COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT
Combat service support for the infantry battalion is characterized by constrained organic assets. Requirements range from sustaining platoons and companies operating independently to sustaining battalions operating in restrictive terrain with little or no access by road. These operations, coupled with the division's requirement for rapid aerial deployment, create a challenging CSS environment. CSS must sustain the battalion's combat power; it must also sustain battalion operations conducted with heavy forces (Appendix D). Requirements for CSS vary, depending on the unit mission. Commanders, mainly through their XOs, S4s, and S1s, plan and employ CSS assets to ensure success of missions. The constraints inherent in the CSS organization require infantry commanders to rely on their ingenuity, endurance, and initiative to succeed in rugged environments.
ORGANIZATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
Battalion CSS operations sustain subordinate units, which allows subordinate commanders to concentrate on fighting their unit to accomplish the tactical mission. The main company-level CSS responsibilities are to report and request CSS and to ensure CSS is properly executed. Battalion commanders and staffs must plan tactical and support operations simultaneously to ensure the tactical scheme of maneuver and fire support are logistically supportable. They plan CSS for organic and attached elements and for any supporting units. Large attachments joining the battalion should bring CSS assets from their parent units. Battalion CSS assets may be centralized (unit trains) or placed in multiple locations (echeloned trains). The method chosen depends on the batalion's tactical needs.
The two categories of CSS are logistical support and personnel service support.
a. The four functional areas of battalion logistics are supply, transportation, maintenance, and field services. Field services include mortuary affairs, clothing exchange, bath, salvage, laundry, textile renovation, airdrop, airlift, and bakery.
b. Personnel service support is the management and execution of all personnel-related matters. It includes the following:
(1) Personnel and administration services. These services include personnel accountability, strength reporting and management, replacement operations, casualty management, awards and decorations, morale welfare, and recreation.
(2) Health services support. These services include collection, treatment and evacuation, medical supply support, and preventive medicine.
(3) Religious support. This includes conduct of religious services, personal and religious counseling, and pastoral care.
(4) Legal support. This includes advice and aid to soldiers and commanders concerning law and regulations.
(5) Finance support. This includes all matters involving soldiers' pay.
(6) Public affairs. This includes all matters relating to command information, public information, and community relations.
(7) Postal operations. This includes the movement, delivery, and collection of mail in the battalion.
(8) EPW support. This includes all aspects of handling and evacuating EPWs.
The battalion receives service support from various elements inside and outside the battalion.
a. Inside the Battalion. The XO supervises CSS coordination in the battalion. Aided by the S4 section and the support platoon, the S4 manages battalion logistical support and prepares paragraph 4 of the OPORD. The S1 manages personnel support within the battalion and coordinates the actions of the medical platoon. The battalion personnel administration center (PAC) helps the S1. In light infantry organizations, the brigade HHC provides food preparation and, above crew level, unit maintenance for all assigned battalions.
b. Outside the Battalion. The battalion also depends on the division support command (DISCOM) and other external units for support. A DISCOM is organized in one of two ways.
(1) A DISCOM organized with functional battalions consists of a maintenance battalion, a supply and transport battalion, a medical battalion, and an aviation maintenance company (or, in the air assault division, an aviation maintenance battalion). A forward area support team (FAST) is organized from assets in these functional battalions to provide DS to each brigade. In addition to the forward area support coordinating office (FASCO), who manages it, the FAST consists of the supply company, the medical company, and the maintenance company.
(2) A DISCOM organized with multifunctional battalions consists of a main support battalion (MSB), three forward support battalions (FSB), and an aviation maintenance company. An FSB supports each maneuver brigade and consists of a headquarters, a supply company, a maintenance company, and a medical company.
The S1 section consists of the S1 and the PAC. As the personnel staff officer, the S1 exercises the coordinating staff responsibility for personnel service support matters. He is aided by the PAC supervisor and by the personnel staff NCO (PSNCO). The S1, PSNCO, and two administrative specialists collocate with the S4 at the combat trains CP; the PAC is located in the field trains.
a. The S1 takes part in the full range of staff officer functions. These include taking part in the OPORD process; developing personnel estimates, loss rate estimates, and portions of the CSS annex; and recommending replacement priorities. He coordinates his areas fully with other staff officers.
b. The S1 section has soldiers at both the combat trains CP and the field trains. S1 personnel at the combat trains CP perform strength accounting, casualty reporting, and CP functions. Those in the field trains perform replacement operations, administrative services, personnel actions, legal services, and finance services.
c. The S1 has the staff responsibility for EPWs, religious support, and medical planning. He coordinates with the S2 for interrogating prisoners and with the S4 for processing captured equipment and planning transportation requirements. The medical platoon leader (battalion surgeon), whose duties make him a vital special staff officer, executes medical support. The S1 coordinates with him and with the medical operations officer to ensure that patient treatment and evacuation are planned and coordinated throughout the battalion area. The S1 also coordinates for religious support with the battalion UMT section, which consists of one chaplain and one chaplain's assistant.
d. The S1 assumes public affairs responsibilities since no public affairs assets are available to aid the commander at battalion level. These responsibilities include the following:
(1) Monitoring the need for command information in the battalion to counter enemy propaganda and rumors, to maintain morale, and to maintain the will to fight.
(2) Coordinating with higher headquarters PAO to receive needed command information support.
(3) Identifying unescorted news media in the battalion's area of operations, verifying their credentials, and coordinating their presence with higher headquarters PAO or the media escort.
(4) Observing OPSEC and responding to news media inquiries concerning battalion activities only.
(5) Referring other inquiries to the higher headquarters PAO or the media escort.
