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Chapter 1

The Individual Soldier's Role in the Army

Soldiers are the Army's most important resource. Trained, fit, and determined soldiers, strengthened by the warrior ethos, win America's wars. This chapter describes the importance of the Army values in developing and maintaining the warrior ethos-the will to win. The importance of the team and the soldier's role in it is in this chapter, too. Here also are some of the basics of leadership-decision making, ethical reasoning and what leaders must BE, KNOW, and DO.

Section I - The Warrior Ethos and Army Values
    Warrior Ethos
    The Army Values
Section II - The Team
    Types of Teams
    Leaders, Soldiers
    Ethical Reasoning
    Transition to a Leadership Position
    Soldier Recognition

For more information on Army values, teambuilding, leadership, and ethical reasoning, see FM 6-22 (22-100), Army Leadership and the Army Leadership website at www.leadership.army.mil.



1-1.     The profession of arms involves the disciplined use of legally sanctioned force. It imposes many demands but imparts lasting rewards upon those who enter it. While the professional calling of the soldier is to support and defend the Constitution, the challenge is to learn the profession well enough to accomplish any mission effectively while protecting the force. The soldiers of the United States Army serve around the world in a multitude of different missions and roles. We are all volunteers. Although there are many reasons why each soldier joins the service, at some level one of them is the desire to serve our Nation.

1-2.     Soldiers serve America, our fellow citizens, and protect our way of life. That is a tough job and a great responsibility considering the dangerous state of the world. But soldiers-and marines, sailors, airmen, and coastguardsmen-throughout America's history have stepped forward and pledged their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor to do precisely that. It is no different today.

The most impressive thing about any Army is the individual Soldier. He will always be the one responsible for taking and holding the ground in support of our foreign policy, mission, goals, and objectives. Even with sophisticated technology and advanced equipment, an Army cannot fight, sustain, and win a war without individual, quality Soldiers.

SMA Glen E. Morrell1-2

1-3.     In the oaths of enlistment and commissioning, every soldier promises to support and defend the Constitution from all enemies and to be faithful to it. Enlisted soldiers also promise to obey the orders of the President and the officers appointed over them. Every team has a leader, and that leader is responsible for what the team does or fails to do. That is why obeying orders is necessary; your leader is responsible for all your military actions. When you take this oath you put into words your belief in the United States, our form of government, and our way of life. It is a formal statement supporting our freedoms that you will, if necessary, fight any enemy who tries to take those freedoms from us. In taking the oath, you became subject to military law as well as civilian law. You became a soldier. Because you are a soldier, you will bear arms in defense of our country until released by lawful authority. These are the fundamental obligations of every soldier in the US Army.

1-4.     Human nature and inalienable rights are the same now as when the writers of the Declaration of Independence put those immortal words to paper: "We hold these truths to be self-evident." The dangers our Nation and people face now are as real and daunting as then. We have a common bond with those soldiers who first won our freedom and with those who paid in blood to maintain it. We today have their example to inspire and educate us. We all stand a little taller because we share the title, soldier.

1-5.     The soldier, with comrades in arms from other services, is the Nation's ultimate guarantor of our way of life. Where America sends her soldiers is where America makes the commitment to free the oppressed, relieve suffering or protect freedom. The newly recruited Private and the General who has served 35 years in multiple wars each have made the same promise: to support and defend the Constitution of the United States. We live by the same Army values and exhibit the same warrior ethos.


1-6.     Your adherence to Army values and your commitment to doing your best is the basis of the warrior ethos. The warrior ethos is an individual and collective quality of all soldiers. It is that frame of mind whereby soldiers will not quit until they have accomplished their mission. It compels soldiers to fight through all conditions to victory, no matter how long it takes and no matter how much effort is required. It is the professional attitude that inspires every soldier to fulfill his obligations, regardless of the obstacles.

Yours is the profession of arms, the will to win, the sure knowledge that in war there is no substitute for victory, that if you lose, the nation will be destroyed, that the very obsession of your public service must be Duty, Honor, Country.

General of the Army Douglas MacArthur1-3

1-7.     At its core, the warrior ethos is the refusal to accept failure and instead overcome all obstacles with honor. It begins as the soldier's selfless commitment to the Nation, mission, unit and fellow soldiers. It is developed and sustained through discipline, realistic training, commitment to Army values, and pride in the Army's heritage. This demands continual development, learning new skills and preparing to lead soldiers. Take another look at the Introduction to this FM. When (then) SPC Hagemeister, a medic, saw that he would have to fight in order to do his job, he did it without hesitation. He was trained and confident in his ability to provide medical care for his fellow soldiers and in his ability to fight to get it done.

1-8.     The Army has forged the warrior ethos on training grounds from Valley Forge to the Combat Training Centers and sharpened it in combat from Bunker Hill to Baghdad. It echoes through the precepts in the Code of Conduct. The warrior ethos produces the will to win. Will and a winning spirit apply in more situations than just those requiring physical courage. Sometimes you'll have to carry on for long periods in very difficult situations. The difficulties soldiers face may not always be ones of physical danger, but of great physical, emotional, and mental stress, as can occur in support operations. Will empowers you to drive on during extended deployments, under appalling conditions, and without basic necessities.

1-9.     Confidence enhances both physical courage and will. That confidence in the ability of leaders, fellow soldiers, and the justness of the mission strengthen the soldier's resolve to fulfill his duty to the best of his ability. He knows that if he is wounded, his buddies and the Army medical system will do everything in their power to save his life. He knows that if he is captured or missing, the Nation will spare no resource in returning him to US control. And he knows that if he is killed in battle, he died fighting for his fellow soldiers and protecting our people in a just cause.

1-10.     Self-confidence is the faith that you'll act correctly and ethically in any situation, even one in which you're under stress and don't have all the information you want. Self-confidence comes from competence. It's based on mastering skills, which takes hard work, realistic training and dedication. Soldiers who know their own capabilities and believe in themselves are self-confident. Don't mistake loudmouthed bragging or self-promotion for self-confidence. Self-confident soldiers don't need to advertise because their actions say it all. Self-confidence is important for leaders, soldiers, and teams. Self-confident leaders instill confidence in their people. In combat, self-confidence helps soldiers control doubt and reduce anxiety. Together with will and self-discipline, self-confidence helps leaders act-do what must be done in circumstances where it would be easier to do nothing-and to convince their people to act as well.

No mission too difficult, no sacrifice too great-Duty First!
Motto of the 1st Infantry Division

1-11.     The effect of the warrior ethos is that all soldiers understand they must be prepared, and are confident in their ability, to accomplish their assigned tasks-even in the face of enemy resistance-anytime, anywhere on the battlefield. The clear message is this: regardless of where adversaries encounter you, the American soldier, you will not hesitate to destroy them if they attempt to interfere with your mission, whatever it may be. Don't overlook the importance of this. Many other soldiers depend on what you do, so you cannot allow any obstacle or enemy action to prevent you from accomplishing your assigned task.

1-12.     America has a proud tradition of winning. The ability to forge victory out of the chaos of battle includes overcoming fear, hunger, deprivation, and fatigue. The Army wins because it fights hard; it fights hard because it trains hard; and it trains hard because that's the way to win. The warrior ethos fuels the fire to fight through the worst of conditions to victory no matter how long it takes, no matter how much effort is required. It sustains the will to win when the situation looks hopeless and doesn't show any indications of getting better, when being away from home and family is a profound hardship. The soldier who jumps on a grenade to save his comrades is courageous, without question. That action requires great physical courage, and pursuing victory over time also requires a deep moral courage to persevere and concentrate on the mission.

1-13.     Actions that safeguard the nation occur everywhere that you find soldiers. The warrior ethos spurs the lead tank driver across a line of departure into uncertainty. It causes the bone-tired medic continually to put others first. It pushes the sweat-soaked military police soldier to remain vigilant regardless of the extreme temperature. It drives the infantry soldier steadily toward the objective despite heavy enemy fire. It presses the signaler to provide communications in a blinding sandstorm. And the warrior ethos urges the truck driver along roads bounded by minefields because fellow soldiers at an isolated outpost need supplies. Such tireless motivation comes in part from the comradeship that springs from the warrior ethos. Soldiers fight for each other; they would rather die than let their buddies down. Such loyalty runs front to rear as well as left to right: mutual support marks Army culture regardless of who you are, where you are, or what you are doing.

We will always complete the Mission to the Best of our Ability.
We will Never Surrender.
We will Never leave a Soldier behind.
An attack on any one of us is an attack on us all.
Where goes one so goes us all.

