions to permit maximum training opportunities. Field training emphasis is on mastery of a series of individual (soldier and leader) tasks and collective training tasks. These tasks are repeated until established standards are met. The goal of ranger field training is to ensure realistic, demanding, and meaningful training.

(1) When training is conducted under conditions of moderate stress, most combat critical skills are learned quicker and retained longer. (See Figure G-3 on the following page.) Stress can be incorporated in a training situation by physical deprivation (sleep, food), by live-fire exercises, by operation against an OPFOR under simulated battlefield conditions for an extended period, by the intensity of activity including demands for decision making, or by physically demanding activities. Ranger units train under stress so that they will react quickly in combat.

Figure G-3. The Army training and evaluation program.

(2) Antagonistic training situations are two-sided exercises conducted by opposing elements. Each element has a training objective (task and standards). The opposing force has a corresponding countertask. This training may be progressive--for example, starting with a crawl-through, then a walk-through, and progressing to both elements operating at a fast pace. The use of multiple integrated laser equipment system (MILES) greatly enhances task and countertask training. The units should also be considered for a live-fire exercise against a realistic OPFOR target array when the basics have been mastered.

b. Methods of training.

(1) Considerations. The chance for success in combat can be increased by becoming proficient in training situations that depict realistic combat conditions. (See Figure G-4.) Meeting the standards of a realistic live-fire training exercise assures the commander that his unit could perform well in combat. Figure G-4 shows the relationship between realistic training and the challenge to the trainer.

Figure G-4. Training proficiency scale.

(2) Ranger cohesiveness training. Ranger units promote teamwork by undergoing tough, stressful, often hazardous training. This challenges the unit, which gains in cohesiveness when it meets these challenges. This includes serving together in live-fire exercises, athletic events, precision parades, high-standard inspections, tough physical training, and combat.

(3) Field training exercise. An FTX is training normally conducted under simulated, realistic combat conditions. This training normally exercises command and control systems and the administrative and logistical needs of sustained combat. Stress training is part of this exercise, focusing on live-fire and MILES drills and STXS.

(4) Combined arms training. Combined arms training should include all means of support such as tactical air, armed helicopters, and indirect fire with emphasis on fire support coordination and airspace control.

(5) Live-fire exercises. Including live-fire exercises in drills and STXs offers a chance to evaluate units in their response to simulated combat missions. Ranger units train under pressure and always anticipate being selected to conduct a live-fire exercise. Live-fire exercises develop confidence and esprit, and reinforce unit discipline.

(6) Opposing force. Committing one unit against another adds a competitive spirit to a field training exercise (FTX). The use of MILES and squad combat operations exercises (simulation) (SCOPES) provides realism to two-sided field exercises. Trainers should use OPFOR equipment and training devices available, as well as making their own devices. (See FM 30-103, Appendix R, for more information.)

c. Key functional training areas.

(1) Land navigation and patrolling. Day and night navigation and patrolling exercises must be emphasized. Orienteering improves these skills, as well as physical fitness.

(2) Movement techniques. Infantry combat has two major components--to move and to hit the enemy first. Ranger units must be skilled in the use of traveling, traveling overmatch, and bounding overmatch. Units in contact must be skilled in moving under fire.

(3) Fighting positions. Training includes the building of concealed fighting positions.

(4) Mine and countermine training. Training includes how to defend against hostile mines, booby traps, and other demolitions. The identification, installation, neutralization, and removal of US mines and devices is also stressed.

(5) Limited visibility operations. Ranger units must be skilled in limited visibility operations and the use of night vision and thermal devices.

(6) Operation security. Operation security includes deception, physical security, signal security (SIGSEC), and information security. It is taught in all training and at all levels. Although all areas of OPSEC must be measured in training, techniques of camouflage and SIGSEC need special emphasis. (See AR 530-1 and TC 100-1 for more information.)

G-10. Professional development.

Ranger units at battalion and regimental levels conduct many officer and NCO professional development programs. This ensures that all officers and NCOs are skilled in their field, confident, and wellrounded. Professional readings and book reports, tactics seminars, and tactical exercises without troops are good development methods.

G-11. Physical training.

a. This program ensures that each ranger maintains the physical ability and stamina needed to do his mission. Other objectives are to promote unit cohesiveness and discipline. These are met by combining individual testing, formation, running, athletic competition, weight control, proper diet, teamwork drills, and freedom from drug and alcohol abuse. Mental fitness and toughness come from experience and success. Good physical conditioning increases a unit's chances of success.

b. Physical training (PT) programs are designed to include the elements of overload, progression, balance, variety, and regularity.

c. Ranger unit physical fitness standards are:

(1) Score 80 points for each Army physical readiness test (APRT) event and do six chinups.

(2) Pass the ranger swimming test.

(3) Complete an 8-kilometer run in 40 minutes.

(4) Complete a 12-kilometer road march in three hours (with rucksack, helmet, and weapon).

(5) Meet the Army height and weight standards.

G-12. Environmental and specialized training.

a. Rangers conduct training in environments as close to real combat missions as possible. This conditions rangers to survive and fight in a specific environment. Such training includes combat-critical tasks and technique training for that environment.

b. Each ranger battalion's environmental and specialized training includes at least the following:

(1) Jungle (once every 12 months).

(2) Desert (once every 12 months).

(3) Urban (once every 6 months).

(4) Extreme cold (once every 18 months).

(5) Mountain (once every 12 months).

(6) Amphibious (once every 18 months).

G-13. Ranger indoctrination program.

a. The RIP is a training and selection program. It is run by specially selected NCOs from the regimental headquarters. It has as its mission the training and indoctrination of newly assigned soldiers. It physically toughens and mentally sharpens the newly assigned soldier. It teaches basic skills and techniques. The RIP identifies and eliminates in three weeks any applicant who does not show dedication, motivation, physical fitness, and emotional stability.

b. An indoctrination program for newly assigned ranger-qualified officers and NCOs prepares them to assume duty as leaders within the ranger regiment. These personnel monitor and participate in RIP training, as well as undergoing individual ranger leadership training. The RIP provides them an overview of the regiment's history, its mission, and its goals. (See Appendixes C, D, and E for further information about the history and goals of the ranger regiment.) The RIP also provides a review of the skills required in a ranger unit. Refresher training in airborne and pathfinder operations, use of indirect fires, and light infantry doctrine is conducted. During RIP all newly assigned officers and NCOs must meet the ranger physical fitness standard.

c. The RIP cadre also conducts a preranger program to prepare soldiers to attend the US Army Ranger School. It is a physically demanding course that teaches troop-leading procedures, operation orders, and small unit patrol actions.



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