The S4 section assumes responsibility for supply, transportation, maintenance, and field service functions. It coordinates the requisition and distribution of supplies to companies. The S4 section also turns in captured supplies and equipment as directed.
a. Personnel in the S4 section are located in the field and combat trains CPs. They are cross trained with soldiers of the S1 section in critical tasks to permit continuous operations. Aided by the battalion supply sergeant, the S4 supervises the S4 section.
b. The S4 concentrates on water and seven classes of supply in combat: Classes I through V, VII, and IX. The support platoon leader working with the S4 and HHC commander coordinates the requisition, receipt, preparation, and delivery of water and Classes I, III, and V. The S4 section coordinates the requisition, receipt, and delivery of Classes II, IV, and VII (as well as Class IX in the light infantry). If the battalion has a maintenance platoon/section, the battalion maintenance technician (BMT) requests, receives, and delivers Class IX items.
c. Water is obtained from the water supply point in or near the BSA and from forward sources tested and approved by the medical platoon leader.
d. Maps are stocked by the headquarter and supply company of the supply and transportation battalion or the supply and service company of the MSB. The S2 determines map requirements. The S4 obtains the maps through supply channels, except for classified maps, which he obtains from the G2.
The medical platoon provides unit-level medical support for the battalion. It collects, triages, and treats patients, then either evacuates them or returns them to duty. The medical platoon establishes and applies preventive medicine programs aimed at preventing disease and illness.
a. The medical platoon stocks and provides all Class VIII supply support for the battalion. It also maintains and requests repair for organic medical equipment.
b. The medical platoon leader, who is the battalion surgeon, operates the BAS with the aid of a physician's assistant (PA). The medical operations officer, who is a medical service corps officer, coordinates the operations, administration, and logistics of the medical platoon. He is aided by the medical platoon sergeant. They coordinate patient evacuation to the supporting medical company, request more forward evacuation assets from the medical company, and support infantry companies.
The support platoon has a headquarters, a transportation section (with a decontamination specialist in H-edition infantry and airborne/air assault battalions) and a mess section (less the light infantry battalion).
a. The transportation section is organized and equipped to transport ammunition, supplies, water, and fuel to the companies and to move soldiers by organic vehicles when required. The transportation section in both the infantry and air assault battalions is equipped with a tank and pump unit (TPU) for bulk fuel distribution. In light infantry and airborne battalions, 500-gallon fuel bladders are employed in bulk fuel distribution.
b. The mess section (less the light infantry battalion) is organized and equipped to prepare meals for all elements of the battalion. Mess support for light infantry battalions is provided by the brigade mess platoon organic to the brigade HHC. The brigade mess section, while able to operate four independent mess teams, operates consolidated from the BSA.
c. The support platoon leader works for the S4, but is supervised by the HHC commander in the field trains.
Unit-level maintenance is consolidated at brigade level for the light infantry battalion. Maintenance teams of two to four men maybe formed to support maneuver battalions. They will work from their battalions' field trains. They carry with them stocks of assemblies and other high-demand repair parts. Procedures are established for repair parts delivery from the brigade consolidated PLL section. The battalion team is responsible for repairing deadlined equipment that can be repaired in time to return it to the current battle. If the item is badly damaged, the team arranges for its evacuation.
The maintenance platoon/section performs unit maintenance. This applies to all battalion equipment except COMSEC and medical equipment. The platoon leader is the battalion maintenance technician. He is assisted by the battalion motor sergeant (BMS). The responsibility for operator and crew maintenance remains with the companies.
a. The administration section requests and maintains Class IX (repair parts) and manages the Army Maintenance Management System (TAMMS) records. The prescribed load list (PLL) stocks for the entire unit are consolidated at battalion control and maintained by this section. To facilitate rapid repair, selected high usage PLL items might accompany combat and tactical vehicles supporting a company.
b. The recovery support section provides limited welding, metalworking, and recovery support.
c. The maintenance services section provides maintenance support to the battalion.
d. Each battalion maintenance team always supports the same company, based on the weapons systems within the companies.
CSS planning ensures support during all phases of an operation. A CSS plan is developed along with the tactical plan. Each CSS plan is as detailed as planning time permits. SOPs help the CSS staff officer plan; battalion orders address only the deviations from the routine planning priorities established in the SOP. Planners also consider contingencies such as emergency resupply.
All CSS functions are estimates of expected needs. They are performed as far forward as the tactical situation permits to enhance combat power.
a. Combat service support must be continuous; available assets must be used. Ammunition, fuel, parts, and replacements are "pushed" forward to the combat trains and logistical release points (LRPs). End items and maintenance personnel are brought forward on request.
b. Combat service support planning is a continuous function. Coordination among tactical planners and those planning CS/CSS is vital and must address all factors that can greatly affect the tactical mission.
c. Combat service support staff officers and commanders must act rather than react to support requirements. They must be personally involved. This means they must remain abreast of the tactical situation and must appraise the situation on the scene. This is critical to mission accomplishment.
d. Combat service support operators and planners must understand the commander's tactical plans and intent to ensure effective support. (Appendix D provides more information about CSS for light/heavy operations.)
(1) Planners and operators must know the following:
- How the unit is task-organized.
- What each of the supported elements will be doing.
- When they will do it.
- How they will do it.
(2) Planners must correctly predict support requirements after analyzing the concept of operations. They must determine the type, quantities, and priority (by type and unit) of support.
(3) Planners assess support capabilities by understanding the requirements and asking the following questions:
(a) What CSS resources are available (organic, attached/OPCON, and higher headquarters)?
(b) When can CSS resources be available to the maneuver units?
(c) How can CSS resources be made available?
CSS is used to maintain the momentum of an attack. Otherwise, the enemy might recover from the initial assault, gain the initiative, and mount a successful counterattack. In the offense, support planners must consider several points and techniques. All apply to any offensive operation. Changing from one type of offensive operation to another does not require a great shift in CSS plans and procedures. However, since a change of operation might require a change in emphasis, the S4 must organize in ways that permit CSS operators to change from supporting one type of operation to supporting another without interruption of service. The main purpose of CSS in the offense-supporting the momentum of the attack--must not be forgotten.
a. Position vital CSS elements and supplies, such as Classes III, V, and water, well forward in the combat trains.
b. Plan for increased consumption of POL.
c. Preplan for air resupply (airlift or airdrop) consistent with ADA threat.
d. Use previously planned and configured logistics packages (LOGPACs) of supplies whenever possible.
e. Plan for increased vehicle and weapon maintenance problems.
f. Plan for increased use of MREs with a corresponding decrease in prepared meals (A-rations, B-rations, or T-rations).
g. Use host nation or captured enemy supplies and equipment, particularly support vehicles and POL.
h. Identify and validate natural water sources in forward areas when water resupply is difficult or not feasible.
i. Prepare for increased casualties. Plan casualty collection points as well as evacuation means and routes for each phase of the operation.
j. Select supply routes and LRPs carefully. When possible, rehearse vehicular routes.
k. Ensure CSS preparations for the attack do not give away tactical plans.
l. Request unit distribution at forward locations.
m. Suspend all field service functions except mortuary affairs.
n. Plan and coordinate EPW operations; expect more EPWs.
o. Plan replacement operations based on known and projected losses.
p. Consider the implications of the increasing distances and longer travel times between the battalion and its sources of supply.
q. Plan for the use of follow-on logistical assets.
r. Request more medical evacuation (air or ground) assets.
s. Plan for reconstitution.