Creed of the 272nd Chemical Company, Massachusetts ARNG1-5

1-14.     Each soldier has an important job to do, necessary to the overall unit mission. Soldiers throughout the Army, for example, perform the duties of medics, infantrymen, cooks, truck drivers, mechanics, legal clerks, and aviators. We bring fuel to the tanks, we scout for the enemy, we listen to the enemy's signals, and we teach young Americans what it takes to be a soldier. We defend against air attacks, ensure soldiers are properly paid, and process awards to recognize soldiers' accomplishments. We know that these efforts and more support a team and that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. That realization, coupled with the warrior ethos, cause us to complete our task successfully. If the enemy tries to interfere with our ability to accomplish an assigned task, the warrior ethos causes us to defeat that interference.

1-15.     The warrior ethos concerns character, shaping who you are and what you do. It is linked to Army values such as personal courage, loyalty to comrades, and dedication to duty. Both loyalty and duty involve putting your life on the line, even when there's little chance of survival, for the good of a cause larger than yourself. That's the clearest example of selfless service. Soldiers never give up on their comrades and they never compromise on doing their duty. Integrity underlies the character of the Army as well. The warrior ethos requires unrelenting and consistent determination to do what is right and to do it with pride, both in war and military operations other than war. Understanding what is right requires respect for both your comrades and other people involved in complex arenas like peace operations and nation assistance. In such situations, decisions to use lethal or nonlethal force severely test judgment and discipline. In every circumstance, soldiers turn the personal warrior ethos into a collective commitment to win with honor.

A soldier provides security during Operation Iraqi Freedom.
A soldier provides security during Operation Iraqi Freedom.1-6

1-16.     Each soldier has an important job to do, necessary to the overall unit mission. Soldiers throughout the Army, for example, perform the duties of medics, infantrymen, cooks, truck drivers, mechanics, legal clerks, and aviators. We bring fuel to the tanks, we scout for the enemy, we listen to the enemy's signals, and we teach young Americans what it takes to be a soldier. We defend against air attacks, ensure soldiers are properly paid, and process awards to recognize soldiers' accomplishments. We know that these efforts and more support a team and that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. That realization, coupled with the warrior ethos, cause us to complete our task successfully. If the enemy tries to interfere with our ability to accomplish an assigned task, the warrior ethos causes us to defeat that interference.

1-17.     The warrior ethos concerns character, shaping who you are and what you do. It is linked to Army values such as personal courage, loyalty to comrades, and dedication to duty. Both loyalty and duty involve putting your life on the line, even when there's little chance of survival, for the good of a cause larger than yourself. That's the clearest example of selfless service. Soldiers never give up on their comrades and they never compromise on doing their duty. Integrity underlies the character of the Army as well. The warrior ethos requires unrelenting and consistent determination to do what is right and to do it with pride, both in war and military operations other than war. Understanding what is right requires respect for both your comrades and other people involved in complex arenas like peace operations and nation assistance. In such situations, decisions to use lethal or nonlethal force severely test judgment and discipline. In every circumstance, soldiers turn the personal warrior ethos into a collective commitment to win with honor.


1-18.     Our individual effectiveness as part of the Army team comes from within, from our upbringing, our character, and our values. The Army is an organization that is guided by values. Army values are the basic building blocks that enable us to see what is right or wrong in any situation. They build the warrior ethos and they are mutually dependent-you can't fully follow one while ignoring another.

1-19.     The Army's core values are loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity and personal courage. They form the acronym LDRSHIP. Fulfilling your obligations as an American soldier is possible by accepting and living these values. These values tell you what you need to be, every day, in every action you take and remind us and the world who we are and what we stand for.


1-20.     Bear true faith and allegiance to the US Constitution, the Army, your unit, and other soldiers.

To be a good leader and a good soldier, you must be loyal. Stand by your organization and the officers, non-commissioned officers, and fellow soldiers in it.

FM 21-13, The Soldier's Guide, 1961

1-21.     Bearing true faith and allegiance is a matter of believing in and devoting yourself to something or someone. You began your Army career by promising to support and defend the Constitution. Your loyalty to the Constitution also means obedience to the orders of the President and higher ranking officers and NCOs. Since before the founding of the republic, America's Army has respected its subordination to the President-a civilian. A loyal soldier is one who supports the leadership and stands up for fellow soldiers. You show your loyalty to your unit by doing your share, without complaint and to the best of your ability. The Army's service ethic is fundamental in building loyalty.

1-22.     As a soldier who displays loyalty do the following:

  • Put obligations in correct order: the Constitution, the Army, the unit, and finally, self.
  • Show faithfulness to unit and comrades by finishing all tasks with them.
  • Carry out tough orders without expressing personal criticism.
  • Defend soldiers against unfair treatment from outside or above.

1-23.     Loyalty to fellow soldiers is critical for generating confidence and trust. Loyalty to one's leaders and fellow soldiers is the most vital resource a unit has. It is this commitment that causes units and soldiers to risk everything to succeed and to bring everyone back. You will find that after enduring a difficult experience the bond between the soldiers of your unit will be even stronger.

The Loyalty of Private First Class Ernest E. West

Private First Class West, was a soldier assigned to L Company, 14th Infantry Regiment in the 25th Infantry Division. On 12 October 1952, near Sataeri, Korea, PFC West voluntarily accompanied a contingent to locate and destroy a reported enemy outpost. Nearing the objective, the patrol was ambushed and suffered numerous casualties. Observing his wounded leader lying in an exposed position, Private First Class West ordered the troops to withdraw and then braved intense fire to reach and assist him.

While attempting evacuation, he was attacked by three hostile soldiers employing grenades and small-arms fire. Quickly shifting his body to shelter the officer, he killed the assailants with his rifle and then carried the helpless man to safety. He was critically wounded, losing an eye in this action, but courageously returned through withering fire and bursting shells to assist other wounded soldiers. While evacuating two comrades, he closed with and killed three more enemy soldiers. Private First Class West's loyalty to his fellow soldiers and intrepid actions inspired all who observed him. He received the Medal of Honor.


1-24.     Fulfill your obligations.

I just wanted to serve my country. So here I am.

PV2 Jeremiah Arnold1-8

1-25.     Duty is the sum total of all laws, rules and expectations that make up our organizational, civic, and moral obligations. We expect all members of the Army to fulfill their obligations, and we often expect individuals to exceed their duty, especially in ethical matters. Duty also means being able to do your job as part of a team. We each have a part to play in accomplishing the unit's mission. Some parts may be more visible, as in the leader's role, but every task is important. Recognition and willingness to do your duty is what protects all Americans' liberty.

1-26.     Expressing the value of duty means, at a minimum, doing the following:

  • Carry out the requirements of the position to the best of your ability.
  • Fulfill legal, civic, and moral obligations.
  • Sacrifice personal time in pursuit of excellence.

1-27.     Duty begins with everything required of you by law, regulation, and orders; but it includes much more than that. Professionals do their work not just to the minimum standard, but to the very best of their ability and then try to improve on their performance. Commit to excellence in all aspects of your professional responsibility so that when the job is done you can look back and say, "I could not have given any more."

Private First Class Clarence Eugene Sasser and Duty

While still a private first class, Sasser displayed devotion to duty while assigned to Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Battalion, 60th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division in Ding Tuong Province of the Republic of Vietnam on 10 January 1968. He was serving as a medical aidman with Company A, 3d Battalion, on a reconnaissance in force operation. His company was making an air assault when suddenly it was taken under heavy small arms, recoilless rifle, machinegun and rocket fire from well fortified enemy positions on three sides of the landing zone. The company sustained over 30 casualties in the first few minutes. Without hesitation, PFC Sasser ran across an open rice paddy through a hail of fire to assist the wounded. After helping one soldier to safety, PFC Sasser was painfully wounded in the left shoulder by fragments of an exploding rocket. Refusing medical attention, he ran through a barrage of rocket and automatic weapons fire to aid casualties of the initial attack and, after giving them urgently needed treatment, continued to search for other wounded.

Despite two additional wounds immobilizing his legs, he dragged himself through the mud toward another soldier 100 meters away. Although in agonizing pain and faint from loss of blood, PFC Sasser reached the man, treated him and proceeded on to encourage another group of soldiers to crawl 200 meters to relative safety. There he attended their wounds for five hours until they were evacuated. PFC Sasser later received the Medal of Honor.


1-28.     Treat people as they should be treated.

Regardless of age or grade, soldiers should be treated as mature individuals. They are engaged in an honorable profession and deserve to be treated as such.