The first purpose of defense is to thwart an enemy attack or, in contrast to offensive operations, to break the momentum of an enemy attack. In consideration for the defense--
a. Maintain the lowest levels of supply forward in the combat trains.
b. Resupply during limited visibility to reduce the chance of enemy interference; infiltrate resupply vehicles to reduce the chances of detection.
c. Plan to reconstitute battalion CSS capability lost to enemy fire. Coordinate with the brigade rear CP to ensure the battalion can be supported in an emergency.
d. Plan more transportation for movement of Class IV barrier material, mines, and pre-positioned ammunition; plan also any CSS requirements that might be necessary for assigned engineers at the completion of the defensive operation.
e. Pre-position ammunition on occupied and prepared positions. However, plan also for the control and possible destruction of this ammunition.
f. Coordinate for the delivery of required Class IV materials as near to the emplacement location as possible.
g. Plan for increased ammunition consumption and decreased fuel consumption.
h. Prepare for possible temporary isolation of forward elements as a result of barriers or enemy encirclement.
i. Rehearse evacuation and supply routes between the combat trains and the company areas.
CSS elements conduct sustainment operations continuously. When maneuver companies are not fighting, battalion CSS elements use the lull to prepare maneuver elements for the next operation.
a. Maintenance and repair work on individual and crew-served weapons as well as on other combat systems is performed at every opportunity. Repair and return of damaged equipment to the fight require early diagnosis and identification of faults and are performed as far forward as possible.
b. Routine resupply is conducted at night, whenever possible. Vulnerability and limited cross-country mobility of CSS vehicles dictate that LOGPACs use existing roads at night.
c. Continuous CSS operations require careful personnel management. A carefully planned and strictly enforced rest-work schedule or sleep plan ensures continuous capability. Cross training is crucial to ensure low-density MOS support is continuously available.
A logistical estimate is an analysis of logistical factors that affect mission accomplishment. Logistics planners use these estimates to recommend COAs and to develop plans to support selected courses of action.
a. The key concerns of battalion logistics planners are the status of supply Classes I, III, V, and water, and the operational status of key weapons systems and of MEDEVAC and other CSS vehicles. (FM 101-5 contains a detailed discussion of the logistical estimate).
b. Logistical estimates are rarely written at the battalion level. However, they often address the following questions:
(1) What are the current and projected status of maintenance, supply, major weapons systems, and transportation?
(2) How much of that is needed to support the operation?
(3) How will it get to the unit(s) who needs it?
(4) What external (FSB/FAST, DISCOM or aviation lift assets) support is needed?
(5) Can the requirements be met using LOGPAC operations or are other techniques necessary?
(6) What are the shortfalls and negative impacts?
(7) What are the anticipated equipment losses and how an the equipment be replaced?
(8) What COAs can be supported most easily?
(9) Are logistics a significant limiting factor in any of these COAs?
Light forces are designed to be flexible and responsive. Therefore, they consist mainly of foot-mobile fighters. Units are organized, equipped, and trained to conduct effective combat operations against light enemy forces, and to engage in conflict at all intensity levels when appropriately augmented with more forces, transportation, and other resources. Their success is limited by the physical ability of infantrymen to deliver to the appropriate place on the battlefield, in a timely manner, the weapon systems and materiel required to defeat the enemy and survive. Sometimes, battlefield operations occur in terrain impassable to vehicles. (FM 7-10 or FM 21-18 provide a detailed discussion about planning soldier's load.)
a. The ability of an infantry soldier to fight is directly related to the load he is required to carry. Excessive loads cost soldiers their energy and agility. Soldiers carrying excessive loads are at a disadvantage when they must react to enemy contact. Also, the rate of march is affected adversely by excessive soldier load. Physical training does not compensate for overloading.
b. The best load for a properly conditioned soldier of average weight is less than 30 percent of his body weight. The heaviest load is 45 percent of his body weight. These weights include all clothing and equipment worn and carried. They should be adjusted if a soldier's weight is far from average. The unit's load plan should not be based on distributing the unit's equipment equally among the soldiers but on the soldiers' relative body sizes and weights.
c. Risk acceptance, based on a well-planned METT-T analysis, is basic to lightening the soldier's load. Commanders must remove the mind-set that they must carry everything to be ready for anything that might happen. In some cases, soldiers have to carry more than the recommended combat weight. Leaders must know how excess weight negatively affects the mission and must set the example by traveling light.
d. All the supplies and equipment a battalion (including attachments) carries is echeloned into the combat load (at company level), sustainment load (at battalion level) and contingency loads (at division or higher level). Commanders at these levels are responsible for the storage and movement of loads as required. When echeloning loads, leaders must consider the availability of ground or air transportation support.
(1) Combat load. This includes mission-essential equipment the commander requires soldiers to have to fight and survive immediate combat operations. This equipment is carried by the soldier or on a close support vehicle.
(2) Sustainment load. This includes equipment the commander requires soldiers to have for sustained operations. It is stored and brought forward to the soldier as required by the commander under S4 arrangements.
(3) Contingency load. This refers to all other items of individual and unit equipment not required by the commander for ongoing operations. It is stored in an operational area and is called forward under division or corps arrangements.
MISSIONS AND OPERATIONS
Battalion CSS elements are organized based on their missions, support assets available, and commanders' operational concepts.
Whether battalion CSS assets are centralized or placed in multiple locations depends on the tactical needs of the battalion.
a. The battalion uses unit trains only when occupying a battalion assembly area or when the terrain restricts movement so that the battalion must depend on aerial resupply and evacuation for support. Unit trains and all CSS assets are placed in a central location-for example, this is true for airland, airdrop, and air assault operations.
b. The battalion CSS assets normally are located in echeloned trains (multiple locations). Echeloned trains place CSS assets at the company trains, battalion combat trains, and battalion field trains. The battalion combat trains are organized to provide immediate critical support for the combat operation. Field trains are in the BSA and under the control of the HHC commander, who coordinates with the brigade S4 or FSB commander/FASCO for security and positioning.
c. Combat trains CP is the focal point of CSS for the unit when the battalion uses echeloned trains. Under the supervision of the S4, the combat trains CP anticipates, requests, coordinates, and supervises the execution of CSS.
(1) The most forward CSS elements are at the company trains. A HMMWV ambulance can be positioned at the company trains. The company trains can serve as a distribution point for resupply operations or merely as a control point for casualty evacuation and damaged equipment recovery. The company 1SG supervises the establishment and execution of resupply operations. To decentralize CSS operations in offensive operations, the battalion can choose one vehicle to follow each company and carry an emergency resupply of Class V and water. This vehicle follows as close behind the company as tactically possible (1 to 2 kilometers behind the unit), just out of direct-fire range.
NOTE: Leaders must carefully consider whether to position a resupply vehicle or HMMWV ambulance at the company trains. Doing so limits the flexibility of the S4 and medical platoon and might compromise the location of the company.
(2) The company supply sergeant operates from the field trains when trains are echeloned. He coordinates over the administrative/logistics net with the company XO or 1SG through the combat trains CP to the HHC commander. He supplements this with face-to-face coordination during LOGPAC operations.
(3) The battalion combat trains include the combat trains CP, medical platoon elements, decontamination assets (airborne only), the UMT, emergency Class V, Class III, elements of the communications platoon, and the maintenance platoon (except light). The combat trains are controlled by the S4, who is aided by the S1. Elements of the combat trains operate on the administrative/logistics net and, when possible, are linked to the combat trains CP by landline.
(4) The battalion combat trains should be close enough to the FLOT to be responsive to the forward units, but they should be beyond the range of enemy direct fires. The combat trains can expect to move often to remain in supporting distance of the combat elements. Built-up areas are good locations for trains. They provide cover and concealment for vehicles and shelter that enhance light discipline during maintenance. When built-up areas are used, battalion trains elements should occupy buildings near the edge of the area to avoid being trapped in the center. The following factors also govern the positioning of the combat trains:
(a) Communications must exist between the combat trains CP, the main CP, the field trains CP, the brigade rear CP, and forward units.
(b) Room for dispersion and cover and concealment from both air and ground observation is desirable.
(c) The ground must support vehicle traffic.
(d) A suitable helicopter landing site should be located nearby.
(e) Routes to LRPs or to company positions must be available.
(f) Movement into and out of the area must be unrestricted.
(5) The field trains are in the BSA and are controlled by the HHC commander. They include the PAC, the S4 section (-), the mess section (except light), the company supply sections, the remainder of maintenance (except light), all support platoon elements that are not forward, and the field trains CP. The field trains CP is vital to sustainment operations (Appendix B). At the CP, the HHC commander supervises all elements at the field trains. He receives requirements and information from the S1 and S4; he advises the appropriate element (PAC, S4 section, support platoon, company supply sections, maintenance section [--], FSB/FAST, or brigade rear CP) and ensures it acts on the information provided. The HHC commander and other CP personnel ensure the sustainment plans and requirements developed by the battalion staff are executed by those responsible at the field trains and at the BSA.
(6) The BSA is the part of the brigade rear area that is occupied by the brigade's CSS assets. These assets include the brigade rear CP, battalion field trains, trains of supporting units' (field artillery, engineers, and soon), FSB/FAST, and possibly selected COSCOM elements.
The battalion uses several techniques to resupply subordinate elements. These techniques involve the use of battalion logistical assets (personnel and equipment).
a. The most efficient resupply of forward units is accomplished by LOGPACs. These are organized in the field trains by the company supply sergeant under the supervision of the HHC commander and the support platoon leader. One is organized for each company and separate element in the battalion and is moved forward daily. When possible, all LOGPACs are moved forward in a march unit, under the control of the support platoon leader. Special LOGPACs are organized and dispatched as required by the tactical situation and logistical demands.
(1) The battalion S4 must plan and coordinate LOGPAC operations to ensure full support of the commander's tactical plan. Battalion SOP establishes standard LOGPAC composition. Vehicle type and quantity provided for LOGPAC execution varies based on the type of battalion and on the battalion's task organization. The LOGPAC supporting the company should provide, as much as possible, the supplies, equipment, and soldiers required to sustain the company for the next 24 hours or until the next scheduled LOGPAC.
(2) A company LOGPAC is ready to move forward under the control of the company supply sergeant once it has been formed (in the field trains). The support platoon leader organizes a convoy for the movement of all company LOGPACs. The convoy might contain other vehicles, such as another ammunition vehicle for the combat trains or a maintenance vehicle (less light) with Class IX. The LOGPACs move along a supply route to an established logistical release point where the 1SG or unit guide takes control of the company LOGPAC. Because the company has no organic vehicles, LRPs must be located near the company position to ease linkup. Procedures for communications must also be established to ease linkup.
(3) The company 1SG or guide controls the LOGPAC from the LRP and conducts resupply (FM 7-10). The 1SG informs the company supply sergeant of requirements for the next LOGPAC, and he ensures that soldiers and equipment requiring movement to the rear, as well as outgoing mail, return with the supply sergeant. The LOGPAC then follows unit SOP and returns to the LRP or to the combat or field trains.
(4) The S4 chooses logistical release point locations based on the tactical situation. Locations should be well forward and easily located. LRPs, supply routes, combat trains, and field trains locations are included on the operations overlay, if possible, or on a service support overlay. The combat trains CP notifies subordinates and the field trains CP, well in advance, which LRP(s) will be used. The LOGPAC convoy arrival time at the LRP and the length of time it remains are established by SOP. If the tactical situation dictates otherwise, the S4 must state the time and inform the units accordingly. Because vehicles are limited, subordinates must ensure that the resupply vehicles are returned to the LRP ASAP so that they can return to the field trains and begin preparation for the next mission. If the LOGPAC cannot be completed on schedule, the combat trains CP must be notified.