GEN Bruce C. Clarke

1-29.     In the Soldier's Code (on the back cover of this FM), we pledge to "treat others with dignity and respect and expect others to do the same." The Army is one huge team, made up of hundreds of component parts. There must be connections-ground rules-so that when one soldier approaches, works with, or talks to another, it is with immediate and unquestioned cooperation and respect. Respect is what allows us to expect and appreciate the best in other people instead of distrusting what is different. Respect is trusting fellow soldiers to do their duty, even while checking the quality of their work, if you are in a leadership position. Respect for others also means avoiding the use of profanity or obscene gestures.

1-30.     To consistently demonstrate respect, do the following:

  • Have genuine concern for the safety and well being of others.
  • Be discreet and tactful when correcting or questioning others.
  • Be courteous and polite.
  • Take care of yourself physically to show your self-respect.

1-31.     Respect is an essential component for the development of disciplined, cohesive, and effective war fighting teams. Discrimination or harassment on any basis eats away at trust and erodes unit cohesion. The Army has no tolerance for it. But respect also includes the broader issue of civility, the way people treat each other and those they come in contact with. Tact and courtesy demonstrate respect for others. Are there occasions when someone needs to raise his voice? Of course. When a soldier sees a safety problem, for example, he may have to get someone's attention right away, and it may be in a way that someone else may take offense to. But most soldiers realize such occurrence results from the desire to keep fellow soldiers free of unnecessary risk. Soldiers and DA civilians, like their leaders, treat everyone with dignity and respect. The soldiers who stand watch over the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier protect, for all of us, the respect we have for those who gave their lives in the defense of freedom.

The Sentinel's Creed

My dedication to this sacred duty is total and wholehearted.

In the responsibility bestowed on me never will I falter.

And with dignity and perseverance my standard will remain perfection.

Through the years of diligence and praise and the discomfort of the elements, I will walk my tour in humble reverence to the best of my ability.

It is he who commands the respect I protect.

His bravery that made us so proud.

Surrounded by well meaning crowds by day, alone in the thoughtful peace of night, this soldier will in honored glory rest under my eternal vigilance.

(Creed of the Sentinel of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier)


1-32.     Put the welfare of the Nation, the Army, and your soldiers before your own.

. If a man hasn't discovered something that he will die for, he isn't fit to live.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.1-10

1-33.     In serving your country, you are doing your duty loyally, without thought of recognition or gain. Your fellow soldiers and the mission come before your personal comfort or safety. Selfless service is your commitment as a team member to go a little further, endure a little longer, and look a little closer to see how you can add to the effort of the unit, platoon, or company. Selfless service is larger than just one person. With dedication to the value of selfless service, each and every soldier can rightfully look back and say, "I am proud to have served my country as a soldier."

1-34.     To demonstrate the value of selfless service, do the following:

  • Focus your priorities on service to the Nation.
  • Place the needs of the Army, your unit and your fellow soldiers above your personal gain.
  • Balance the mission, your family, and your personal needs.
  • Accept personal responsibility for your own performance.

1-35.     Selfless-service signifies the proper ordering of priorities. An old saying from horse cavalry days is "the horse, the saddle, the man." What it means is to fulfill your duty before thinking of your own comfort. Think of it as service before self. The welfare of the Nation and the organization come before the individual. You can easily see how closely related selfless service is with loyalty and duty. This only illustrates the importance of accepting all the Army values and ignoring none.

SPC Michael John Fitzmaurice at Khe Sanh

SPC Fitzmaurice, 3d Platoon, Troop D, 2d Squadron, 17th Cavalry displayed selfless service at Khe Sanh in the Republic of Vietnam on 23 March 1971. SPC Fitzmaurice and three fellow soldiers were occupying a bunker when a company of North Vietnamese sappers infiltrated the area. At the onset of the attack SPC Fitzmaurice observed three explosive charges which had been thrown into the bunker by the enemy. Realizing the imminent danger to his comrades, and with complete disregard for his personal safety, he hurled two of the charges out of the bunker. He then threw his flak vest and himself over the remaining charge. By this courageous act he absorbed the blast and shielded his fellow-soldiers.

Although suffering from serious multiple wounds and partial loss of sight, he charged out of the bunker, and engaged the enemy until his rifle was damaged by the blast of an enemy hand grenade. While in search of another weapon, SPC Fitzmaurice encountered and overcame an enemy sapper in hand-to-hand combat. Having obtained another weapon, he returned to his original fighting position and inflicted additional casualties on the attacking enemy. Although seriously wounded, SPC Fitzmaurice refused to be medically evacuated, preferring to remain at his post. SPC Fitzmaurice's heroism in action at the risk of his life contributed significantly to the successful defense of the position and resulted in saving the lives of a number of his fellow soldiers. SPC Fitzmaurice received the Medal of Honor.


1-36.     Live up to all the Army values.

Soldiers don't leave their buddies behind.

SSG David Santos1-12

1-37.     When we talk about "living up to" something, we mean being worthy of it. We must make choices, decisions, and actions based on the Army core values. Nowhere in our values training does it become more important to emphasize the difference between "knowing" the values and "living" them than when we discuss the value of honor. Honor is a matter of carrying out, acting, and living the values of respect, duty, loyalty, selfless service, integrity, and personal courage in everything you do.

The Army Medal of Honor

The Army Medal of Honor

1-38.     As an individual with honor do the following:

  • Develop and maintain a keen sense of ethical conduct.
  • Adhere to a public code of professional Army values.
  • Identify with the ideals embodied in the Army values.

1-39.     Realize that your actions reflect on the unit and soldiers around you and act accordingly.

1-40.     Noticing a problem and deciding to take action involves respect, duty, and honor. It was a matter of honor that soldiers, at great risk to themselves, distributed food in Somalia and kept the peace in Bosnia, while managing to protect the communities within their unit areas of responsibility. There are thousands of examples of soldiers who have distinguished themselves with honorable actions and service. It is significant that the Nation's highest military award is named The Medal of Honor.

Private First Class Silvestre Santana Herrera in France

The day the draft notice came, Silvestre S. Herrera learned for the first time that he was not a US citizen. Even more shocking, the man he thought was his father wasn't. Herrera was born in Camargo, Mexico. After his parents died, his uncle brought the infant Silvestre to El Paso, Texas and raised him as his own son. Because he was a citizen of Mexico, he didn't owe service to the United States. Besides, he was 27, married with three kids, and another on the way. But he went anyway because, in his words, "I didn't want anybody to die in my place."

He joined the 36th Infantry Division of the Texas National Guard. Months later, on 15 March 1945, Private First Class Herrera was with his unit, E Company, 142d Infantry Regiment, near Mertzwiller, France. As his platoon was moving down a road, they came under heavy enemy fire from the woods, forcing most of the men to seek cover. But PFC Herrera charged the enemy alone and neutralized the position, capturing eight enemy soldiers.

With that threat ended, the platoon continued down the road. They soon came under enemy fire again from a second stronghold, pinning down the platoon. This time a minefield stood between the soldiers and the enemy gun emplacement. Disregarding the danger, Herrera rose to his feet and entered the minefield to attack the enemy. Mines exploded around him, but he continued to attack the enemy and draw their fire away from his comrades. Then a mine exploded under him, severing his leg below the knee. Still determined to stop the threat to his fellow soldiers, he struggled back up on his good leg to continue the attack.

Another mine exploded, this one severing his other leg below the knee. Despite intense pain and the unchecked bleeding of his wounds he lay in the minefield, firing to suppress the enemy while others of his platoon skirted the minefield to flank the enemy position.

His courage and fighting spirit reflected honor upon his adopted nation and that of his birth. Private First Class Silvestre S. Herrera received the Medal of Honor.1-13


1-41.     Do what's right, legally and morally.

I hope I shall possess firmness and virtue enough to maintain what I consider the most enviable of all titles, the character of an honest man.

George Washington

1-42.     When we say that someone has integrity, we mean that person respects the rules of an organization, the country, and life. Such persons can be counted on to do the right thing, live honestly, and relate to others without playing games or having false agendas. Integrity is a quality you develop by adhering to moral principles every day, 24/7. As your integrity develops, so does the trust others place in you.

1-43.     Display integrity by the following actions:

  • Act according to what you know to be right even at personal cost.
  • Be truthful and show consistency between your words and deeds.
  • Use the authority and power that comes with your rank or position for mission accomplishment or for soldiers' benefit.

1-44.     Integrity requires us to pay our debts on time, return items that someone else has lost, and follow rules and regulations. Integrity is essential in self-discipline. The Soldier's Code says, "No matter what situation I am in, I will never do anything for pleasure, profit, or personal safety that will disgrace my uniform, my unit, or my country."