(5) At least one senior representative from the combat trains (S4, S1, or senior NCO) should be present at the LRP while it is in effect. He meets with the unit first sergeants, separate element guides (support platoon, mortar platoon, and soon), and support platoon leader. They coordinate logistical requirements and ensure an efficient release and return of the LOGPAC. A brief meeting is held just before the 1SG picks up his LOGPAC. Coordination can include the following:
- Changes in logistical requirements that reflect last-minute task organization.
- Reports on soldiers, logistics, and maintenance from the first sergeants.
- First-hand updates on the tactical and logistical situation.
- Delivery and receipt of unit mail and distribution.
(6) The company supply sergeant or support platoon leader moves the LOGPAC from the LRP back to the field trains. The supply sergeant and support platoon leader then begin organizing the next LOGPAC.
b. The battalion can place (pre-position or cache) supplies on the battlefield and direct companies to these supplies. The battalion pre-positions supplies and equipment along the route to or at the location where the company is moving. Though this technique can be employed in both offensive and defensive operations, it is associated with defensive operations for which supplies are positioned in subsequent battle positions. For the pre-positioned supplies to be accessible in a fluid tactical environment or so they can be destroyed if the unit is compromised, control and coordination are critical.
c. Resupply originating from the combat trains in response to an urgent need by one or more of the companies is executed using either the LOGPAC or pre-positioning technique. Resupply from the combat trains is usually limited to distribution of supplies (Class III, V, and water) located at the combat trains for the purpose of immediate, unplanned resupply.
d. Companies in an assembly area either procure supplies within their sector from support platoon assets or acquire supplies from established battalion supply points. Companies must precisely identify requirements, LZs/DZs, and pickup zones for aerial resupply. The S4 ensures that support personnel are skilled in both internal and external aircraft loading and that the battalion has the required air items (cargo nets, slings, and rigging equipment). Sling-loading, which is a useful technique for lightening the soldier's load, should be used whenever possible. Enemy air defenses might limit aerial resupply operations to periods of limited visibility. Helicopter-delivered demolitions and ammunition must be unpacked before delivery. This reduces the need to conceal the refuse.
Battalion CSS assets are vulnerable to enemy attack. The main function of combat and field trains is to sustain the force--not to engage in combat. Limited firepower and defensive personnel, and the critical role of sustainment, make CSS assets a good target for the enemy. Protection of these assets against guerrillas, partisans, and other enemy forces is crucial to the success of all combat operations.
a. The battalion S4 is responsible for trains security when the unit is operating in a unit trains configuration. When trains are echeloned, he is responsible for combat trains security, and the HHC commander is responsible for field trains security.
b. Indirect fires must be planned in support of both combat and field trains as well as along battalion supply routes.
(1) Requests for preplanned targets in support of the combat trains and along the supply route(s) back to the battalion rear boundary are coordinated with the battalion S3 and FSO.
(2) Requests for preplanned targets in support of the field trains and along the battalion supply route within the brigade rear area are coordinated through the brigade S4 or through the FSB commander/FASCO to the brigade S3 and FSO.
(3) The battalion logistics overlay should contain all approved preplanned targets in support of the combat trains and field trains and along the supply route from the field trains to the company LRP.
(4) The approved fire plan on the logistics overlay should be disseminated to the lowest level possible. It should be sent to representatives of each section who are positioned at either trains location and to all vehicle drivers, both organic and those in support of the battalion, who travel the battalion's supply route.
c. A perimeter defense is planned in all trains areas. Each section is assigned a sector to defend. Automatic weapons or vehicles armed with heavy machine guns are positioned in mutually supporting positions that cover likely avenues of approach. Soldiers are assigned individual positions that tie into the overall defensive plan. Replacements awaiting transportation to forward or rear are incorporated into the trains defensive plan. Soldiers' positions should be near their work/sleep location. Reaction forces, local patrols, and OPs are established based on unit SOP. To enhance security, an alarm or warning system is arranged. Sector sketches, fire plans, and obstacle plans should be prepared. Rehearsals are conducted to ensure that each soldier knows his part in the defensive scheme. A 24-hour shift schedule for operations and security is established.
d. Battalion field trains are located in the BSA. Thus the HHC commander must coordinate his positioning and defensive plan with the brigade S4 or FSB commander/FASCO. They ensure that the battalion field trains defensive plan complements the plans of other units positioned in the BSA. The overall BSA defensive plan must be understood by all participating units.
e. Combat trains security, especially in light infantry battalions, can be attained through passive measures. These measures ensure strict noise and light discipline and restrict traffic in the selected location.
f. Single, unescorted vehicles provide a lucrative target for the enemy. Resupply vehicles are more secure when traveling in convoy with LOGPAC operations and when they mount automatic weapons or heavy machine guns.
The battalion XO supervises CSS command and control. The S4 routinely coordinates all logistics operations based on the XO's guidance. Combat trains CP and the field trains CP are the command and control facilities.
a. The combat trains must know the tactical situation and task organization; monitor the battalion command net to identify CSS requirements; and receive requests, reports, and requirements from battalion subordinate elements over the administrative/logistics net. Requirements are analyzed, consolidated, and forwarded to the field trains CP or to the appropriate supporting agency. The combat trains must be prepared to perform as the battalion alternate CP.
b. The field trains CP, established by the HHC commander, is the coordination and control center for the support platoon, PAC, maintenance platoon (-) (except light), and battalion and company supply sections. Personnel from these sections operate the field trains CP under supervision of the HHC commander. The HHC commander coordinates requirements for battalion organic and attached elements with units in the BSA and parent units as necessary.
c. The unit-level logistics system (ULLS), operating on the unit-level computer (ULC), provides the infantry battalion with an automated CSS capability. The module is for unit maintenance/PLL. Transactions automatically update data within the files, which are stored on magnetic tape. The ULLS interfaces with the Standard Army Maintenance System and Standard Army Retail Supply System (SAMS-1 and SARS-1).