1-45.     Face fear, danger, or adversity.

I knew when I signed up the job would bring risk. It's a risk I'm willing to take.

PFC Trent James David1-14

1-46.     Personal courage includes the notion of taking responsibility for your decisions and actions. Additionally, courage involves the ability to perform critical self-assessment, to confront new ideas, and to change. Leaders must make decisions that involve risk and often must take a stand with incomplete information during times of great stress. Personal courage has long been associated with our Army. Accounts of the dangers and hardships that soldiers have successfully faced are legendary. Personal courage is not the absence of fear; it is taking positive action in spite of the fear. It takes two forms: physical and moral.

1-47.     Physical courage means overcoming fears of bodily harm and still being able to do your duty. It's the bravery that allows a soldier to operate in combat in spite of the fear of wounds or death. It is what gets the soldier at airborne school out the aircraft door. It's what allows an infantryman to assault a bunker to save his buddies or a medic to treat the wounded while under fire. With physical courage, it is a matter of enduring physical duress and, at times, risking personal safety.

Fear is a natural reaction to the unknown; it is not necessarily a negative. A positive from fear is the heightened awareness that comes from being afraid. Harnessed, this heightened awareness is an asset.

CSM Michael T. Hall1-15

1-48.     Moral courage is the willingness to stand firm on your values, principles, and convictions, even when threatened. Moral courage is sometimes overlooked, both in discussions of personal courage and in routine, daily activities. Moral courage often expresses itself as candor. Candor means being frank, honest, and sincere with others while keeping your words free from bias, prejudice, or malice.

1-49.     Your courage will allow you to do the following:

  • Control your fear in physical and moral contexts.
  • Take responsibility for your actions, mistakes, and decisions.
  • Confront problems and do what you believe is right.
  • Report successes and failures with equal candor.

1-50.     When considering personal courage, physical or moral, there is one important point to be made. Nowhere does the value say that fear must disappear-that you should not feel fear. Nor does it imply that courage is only required in combat. Many soldiers who have never seen a battlefield have carried out acts of great courage. Demonstrate personal courage by daily standing up for and acting upon the things that you know are right.

Private First Class Parker F. Dunn in the Argonne Forest

Private First Class Dunn displayed personal courage while assigned to the 1st Battalion, 312th Infantry Regiment of the 78th Division. On 23 October 1918, near Grand-Pre, France, PFC Dunn's battalion commander needed to send a message to a company in the advanced lines of an attack. Because of the extreme danger due to heavy enemy fire and limited prospect for survival, he hesitated to order a runner to make the trip. But PFC Dunn, a member of the intelligence section, volunteered for the mission.

After advancing only a short distance across a field swept by artillery and machinegun fire, he was wounded but continued on. He was wounded a second time and fell to the ground. Despite his painful wounds he got up again and persistently attempted to carry out his mission until enemy machinegun fire killed him before reaching the advance line. PFC Dunn received the Medal of Honor posthumously.


1-51.     Many civilians-and maybe a few soldiers-misunderstand what discipline really is. Discipline is the glue that holds units together in order to accomplish assigned missions. It is the culmination of the genuine acceptance of the Army values. This acceptance results in self-discipline, without which there cannot be military discipline. Discipline, then is an individual quality that allows the soldier to see that despite his own preferences, he must accomplish assigned jobs well to ensure the team can do its tasks. Discipline is an essential part of the warrior ethos.

An NCO inspects his soldiers prior to assuming guard duty.

An NCO inspects his soldiers prior to
assuming guard duty.1-16

1-52.     Discipline isn't blindly following orders or just imposing punishment for infractions but is something leaders and soldiers build together. It is the desire to do what is right even if it is difficult or dangerous. It doesn't matter if the "boss" isn't watching; the task will be done and done properly. It is the desire to accomplish the task well, not because of fear of punishment, but because of pride in one's unit and oneself. Discipline means putting the task of the unit-the team-ahead of personal desires.

1-53.     Your duties require you to accomplish tasks with your equipment under the most difficult conditions: uncertainty, confusion, stress and fear of battle. In those challenging circumstances your courage and that of your fellow soldiers will be tested to the limit. You can expect fear to complicate duty performance in crisis situations. Fear is a natural reaction to combat and unknown situations. With the Army value of personal courage and the discipline developed in training you will get the job done despite the presence of fear. That discipline enhances the confidence that you'll act correctly and properly even under stressful conditions.

Discipline must be a habit so ingrained that it is stronger than the excitement of battle or the fear of death.

GEN George S. Patton, Jr.1-17

1-54.     Discipline in the Army is important because of the stakes involved. In civilian life a lack of discipline may cause some discomfort or maybe problems with the law. In the Army poor discipline could result in the unnecessary loss of soldiers' lives-a cost too high to pay. As a disciplined soldier you place the unit's mission above your personal welfare. It means understanding your task and obeying orders promptly and cheerfully because your fellow soldiers and leaders depend on you to do so. This is military discipline; the kind of discipline that wins battles and saves lives.

1-55.     The purpose of discipline is to make soldiers so well trained that they carry out orders quickly and intelligently under the most difficult conditions. Insistence on performing tasks properly enhances military discipline. For example, ensuring soldiers wear their uniforms properly, march well or repeat tasks until they do them correctly are part of military discipline. This is not harassment or punishment. Proper and prompt execution of orders will save lives in combat. This in no way means you should not exercise initiative to solve a problem or to ensure the job gets done. American soldiers have a long tradition of displaying initiative and disciplined soldiers focus their efforts toward the success of the team.

1-56.     Discipline is essential when we receive urgent orders. There are times when success or failure depends on the immediate, correct execution of tasks that may result in the deaths of the soldiers carrying them out. But these successes are made possible through good training that breeds confidence within units. Confidence in yourself, your fellow soldiers, and your leaders all reinforce the discipline to finish the job, regardless of the difficulty of the task.

Discipline is a measure of what a soldier does when the commander is not there...

FM 22-100, Army Leadership, 1983

1-57.     Discipline in routine things like saluting, police call and physical training leads to discipline in the difficult things like advancing under fire, disposing of unexploded ordnance, and safeguarding enemy prisoners of war. That is why the Army insists on training to standard. It starts with self-discipline but grows with pride in the unit and confidence in the leaders' and other soldiers' abilities. A disciplined unit is made up of well-trained soldiers who trust each other and know they can accomplish any mission they are given. Those soldiers will not let each other down nor even consider failure.


1-58.     The Army is made up of hundreds of thousands of men and women from different backgrounds, with different views of the world, who look different and may even have been born outside the US. But they all have one thing in common: they are soldiers and Department of the Army Civilians (DAC) who promised to support and defend the Constitution to keep our Nation free. This commitment is as it should be-free men and women who have declared that, if necessary, they will fight to maintain the right to live in our own American way and continue to enjoy the privileges and benefits which are granted to no other nation.

The Army...mirrors the nation.

SGT Jack F. Holden1-18

1-59.     You are one of those great soldiers. You may be a US Army reservist in Iraq, a national guardsman in Alaska, or an active component soldier in Texas. Your unit and the soldiers you serve with are part of a team that can only operate effectively when each of its parts works well together. This great team also works with the other services-the Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard-as well as allied nations. Our Army assists non-Department of Defense (DoD) governmental agencies and even non-governmental organizations in disaster relief or support operations. But the common factors remain the necessity, and the ability and willingness to operate and succeed as a team.

1-60.     Throughout your life, you have and will continue to perform as a part of a team. It is true many people admire great leaders, sports stars or celebrities. But it is equally true that when soldiers work together to achieve a common goal the world sees the enormous strength of the people of the United States. Teamwork has been a defining quality of our Army. It overcomes individual shortcomings, builds confidence in the unit and among soldiers, enhances each person's courage, and magnifies the commitment to succeed.


1-61.     A team is a group of individuals banded together along organizational lines for the purpose of accomplishing a certain goal. While you are in the Army you will be a member of many teams and groups, often many at the same time. To be a good soldier you must be a good team member. We organize teams in different ways. The following shows types of groups or teams:

  • A functional team is organized to accomplish a particular task and is one of long standing in the organization. Squads, platoons and companies are examples of functional teams.
  • Task groups are formed when two or more functional teams contribute team members for a specific period of time to accomplish a specific task. This is like task organization. Task groups are disbanded after their mission is completed.
  • Cliques are small informal groups held together by common interests and friendship outside recognized organizational lines.
  • Primary groups are closely knit and deeply committed to each other. Your immediate family is an example of a primary group. In the Army, tank crews, two-person buddy teams, squads, and platoons should be primary groups.
  • Secondary groups are impersonal but in which members often interact. Secondary groups could be private or professional organizations or the larger Army organizations of which your unit is a part (e.g. division and corps).
  • Membership groups require little if any involvement of their members. An example of this is an affiliated regiment.
  • Reference groups influence our attitudes, values, and behavior. Examples of reference groups are church or chapel groups, political parties, or unit sports teams.

1-62.     Most soldiers will be members of more than one, even many teams or groups. Your family, your unit, your friends, and other associations form some of those groups. Sometimes these different groups may have conflicting values, priorities, or goals. If conflicts occur, solve them with the problem solving steps or the ethical reasoning process.

Nothing wrong with having a clique, so long as everybody's in it.

SMA William G. Bainbridge1-19

1-63.     Teamwork thrives when the soldiers on the team are closely associated with each other both on and off duty. Relationships, friendships, and teamwork should spill over into the post housing area, the barracks, the bowling alley, the chapel, the club system, the recreation center, and other organizations. Such camaraderie increases esprit de corps and improves the team's performance.

1-64.     Most of us have the ability and desire to be a part of a winning team and to help it succeed. Once part of a team we can stay the course despite obstacles. The Army's service ethic is a soldier's commitment to place the Nation, the Army, its soldiers, and their families above self. This commitment is expressed by the willingness to perform one's duty at all times and to subordinate personal welfare for the welfare of others, without expecting reward or recognition.

1-65.     Productive members of a team do their duty as well as they know how and actively seek to improve their performance. They also cooperate with other members of the team and help them willingly. The members of a team are more interested in the success of the team than in personal gain. Finally, the team knows that the leader has authority over the team because he is responsible for the team's performance.

The one question that always presents itself on the battle field every minute of the time to every person, whether he be a general or a private, is "What play has my team captain ordered, and how best may I act so as to work in conjunction with the other players to bring about the desired result?"... A poor play in which every player enters with his whole heart (teamwork) will often win, while, on the other hand, the best play in which some of the players are skulkers and shirkers will probably fail.

Manual for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates of Infantry of the Army of the United States, 19171-20

1-66.     Leaders and soldiers all contribute to teambuilding. In all training, operations, and routine daily duties, the potential to further build the team exists. Teambuilding also occurs in athletics, social activities, and unit functions like a Dining-In or Dining-Out. Leaders are the primary teambuilders, but every soldier properly motivated and trained can help in teambuilding. Stay informed of what is going on. If you don't know, ask. You can't help your fellow soldiers accomplish the unit's mission if you don't know what the mission is or the commander's intent for the operation. Every soldier brings previous training and experience to benefit the team. As long as you share that experience and accomplish your duties as best you are able, you make a valuable contribution.


1-67.     One of the great aspects of our Army is that we develop future leaders from within the force. As soldiers gain training and experience, they also develop the skills necessary to lead other soldiers of junior rank and experience. Every soldier is a leader in the making. Leadership is learned, and it takes time. It takes more than 20 years to develop a brigade commander or command sergeant major. Today's lieutenants and captains will command tomorrow's Future Force brigades and divisions. The enlisted soldiers entering service today will be the 1SGs and CSMs of the Future Force. Still, the necessities of combat may place soldiers into leadership positions sooner than they expected. So even junior enlisted soldiers should begin learning about leadership early in their careers.

1-68.     Perhaps you are a junior enlisted soldier now, responsible for performing the duties of your MOS. But some day, probably sooner than you think, you will lead other soldiers. Even if you are already in a leadership position as an NCO or officer, the following paragraphs should help you in leading well. And this will help you understand how the Army values can be put into action. You can find detailed information on direct leadership-face-to-face, first-line leadership-in FM 6-22 (22-100) Army Leadership. It is the Army's key publication on the subject and provides all the nuts and bolts you need to know in Chapters 1-5.

Leaders' Obligations to Soldiers

1-69.     The first obligation of the leader of every organization is to accomplish his assigned missions. In doing this, leaders must be proficient in both individual and collective tasks. Leaders ensure soldiers are well trained, informed, and capable of accomplishing the assigned mission. Leaders create a disciplined environment where soldiers can learn and grow both personally and professionally. It means holding their soldiers to high standards, training them to do their jobs effectively in peace and win in war. Leaders take care of soldiers by being fair, refusing to cut corners, sharing their hardships, and setting the example.

1-70.     Taking care of soldiers includes everything from enforcing training standards, to making sure a soldier has time for an annual dental exam, to ensuring soldiers' housing is adequate. Leaders have an obligation to ensure soldiers and their families are living in safe and healthy environments. Leaders set up the systems to prepare families so soldiers know their families will be taken care of, whether the soldier is home or deployed. Family readiness also means ensuring there's a support group in place, that even the most junior soldier and most inexperienced family members know where to turn for help when their soldier is deployed.

The Deployment

Preparations were almost complete. Equipment was loaded, the soldiers' gear was ready, and their families knew what was going on. SFC Lamb thought his soldiers were as ready to deploy as any, except for one. SPC Garrett is probably the best junior enlisted soldier in the platoon, a real workhorse. But Mrs. Garrett is expecting their first child, due three days after the unit deploys. SPC Garrett hasn't asked for any favors and he wants to be with the unit when it goes. He had arranged for his mother to stay with his wife after the baby is born to help while he is away. But SFC Lamb thought that SPC Garrett should not be deprived of such an important experience as the birth of his child.

"I've spoken to the 1SG and he agrees with me and the Commander okayed it. You're going to stay and see your baby born. We're coordinating transportation for you with another unit leaving a week after us." Before SPC Garrett could protest, SFC Lamb went on, "It's already decided. I know you want to deploy with us, but we'll make it without you for a little while. Anyway, this is one of those things where the family can and will come first. Sometimes that's the way it has to be."

SPC Garrett knew his platoon sergeant was right, but he also knew the mission had to come first. He was a little surprised that didn't seem to be the case, this time. Or was it?1-21

1-71.     Taking care of soldiers also means demanding that soldiers do their duty, even at the risk of their lives. It doesn't mean coddling them or making training easy or comfortable. In fact, that kind of training gets soldiers killed unnecessarily. Training must be rigorous and as much like combat as is possible while avoiding undue risk. Hard training is the best way to prepare soldiers for the rigors of combat. No training, no matter how realistic, can prepare a soldier completely for combat. But leaders must provide the best available training, equipment, and support to give soldiers the best chance of survival while accomplishing the mission.

The Enduring Competencies: Self-Awareness and Adaptability

1-72.     Effective Army leaders consistently demonstrate self-awareness and adaptability. Self-awareness is the ability to understand how to assess your abilities, know your strengths and weaknesses in the operational environment and learn how to correct those weaknesses. For example, the First Sergeant gave CPL Lawson a mission and three soldiers to accomplish it. CPL Lawson was to lead the three soldiers from other platoons on a detail to set up Target Reference Points (TRP) for training use that night. CPL Lawson knew he had to refresh himself on the company's SOP for setting up TRPs so he allotted some time to review the SOP. He also knew that heavy rain was expected by late afternoon so he wanted to get to work with his soldiers quickly to put the TRPs in place before the rain. Nonetheless, he prepared his soldiers for the environmental effects by ensuring they brought appropriate rain gear. He knew one of the soldiers had a HMMWV license and tasked him with requesting and preparing a vehicle for use. CPL Lawson's ability to recognize his own weaknesses caused him to seek the knowledge he needed and he prepared himself and his soldiers to adapt to foreseen environment changes.

1-73.     Adaptability is the ability to recognize and react effectively to changes in the environment. Let's say that once out on the range and executing his mission, CPL Lawson sees that it has gotten significantly colder and instead of rain, it has started to snow. The cold and reduced visibility were two of the variables he had not foreseen. Still CPL Lawson adapted by having the soldiers warm up in the HMMWV periodically, telling his driver to go slower due to the more slippery driving surface, and calling the First Sergeant on the radio to inform him of the conditions.

1-74.     Your unit will receive varied missions in varied environments and you will have to adapt to the environment while training to perform many different tasks. Infantry could be supporting relief operations after a natural disaster or a quartermaster unit could be defending its perimeter against a terrorist attack. But because of the speed that information travels now and in the future, one soldier can have an impact far beyond his unit's actual area of operations. One soldier's actions could determine the success or failure of an operation. And that soldier could be you.