The administrative/logistics radio net is used for most CSS traffic. However, at battalion level, CSS communications can be via any combination of FM radio, mobile subscriber equipment (MSE), courier, computer, or wire. Lengthy reports should be sent by messenger, wire, computer, or tactical facsimile (FAX).
a. The combat trains CP is the NCS for the administrative/logistics net. The S4, S1, HHC commander, BMT (less light), support platoon leader, medical platoon leader, company XOs or 1SGs, and others (as required) operate in the battalion administrative/logistics net. The combat trains CP also operates in the brigade administrative/logistics net and in the battalion command net.
b. The main CP and combat trains CP should be positioned, when wire is available and circumstances permit, so wire can be used as the main means of communication between them. Wire allows a constant flow of information between the CPs. It also enhances the ability of the combat trains CP to stay abreast of the tactical situation and thus to provide better support. Wire communications produce no electronic signature, and therefore are more secure than radio. When MSE is fielded, wire is needed only as a backup means of communication.
c. Communications are critical in expediting CSS. Units must report their losses and requirements as soon they can. When radio cannot be used, messages are sent with resupply or evacuation vehicles. The combat trains CP and field trains CP maintain control of vehicles moving forward to the LRPs. In case communications are not possible, battalion SOP establishes procedures for resupplying units without requests. Dedicated company supply vehicles require radio communications.
d. The Tactical Army CSS Computer System (TACCS) is used in some infantry battalions to process SIDPERS data input. This system is maintained in the battalion field trains and is connected by electronic data link or through the exchange of disk media to the brigade S1 and AG channels. The system is the key to the automated maintenance of a battle roster system. From the roster, personnel data can be collected quickly for casualty reporting, strength accounting, manifesting, and replacement operations.
The supply system provides many types of supplies to the battalion. The most important are ammunition, repair parts for weapons systems, water, subsistence, and POL. To ensure continuous support, the leader ensures supplies are provided as far forward as the tactical situation permits.
The battalion maintains combat-essential supplies and repair parts called basic loads and prescribed load lists. The minimum stockage level for these loads is directed by division or higher-level command. This stockage level enables a unit to sustain itself in combat for a limited time, until either the supply system is established or is interrupted.
a. The battalion uses the following two methods to replenish its stock of supplies:
(1) Supply point distribution. The battalion support platoon uses organic transportation to go to the supply point and acquire supplies.
(2) Unit distribution. Supplies are delivered to a unit by transportation assets other than its own. The battalion employs unit distribution to resupply its subordinate elements (LOGPAC and pre-position). When feasible, supplies are shipped directly to the battalion from the issuing agency (DISCOM, COSCOM, or higher). They are usually shipped no farther forward than the field trains. An exception is Class IV issued in bulk for deliberate defense preparation. It is delivered as close to the defensive position as possible.
b. The battalion S4 uses established requisition channels, regardless of the issue method employed. The commander determines distribution priorities based on recommendations from the S4. These priorities must be consistent with the operational requirements of the battalion.
The ten classes of supply are shown in Figure 8-1.
a. Class I. This class of supply includes subsistence items.
(1) The battalion deploys with a basic load of subsistence (rations). For Class I, this is usually a three-day supply of MREs.
(2) Class I is requested based on the daily strength report. The DISCOM ration breakdown point provides rations, based on battalion strength, to the supply company of the FSB. The battalion mess section picks up rations from the supply company's Class I section.
(3) Rations requiring preparation (A-rations, B-rations, and T-rations) are prepared in the field trains. They are delivered to companies and attached units during LOGPAC operations. In a light infantry battalion, the support platoon picks up rations prepared by the brigade mess platoon and delivers them during LOGPAC operations.
(4) Water is not a Class I supply item, but is delivered forward with Class I in water cans, trailers, collapsible drums, or pillow tanks filled at the BSA location. The forward support company of the light infantry DISCOM delivers water to the light infantry battalion trains. Depending on the environment, water can be one of the most critical supply items in the area of operations. Units should always be prepared to use natural water sources (and to purify water from these sources) to help reduce the logistical burden. In areas where each soldier should use between 3 and 12 gallons of water each day, resupply is a constant challenge. If routine delivery is insufficient, company supply sergeants might have to keep water moving forward constantly. Aerial resupply of water cans or bundles of full canteens can become routine. Refilling each soldier's water container as often as possible is mandatory.
b. Class II. This class of supply includes general supplies such as clothing, individual equipment, NBC clothing, tentage, and organizational tool sets.
(1) Units must deploy with sufficient quantities of Class II items to last until the supply system is set up.
(2) The S4 section (-) in field trains requisitions needed Class II supplies from the FSB's supply company. These supplies are provided to the companies during LOGPAC operations.
c. Class III. This class of supply includes petroleum, oil, and lubricants.
(1) Battalion vehicles and spare fuel cans are filled before operations. They are kept as full as possible throughout the operation.
(2) The quantity of bulk Class III on hand in the FSB supply company is based on forecasts made by the battalion S4s as reviewed, consolidated, and forwarded by the brigade S4. These forecasts or projections reflect the anticipated fuel quantities required to sustain the battalion for a specified time.
(3) The battalion support platoon obtains bulk Class III from the Class III section of the supply company in the BSA. If the situation dictates and transportation assets allow, the supply company can provide bulk Class III as far forward as the battalion combat trains.
(4) The support platoon provides resupply to companies and attachments by using TPUs, 600-gallon fuel pods, collapsible fuel drums, or 5-gallon fuel cans (depending on the type of battalion). Due to the limited quantity of vehicles that can haul Class III, a supply point is established in the combat trains. Exchange of empty fuel cans for full ones is the normal method of resupply in the infantry battalion (light) for vehicles positioned forward (mortar platoon, antiarmor platoon, and so on).
(5) The S4 section obtains packaged POL products, including weapons' lubricants and cleaners, from the supply company. Supplies are then transported to the requiring unit during LOGPAC operations.
d. Class IV. This class of supply includes construction, barrier, and fortification materials such as wire, lumber, and cement.
(1) Class IV materials are requisitioned from the FSB's supply company. However, due to its limited availability and to its transportation and MHE requirements, Class IV is often a command-controlled item.