1-75.     With the competencies of self-awareness and adaptability, Army leadership begins with what the leader must BE-the Army values and attributes that shape a leader's character. Interpersonal, conceptual, technical, and tactical skills compose what a leader must KNOW. Leadership demands competence in a range of human activities that become more complex with positions of greater responsibility.

1-76.     But character and knowledge-while absolutely necessary-are not enough. Leadership demands application-action to DO what is needed-often in complex and dangerous conditions. Action is the essence of leadership. The Army Leadership Framework (Figure 1-1) shows the relationship of values, attributes, skills and actions to Be, Know, and Do. It isn't important to memorize these as much as to understand what they mean in your circumstances to best demonstrate and act upon them.

Figure 1-1. The Army Leadership Framework

Figure 1-1. The Army Leadership Framework1-23

1-77.     Be a person of character by living the Army values. Adhering to Army values further develops character in a soldier. Remember that character is an inner strength that helps you know what is right and what is wrong. It is what gives you the desire and fortitude to do what is right even in the toughest situations and it gives you the courage to keep doing what is right regardless of the consequences. That desire and fortitude is the warrior ethos. Your qualities and characteristics-attributes-are both inherited (eye and hair color, for example) and learned (self-discipline and military bearing, for example). Experience has shown that the Army values and leader attributes make for better leaders. These are attributes worth aspiring to even for a soldier not in a leadership position.

1-78.     One of the most obvious ways to demonstrate character is to be honest. Tell it like it is, not how you think someone wants to hear it. The Army and your fellow soldiers want, need and deserve the truth. If you make a mistake, admit it. If something is wrong, you must be willing to say so, even to higher-ranking NCOs and officers. Tell them in an objective, straightforward and tactful manner and present the facts. This often takes moral courage. What you have to say may not be easy or even welcomed, but your candor is necessary to develop and maintain trust. Soldiers need to know whether they have met the standard and leaders need to know the true status of units. A mark of loyalty is a burning desire to help the team improve its performance. That demands honesty. Make it a habit to be candid because in battle, lives will depend on it.

1-79.     Spiritual fitness can help develop the attributes of leaders. Often (but not necessarily) religious in nature, spiritual fitness reflects a sense of self-worth and the value of human lives. Many soldiers find solace and draw moral strength from their religious beliefs that support the acceptance of Army values. Other soldiers who do not practice a religion may draw that same moral strength from other sources. Soldiers may freely practice their religion or none at all as they desire. However expressed or sought, spiritual fitness is an individual concern that can be enhanced.

There are only two powers in the world, the sword and the spirit. In the long run the sword will always be conquered by the spirit.

Napoleon Bonaparte1-24

1-80.     To be a good leader, know your job, know yourself, and know your fellow soldiers. Every day the Army becomes more technologically advanced. Our fellow citizens have entrusted us to use complex tools to protect the Nation and our way of life. This requires each soldier to be proficient in his job and to work as a member of a team. Know how to think and plan ahead and learn to visualize the effects of your actions. Know your equipment and tactics and how to make decisions based on available information. Knowledge is reflected in a soldier's skills. As you continue in the Army, you will develop or improve these skills. Even the most senior leaders work to improve certain skills. Knowledge is never complete; we keep learning all our lives.

1-81.     Being an expert in fieldcraft reduces the likelihood you will become a casualty. The requirement to do one's job in a field environment is one of the differences between soldiering and most civilian occupations. Likewise, the requirement that Army leaders make sure their soldiers take care of themselves and provide them with the means to do so is unique. The Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks (STP 21-1-SMCT) lists individual skills soldiers must master to operate effectively in the field. The field manual Combat Skills of the Soldier (FM 3-21.75) is another good source. Those skills include everything from how to keep your feet dry in the field to tracking. Most MOSs require other skills and you can find them in unique soldier training publications (STPs). If you see or know of a better way to perform a task, speak up. You may save your fellow soldiers' time and effort and perhaps even their lives!

A Better Way

In World War I, then Colonel George S. Patton was in France, training American tankers and preparing to lead them in combat. "Given the propensity of the tanks for breaking down, maintenance was one of Patton's chief concerns. He was constantly after his men to keep their tanks in good running condition, a difficult task greatly hampered by a shortage of spare parts and the absence of repair facilities close to the battlefield.

As it happened, it was neither Patton nor one of his officers, but rather a. private who came up with a solution to the problem. The private, whose name has long been forgotten, suggested that one tank in each company be converted into a sort of roving repair shop loaded with various spare parts (particularly fan belts) and equipped with towing apparatus to retrieve damaged, mired, or broken-down vehicles from the battlefield. Patton thought this an excellent idea and immediately saw to its implementation.

This led to the creation of the first tank company maintenance team, which consisted of mechanics from battalion headquarters who were assigned to each tank company to operate the company's recovery vehicle. It was the beginning of a system that is still in use today in American armored units. And it is worth remembering that it was the brainchild of a private, which just goes to show how much Patton encouraged initiative in the ranks of the AEF Tank Corps."1-25

1-82.     Know the rules of engagement (ROE) and, if applicable, rules on the use of force. Conditions in every area of operations differ, and they will change within those areas, as well. Knowing the ROE not only saves time in reacting to a potential threat but gives soldiers the confidence that they will react properly. See more on ROE in Chapter 5.

1-83.     Know the commander's intent. Included in every operation order, commander's intent is a clear, concise statement of what the unit must do and the conditions the unit must meet to succeed with respect to the enemy, terrain, and the desired end state. While usually specific to a given operation or mission, knowing the commander's intent and your unit's mission will help you accomplish the mission even in the absence of specific orders. This isn't just for leaders-every soldier should know their commander's intent and that of the next higher commander. The comander's intent channels the natural initiative of soldiers to take advantage of opportunities on the battlefield in a disciplined manner. The commander's intent will let you know what is the most important thing the unit has to accomplish and when it must be done.

1-84.     Know your own capabilities and believe in yourself and your training. Understand right now that courage is not a substitute for proper training, working equipment or firepower. Putting rounds on target quickly and accurately is the best antidote to fear, but it requires well trained, disciplined soldiers to accomplish.


1-85.     Do what is necessary to fulfill your duties and support your fellow soldiers by putting your knowledge into action. Taking action requires making decisions. Everyone makes decisions every day to solve problems. A problem is an existing condition in which what you want to happen is different from what actually is happening. So decision making is knowing whether to decide and then when and what to decide. The Army uses a method known as the problem solving steps to help choose the best course of action. The seven problem solving steps are in Figure 1-2.

The Problem Solving Steps

Problem definition. Don't be distracted by the symptoms or effects of the problem, get at its root cause. For example, if you get called down to the motor pool on Saturday because there is a lot of oil under your truck, the problem is not the oil or the loss of free time. The problem is the worn seal that is allowing the oil to leak out.

Information gathering. In the time you have available, gather facts about the situation. You may also make assumptions to help in the next step. Assumptions are statements of what you believe about the situation but don't have the facts to support them. Make only those assumptions you believe are true and are necessary to come up with alternatives.

Course of action (COA) development. Courses of action are ways to solve the problem. Develop as many different COAs as time permits. Don't be satisfied with the first thing that comes into your mind. The third or fourth or tenth COA you come up with might be the best one.

COA analysis. Identify what is likely to occur from each COA and any resource or other constraints. Determine what are the advantages and disadvantages of each COA, without favoring any COA over the others.

COA comparison. Evaluate each COA as to its probability of solving the problem. Consider the cost of each COA, also. For example, replacing the engine in your leaky truck might solve the problem, but so will replacing the bad seal at far less cost.

Decision. Select the best COA that solves the problem.

Execution and Assessment. Once you've decided, make it happen! Plan how to accomplish the tasks required to solve the problem so you can get it done in an organized, efficient manner. Then assess the results. Does the truck run properly? Is there any oil leaking?

Figure 1-2. The Problem Solving Steps

1-86.     This process is the basis for all decision making and includes understanding the consequences of your actions. Apply the problem solving steps even when time is short. You can reduce the length of the process by developing fewer COAs or gathering less information. Even when time is constrained, the steps will help you decide on the best available solution. You may find that sometimes you need to take into account your knowledge, your intuition, and your best judgment. Intuition comes from accumulated experience and is often referred to as "gut feeling." But don't rely only on intuition, even if it has worked in the past. Use your experience, listen to your instincts, but do your research as well.

Convoy Briefing during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Convoy Briefing during Operation Iraqi Freedom.1-27

1-87.     Another tool that small unit leaders use is called the troop leading procedures (TLP). The TLP, shown in Figure 1-3, elaborates on the problem solving steps to support tactical decision-making. The TLP is a series of eight inter-related steps that may be accomplished concurrently. The TLP enable a leader to use available time effectively and efficiently in the planning, preparing, executing, and assessing of missions. Collectively, the TLP are a tool to assist leaders in making, issuing, and supervising operation orders. While the TLP does not necessarily follow a rigid sequence, it is important to accomplish every step to ensure planning is thorough and all soldiers know their required tasks.

1-88.     The TLP is the best tool for planning at the small unit level to be sure every important detail is considered. Using the TLP keeps all soldiers fully informed on future operations. But its usefulness is not limited to tactical field conditions. You can use it even in garrison situations in everyday tasks.

The Troop Leading Procedures

Receive the mission. Once you receive your mission, analyze to determine what exactly has to be done and what other factors will affect your ability to do it.

Issue warning order. As soon as you understand the mission, let subordinates know so they can begin planning.

Make a tentative plan. After analyzing the mission, develop some different ways (courses of action -- COA) to get it done. Then compare these COAs to determine which one is best.

Initiate movement. Begin soldiers' and equipment movement to where they will be needed or where they will rehearse the operation.

Conduct reconnaissance. Survey, as much as possible, the ground on which you will operate. At a minimum, conduct a map reconnaissance.

Complete the plan. Based on the reconnaissance and any changes in the situation complete the plan of action.

Issue the order. Fully brief soldiers on what has to get done, the commander's intent, and how you are going to accomplish the task.

Supervise and assess. Supervise preparation for the mission through rehearsals and inspections.

Figure 1-3. The Troop Leading Procedures

Reverse Planning

1-89.     The reverse planning process is a time management technique. You develop your time schedule by starting at "mission time" and working backward to the time it is now. For example, let's say that you have a Class A uniform inspection on Friday at 0900 and it is now Monday 1630. You could list the tasks you have to do to prepare for the inspection, how much time each will take, and when they should start, such as in Table 1-1.

Table 1-1. Reverse Planning Example



Start time

Class A uniform inspection


Friday, 0900

Final uniform check by your squad leader

10 minutes

Friday, 0850

Place awards, insignia, etc., on your uniform

20 minutes

Thursday, 1900

Clean and shine insignia and brass

30 minutes

Thursday, 1830

Get new ribbon mount from clothing sales

30 minutes

Thursday. 1800

Pick up uniform from the dry cleaner

30 minutes

Thursday, 1730

Drop off uniform with the dry cleaner

3 days

Monday, 1730

1-90.     The reverse planning process helps you accomplish important tasks without wasting time. By the example you can see that you would have to turn in your uniform Monday night for cleaning and pick it up on Thursday. Then you would pick up a new ribbon mount (you didn't have a chance since getting that new ARCOM) Thursday afternoon before the PX closes. Finally you'll probably want to set up your uniform Thursday night for your squad leader to check the next morning before the inspection. Reverse planning is a tool to see if there is enough time to accomplish all required tasks.


1-91.     Our nation places a premium on our professional values, and entrusts the success of its defense to our actions. Ethics is the process of putting our professional values into action. In making decisions we all come across situations where more than one solution appears to be correct. As a soldier who accepts and lives the Army values, the various COAs you develop for any given problem will most likely be legal, appropriate and can solve the problem. How then, do we select the right COA if they all appear to be equally effective? In these situations we decide on a COA not only because it can solve the problem, but because it can do so ethically, in a way that is most consistent with Army values, rules and the situation.

1-92.     The values themselves may, in certain situations, conflict with each other or some other valid factor such as rules, orders or the situation itself. An ethical dilemma is a situation where two or more factors conflict in deciding the "right" course of action. These are dilemmas in which there are two apparent "right" answers. So how do we decide which "right" is "right?"

Ethical Dilemma-The Checkpoint

Two days after a suicide car-bombing killed four soldiers at a checkpoint, another unit is operating a similar checkpoint some distance away. The unit was recently involved in offensive operations but was beginning the transition to stability operations. Unit training has emphasized the importance of helping the citizens return to a "normal" lifestyle. Nonetheless, the events of the previous day demonstrate that the enemy is still active, and will use civilian vehicles loaded with explosives to kill themselves in an attempt to also kill US soldiers.

At this time, soldiers at the checkpoint notice a large civilian passenger vehicle approaching at a high rate of speed.1-29

1-93.     In the example above we know that the rules, in this case the rules of engagement (ROE), say that the US soldiers may anticipate an attack and take action to prevent it-if an approaching vehicle appears to be a suicide bomber, soldiers may use deadly force to stop it. The soldiers also know that their mission is part of stability operation to maintain public order and protect innocent civilians. Analysis of METT-TC for this type of mission, the Law of Land Warfare, and both personal and Army values tells soldiers to protect noncombatants. Yet those same values, orders, training, and the mission also place a high value on protecting our fellow soldiers. Innocent civilians could possibly be the occupants of the approaching vehicle. What is the right thing to do?

1-94.     This dilemma illustrates that we cannot, in some situations, simultaneously honor two or more values and follow given rules while accomplishing the mission. In these situations we have an ethical dilemma. When this happens the ethical reasoning process can help us decide the correct course of action. This thinking must be done as part of mission preparation-prior to the moment of decision. The ethical reasoning process is outlined in Figure 1-4.

The Ethical Reasoning Process

Step 1. Problem definition. Same as the problem solving steps.

Step 2. Know the relevant rules and values at stake. Laws, ARs, ROE, command policies, Army values, etc.

Step 3. Develop possible courses of action (COA) and evaluate them using these criteria:

    a. Rules-Does the COA violate rules, laws, regulations, etc.? For example, torturing a prisoner might get him to reveal useful information that will save lives, but the law of war prohibits torture under any circumstances. Such a COA violates an absolute prohibition.

    b. Effects-After visualizing the effects of the COA, do you foresee bad effects that outweigh the good effects? For example, you are driving along a railroad and you see a train on the tracks. If you speed up to beat the train to the crossing, you might save a little time getting to your destination. But the potential bad effects outweigh the time you might save.

    c. Circumstances-Do the circumstances of the situation favor one of the values or rules in conflict? For example, your battle-buddy was at PT formation this morning but now is absent at work call formation. Do you cover for him? Your honor and loyalty to the unit outweigh your friendship and loyalty to your buddy, so the ethical COA would be to report the truth rather than lie about his whereabouts.

    d. "Gut check"-Does the COA "feel" like it is the right thing to do? Does it uphold Army values and develop your character or virtue? For example, you come upon a traffic accident and a number of vehicles have stopped, apparently to render aid, but you aren't sure. Stopping may cause further congestion in the area, but ensuring injured are cared for and that emergency services are on the way further strengthens the values of duty and honor.

Step 4. Now you should have at least one COA that has passed Step 3. If there is more than one COA, choose the course of action that is best aligned with the criteria in Step 3.

Figure 1-4. Ethical Reasoning Process1-30

1-95.     Ethical reasoning is patterned after the problem solving steps. Ethical reasoning helps soldiers and DA civilians decide the best course of action for ethical dilemmas. As explained in FM 6-22 (22-100), Army Leadership, Chapter 4, ethical reasoning isn't a separate process used only when you have discovered an ethical problem. It is a part of making any decision. Admittedly, most decisions don't involve ethical dilemmas. But ethical reasoning will help you select the best COA from among those in which there is no obvious best solution (because they all appear to be right).

1-96.     In applying ethical reasoning to the (Checkpoint) example, the problem is that a possible suicide bomber in a large civilian passender vehicle is approaching at a high rate of speed. The ethical dilemma is the risk involved in civilian protection vs. force protection The relevant rules include Army values, the ROE, the current mission, and the Law of Land Warfare. So what should be done? There may be more, but let's say there are four possible Courses of Action (COA):

  • COA a) do nothing.
  • COA b) call higher for instructions.
  • COA c) disable or destroy the vehicle.
  • COA d) block the vehicle with a Bradley.

1-97.     The first COA (a) reduces the risk of harming any noncombatants in the approaching vehicle but it probably does not fulfill the unit's mission at the checkpoint. The second COA (b) offers a way to seek advice or higher guidance on what to do but will probably take time, during which the soldiers at the checkpoint could suffer casualties if the vehicle is carrying explosives. The third COA (c) complies with the ROE and should stop the vehicle but could harm any noncombatants in it. The fourth COA (d) puts soldiers and equipment at risk but it might stop the vehicle without harming any noncombatants in it.