(2) COSCOM or DISCOM transportation assets deliver Class IV materials. Materials are carried as far forward as possible to reduce handling; they should be prepackaged or preconfigured to suit the mission. Coordination with the battalion engineer allows Class IV (and Class V) to be delivered as close to the emplacement site as possible. Sufficient manpower or MHE must be available. Traffic control points must be used in moving material forward to the proper sites. Sling-load operations are a viable method of deploying material forward when the air defense environment permits. Since infantry companies must usually reposition these materials by hand, each delivery point must be manned to ensure materials are emplaced properly.
e. Class V. This class of supply includes ammunition.
(1) Class V supply is based on a required supply rate (RSR) determined by higher-level tactical planners and a controlled supply rate (CSR) determined by higher-level logistical planners. The CSR is based on the amount of ammunition (by type) that can be provided. This depends on the quantity available, transportation assets, and other logistical considerations. The CSR for weapons systems is expressed as rounds per weapon per day. Allocation for other types of ammunition, such as hand grenades, is expressed as rounds (or pounds) per person per day. When a CSR is in effect for a type munition, the battalion is limited in the quantity it can receive.
(2) The FSB's supply company establishes an ATP in the BSA COSCOM or DISCOM transportation assets deliver the battalion's ammunition to the ATP, where support platoon personnel pick it up. The corps ASP, located near the division rear boundary, provides backup capability to meet surge and unusual requirements. To speed resupply, the division ammunition officer can direct units to draw ammunition from a nearby ASP rather than an ATP.
(3) Class V is delivered to companies during LOGPAC operations. Ammunition is also positioned in the combat trains to provide for the emergency needs of a company or attached element.
(4) The configuration of ammunition in the light infantry soldier's load is critical to ammunition support operations. Commanders must consider the sustainment requirements and ammunition-carrying capabilities of their soldiers.
f. Class VI. This class of supply includes personal demand and morale items such as candy, cigarettes, soap, and cameras (nonmilitary sales items), and sundry packs. When an Army exchange is not available, the S1 submits requests for Class VI support through supply channels. Resupply flow is the same as for Class I resupply.
g. Class VII. This class of supply includes major end items. A major end item is the final combination of end products, parts, and materials that is ready for its intended use--for example, a vehicle or weapon.
(1) Class VII items are issued based on battle loss reports or formal requisitions submitted by the S4 section to the FSB's supply company.
(a) Large items (vehicles and TOW missile systems) are delivered to the battalion field trains by DISCOM or COSCOM assets.
(b) Smaller items (M16s, compasses, and so on) are picked up from the supply company's distribution point.
(2) Class VII for light infantry battalions is limited to combat-essential items needed to support combat readiness of systems selected by the division commander. Critical Class VII items are transported in a ready-to-use condition to the BSA or using unit. Noncritical items are requested and handled as normal supply transactions. All end items are delivered to the BSA and picked up by the battalion support platoon or delivered to using units by division assets.
h. Class VIII. This class of supply includes medical materials, including supplies such as bandagces, syringes, stretchers, drugs, and repair parts peculiar to medical equipment. The medical platoon obtains medical supplies from the medical company in the BSA. These supplies are distributed by evacuation vehicles returning from the BSA to the BAS and from the BAS to the company team. Packaged and inventoried combat aid bags are replaced for used ones at the BAS. The medical platoon leader coordinates with the S4 for more supplies as required or based on the S1 loss estimate and projection for mass casualties situations.
i. Class IX. This class of supply includes repair parts, including kits, assemblies and subassemblies-repairable or unrepairable--that are required for maintenance support of all equipment.
(1) Repair parts are issued in response to a specific request or by reparable exchange. The battalion obtains repair parts from the Class IX supply point in the BSA. Parts are moved forward during routine LOGPAC operations or as required. The maintenance platoon requests Class IX items (less reparable exchange) from the FSB maintenance company. Reparable exchange is exchange of an unserviceable item, with an attached request for issue or turn-in, for a serviceable item. In combat, commanders can approve cannibalization of disabled equipment to repair other equipment for return to combat.
(2) The brigade provides Class IX repair part support for a light infantry battalion. Battalions request supply support for all Class IX requirements (less QSS and major Class IX subassemblies) by submitting single line requests for issue or turn-in to the brigade maintenance section. Low-dollar value, high-demand parts (light bulbs, wiper blades, and common nuts and bolts) are obtained from the repair parts QSS without formal requests.
j. Class X. This class of supply includes materials (not included in Classes I through IX) to support nonmilitary programs such as agriculture and economic development. The S4 requests Class X items based on civil-military requirements. The division or higher provides specific instructions for request and issue of Class X supplies.
k. Miscellaneous. Supply items other than the ten classes of supply include water, maps, salvage, captured materiel, and so on.
Maintenance support includes inspecting, testing, servicing, repairing, requisitioning, and recovering. Repair and recovery are completed as far forward as possible and at the lowest capable echelon. When equipment cannot be repaired on site, it is moved only as far as it has to be for repair. When not all battalion maintenance requirements can be met, the XO sets priorities based on operational requirements and on the recommendations of the S4 and BMO/BMT.
The following are explanations of some common maintenance terminology:
a. Maintenance Support Team. The MST is a mobile team from the FSB maintenance company. It is organized and equipped to provide forward support.
b. Unit Maintenance Collection Point. The UMCP is a facility operated by the battalion or light infantry brigade maintenance platoon/section. It is the first place where battalion maintenance teams recover equipment and where some DS maintenance is performed.
c. Controlled Exchange. This refers to the removal of serviceable repair parts from unserviceable but repairable vehicles (end items) and the installation of those parts on like vehicles (end items) to restore them to operation.
d. Cannibalization. This refers to the removal of serviceable and unserviceable (repairable) parts from damaged (unrepairable) equipment. This technique is used to keep as many combat systems in the battle as possible.
e. Battle Damage Assessment and Repair. BDA is an inspection of battle damage to learn its extent, to classify the type of repairs required, and to determine the maintenance activity best suited to accomplish the repair. It is the immediate repair of equipment by field-expedient methods.