Ethical Dilemma - The Checkpoint (continued)

The commander ordered the platoon manning the checkpoint to fire a warning shot at the vehicle to signal the occupants to stop the vehicle. When the vehicle continued to approach, he ordered the platoon to fire into the vehicle's radiator. When he saw nothing happening he ordered the platoon to stop the vehicle, immediately followed by a number of loud reports from the 25 mm guns of the Bradley Fighting Vehicles of the platoon.

The commander ordered the platoon to cease firing. In the now destroyed vehicle were a number of civilians, many killed or wounded by the fire of the Bradleys. The vehicle contained no explosives or weapons.1-31

1-98.     Nobody has a crystal ball to see all the future results of our actions. However, ethical action requires us to live out our values in a way that considers the future. The soldiers at the checkpoint, not realizing the approaching vehicle carried noncombatants, made a decision to prevent an anticipated attack against fellow soldiers. It demonstrates the serious consequences of putting our values into action and their effect upon our Nation, the Army, our fellow soldiers, and those whom we protect. Not all ethical dilemmas have life or death consequences, but nevertheless they affect our professional identity in the way we place our values into action.

Ethical Dilemma-Guard Duty

PFC Rust was conducting a patrol of the motor pool while on guard duty one night. He saw two figures about 20 meters away climbing over the fence into the motor pool. He ordered them to halt and when he got closer recognized them as two friends from his own company. They explained they were on the way to the club on the other side of the Motor Pool and were cutting across so they didn't have to walk all the way around. There didn't seem to be any damage to the fence and it was a long way around the motor pool to the club.

Should PFC Rust bring them to the sergeant of the guard (SOG) or let them go their way?1-32

1-99.     In the guard duty ethical dilemma there is apparently more than one right answer. Referring back to the ethical reasoning process, what are the factors?

  • Rules-the unit SOP requires soldiers to report in to the SOG if going to the motor pool after duty hours.
  • Effects-PFC Rust doesn't want his buddies to get into trouble, but he knows the effect on unit discipline by letting them go would be worse.
  • Circumstances-duty and honor cause PFC Rust to bring his friends to the SOG because while they said they were just going to the club, he isn't completely sure of their intentions.
  • "Gut check"-even though his friends might resent him for it, PFC Rust feels best about taking the two soldiers to the SOG as it seems to be the more professional COA.

1-100.     The warrior ethos is defined by our professional values, and it is lived out as we put those values into action. The ethical actions of a soldier require both a self-understanding of these values and the determination to apply them in all situations. But ethical reasoning is not a science, despite the crisp procedure laid out in this manual. It is an art that improves as your character grows stronger and as you gain experience. Even senior leaders continue to learn and also work through ethical dilemmas.

1-101.     Whenever time permits, seek advice from more experienced soldiers to help you solve such problems. You will gradually gain the ability to solve even complex dilemmas. Just like playing a sport where with enough practice you begin to develop better coordination and "muscle memory," so too will it be as you develop character, gain experience, and find that you can make decisions more quickly because of "ethical memory."


1-102.     Nearly every soldier, at some point in his service, will have to supervise other soldiers of junior rank and experience. It may even happen before promotion to the NCO ranks for enlisted soldiers. At that point, the leader is no longer "one of the guys" but accountable for accomplishing a task and for the welfare of the soldiers he leads.

A junior NCO decides his team's next move along the Administrative Boundary Line in Kosovo.

A junior NCO decides his team's next move along the
Administrative Boundary Line in Kosovo.1-33-1

1-103.     The transition to a leadership position is from one that was cared for to one who cares for others and from one who was taught to one that teaches, prepares for, and supervises tasks. You might stay in the same section or perhaps you will move to a different organization entirely. Either way, you will do the job you have been selected to do; lead soldiers.

When [a corporal] first receives his appointment, his caliber meets with the severest tests. Soldiers, for a time, will be apt to try the material he is made of, which they do in many ways, and by progressive steps, and, if not checked, will increase to a complete disregard, and terminate in an entire inefficiency of the corporal.

Customs of Service for Noncommissioned Officers and Soldiers, 18651-33-2

1-104.     The transition to a leadership position may be difficult but is important to make. Identify exactly whom you report to. You should learn what your responsibilities are and what is expected of you. Right away, ask what is the standard of performance so there won't be any confusion later. Once you know these things, look to the soldiers you will lead. What are their strengths and weaknesses? Make sure the soldiers you lead and the resources you have access to are sufficient to complete the mission. Determine if additional preparation or training is necessary. Even if you are a PFC and in charge of two PV2s on police call, these steps will help you complete the mission.

We should be shaping today's soldiers to be tomorrow's leaders. The things we learned in basic training were taught for a reason.

SGT Kerensa Hardy1-34

1-105.     Your experience helps prepare you for assuming a leadership position. But you also have to make an effort to learn about leading through study, reflection and observing leaders. Our Army's history and the leaders of your own unit are good places to start. The Army expects total commitment from those who are selected to lead, train, and care for its soldiers. It is an honor and a privilege to lead America's finest men and women during peacetime and at war. To learn more about the transition to a leadership position take a look at FM 7-22.7, The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide, Chapter 2.


1-106.     Leaders of effective teams recognize the good work of their soldiers. The Army has a number of ways to recognize outstanding performance in soldiers. The most obvious is through promotion. You receive promotions because you have demonstrated the potential to succeed in the next higher rank. Your leaders observe that potential in the daily performance of your duties (a brief description of the Army's promotion system is in Chapter 6). Another way to recognize achievement or service is through awards, decorations, and badges. Medals, ribbons, certificates, qualification badges, patches and coins provide various degrees of recognition for a soldier's hard work. See AR 600-8-22, Military Awards, for a full description.

1-107.     The Medal of Honor is the Nation's highest military award. The Medal of Honor may be given to a member of the Armed Forces of the United States who in "action involving actual conflict with an enemy, distinguish himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty." Many of the recipients of the Medal of Honor were killed during the action for which they received it.

1-108.     Other awards, below the Medal of Honor in the order of precedence, recognize extraordinary bravery in combat. These are the Distinguished Service Cross and the Silver Star. The Bronze Star may be awarded for valor in action or for other meritorious service in a combat zone. The Purple Heart is recognition of injuries received in combat or a terrorist attack. But soldiers also do outstanding work in noncombat areas and for that they may receive the Meritorious Service Medal, the Army Commendation Medal, or the Army Achievement Medal. Soldiers performing noncombat heroic acts may be recognized with the Soldier's Medal.

1-109.     Service ribbons and qualification badges are other visible means of soldier recognition. By looking at the ribbons, badges, and insignia a soldier wears, you can really discover a lot about him. For example, suppose you have just met your new platoon sergeant and she was wearing her Class A uniform. You can deduce her name (SSG Jordan), that she is a quartermaster soldier who has been in the Army over six years, and is both airborne qualified and a parachute rigger. She has completed Basic Noncommissioned Officer Course (BNCOC) and been on two overseas tours as well as a humanitarian relief mission. You can also see that her service has been exemplary by noting a Meritorious Service Medal as well as both the Army Commendation Medal and an Army Achievement Medal each with three oak leaf clusters. You would probably conclude that your new platoon sergeant is squared away. You would probably be correct.

1-110.     Commanders and command sergeants major or first sergeants often give certificates of achievement or the highly prized unit coin to recognize the impact a hardworking soldier has on his unit. All in all, awards and decorations serve to recognize soldiers for their accomplishments and tend to both motivate fellow soldiers and build the team. When you receive an award for a noteworthy accomplishment you should be proud. When your leaders receive awards, be equally proud because your efforts are reflected in those awards. As you progress in rank and assume supervisory roles, remember that the awards you receive are the results of your soldiers' work as much as your own efforts.

1-111.     Other means of recognition are in the form of competitions such as Soldier of the Month or Year boards. These boards are held at the unit, installation, and even Department of the Army Level. They challenge soldiers' knowledge and skill and often the winners receive awards and prizes. NCOs also may compete in monthly, quarterly or yearly NCO boards at the various levels. NCOs of outstanding ability may also compete for membership in the prestigious Sergeant Audie Murphy or Sergeant Morales clubs. Company grade officers may compete for the MacArthur Leadership Award.

1-112.     No form of recognition detracts from the Army value of selfless service. As long as your priorities are straight, awards and decorations add to the pride of a unit and to the confidence of individual soldiers.

1-113.     Few professions in this world are more satisfying, rewarding and challenging than that of the soldier. It isn't easy and isn't meant to be. We have a serious job to do in protecting our freedom and our way of life. Do your duty, treat people the way you wish to be treated, learn to lead and prepare for the day when it is you in front of soldiers and they look to you to make the right decisions. Look forward to it!


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