The Army maintenance system consists of four categories of maintenance-unit, direct support, general support, and depot.
a. Unit. Unit maintenance consists of preventive maintenance tasks performed by the operator, crew, and unit mechanics. Unit mechanics use test equipment to isolate faults, inspect visually, make minor adjustments, and repair end items by exchanging faulty modules and parts. These actions can be performed on site or in the UMCP. Unit mechanics also perform recovery tasks.
b. Direct Support. DS mechanics diagnose and isolate equipment or module failure, adjust and align modules and parts, and repair defective end items. MSTs from the FSB can operate from the UMCP. If equipment cannot be repaired in the UMCP due to time constraints, workload, or the tactical situation, the equipment is recovered to the maintenance company in the BSA for repair.
c. General Support. GS maintenance involves repair of modules and parts by replacing internal pieces or parts, and repair of end items involving time-consuming tasks.
d. Depot. Depot maintenance personnel rebuild end items, modules, parts, and assembling, perform cyclic overhaul; perform inspections; and complete modifications requiring extensive disassembly or elaborate testing.
Combat power is increased when disabled equipment is repaired as far forward and as fast as possible. The BMO, in coordination with the XO, directs the maintenance effort for the battalion. In doing so, he uses established time guidelines and coordinates maintenance actions. The battalion S4 is the main proponent in the light infantry battalion. He is aided by a maintenance NCO who coordinates and monitors battalion maintenance support.
a. Preventive Maintenance. Preventive maintenance is the keystone of a good maintenance program. It includes systematic service, inspection, and correction of failures before damage occurs. It also includes detection and correction of abuse and instruction in the proper care and use of equipment. PMCS requires a joint effort between equipment operators, crews, and unit maintenance personnel. The operator or crew uses the PMCS table in the equipment technical manual for daily inspection and maintenance. This table lists before-, during-, and after-operation checks and services. The operator and crew also aid unit mechanics with scheduled maintenance. A systematic and thorough PM program prevents minor problems from becoming major problems, which would require extensive repair. Preventive maintenance must be scheduled at definite intervals, as the tactical situation allows. Periodic announced and unannounced inspections and spot checks must be conducted by company, battalion, and DS units to ensure that the program is being implemented.
b. Repair Decisions. Equipment should be repaired as far forward as possible, consistent with the tactical situation and with available maintenance skills, tools, and equipment. Maintenance allocation charts (MACs) in technical manuals identify which level of maintenance is capable and authorized to perform specific repairs.
(1) Equipment is repaired on-site if possible. Battalion and DS maintenance teams perform on-site repairs within maintenance time criteria from the commander. Ideally, these repairs are made when repair teams are safe from enemy direct-fire weapons and when the site is secure. However, sometimes the criticality of the inoperable equipment warrants on-site repairs under less favorable conditions. At such times, the commander must balance mission benefits against the cost to long-term maintenance capability that could result from the loss of skilled maintenance personnel.
(2) Equipment is recovered to the UMCP in the combat trains area or to an MCP in the BSA if on-site repair is impossible. Consolidation of maintenance activities in the UMCP reduces exposure of repair teams to enemy fires, eliminates travel times for on-site repairs, and provides a pool of manpower and equipment for anticipated requirements. Maintenance teams from the battalion and from DS maintenance are employed at the UMCP as required. Also, equipment is recovered to MCPs in the BSA if it requires maintenance that is unavailable at the UMCP.
(3) The tactical situation and the criticality of the equipment to the battalion mission must always be considered when repair decisions are made. Therefore, responsible maintenance personnel must maintain close and continual liaison with the battalion S3 and unit commanders to ensure that responsive support is provided. The commander must establish priorities for commodities.
(4) BDA is an estimate of required repair time. Depending on the results of the BDA, an item is repaired on site or recovered directly to the appropriate maintenance echelon in the appropriate support area based on the following factors:
- Tactical situation.
- Echelon of work required.
- Availability of required repair parts.
- Current workload in each area.
- Maintenance time guidelines.
(5) Maintenance time guidelines establish the most time that unserviceable equipment can remain in various support areas.
(6) Responsible use of controlled exchange or cannibalization, when authorized, is critical in the often austere environment of the infantry battalion. Improvisation and field-expedient recovery and repair are vital for effective short-term solutions to maintenance problems.
c. Communication Equipment. Company communications personnel perform unit maintenance on communication equipment. Signal equipment requiring repair is sent to the communications platoon. If the deficiency is such that it requires DS maintenance, the equipment is recovered to the FSB in the BSA. Signal cryptographic equipment that cannot be repaired by the communications platoon is recovered to the division signal battalion.
d. Medical Equipment. The battalion medical platoon performs unit maintenance on medical items. Medical equipment requiring maintenance above the unit level is recovered through medical channels to the DISCOM medical company in the BSA.
e. Weapons. Soldiers, crews, and company armorers perform unit maintenance on weapons. Weapons requiring recovery are sent to the FSB in the BSA.
f. Other Types of Materiel. Equipment requiring evacuation, except for ordnance, signal, medical equipment, and vehicles, is sent to the FSB in the BSA. The following special considerations apply:
(1) Vehicles. The commander recovers his own disabled vehicles. However, recovery of vehicles disabled or abandoned in combat is the responsibility of the command in whose area they are found. These vehicles are recovered promptly to prevent their destruction or capture by the enemy. Recovered vehicles are inspected and repaired by normal repair and placed in operation at the lowest level possible by controlled exchange, IAW established policies. The aim is to get them quickly back into the fight. Vehicles requiring extensive repairs or salvage are either towed to the next higher maintenance agency/collecting point or are reported. The report includes the location, number, type, and condition of the vehicle.
(2) Equipment. Abandoned equipment must be recovered cautiously. The recovery team must ensure that weapons systems are unloaded and that the abandoned equipment is not booby-trapped. If NBC weapons have been used, the abandoned equipment might be contaminated.
Unless nondivisional teams augment the DISCOM, the FSB in DS of the brigade does not have clothing exchange, bath, laundry and renovation, or bakery services. When the mission dictates, the brigade S4 should coordinate requests for these services with the division FSB/FASCO.
Mortuary affairs, when provided, operates under the supervision of the FSB supply company. At battalion level, it has three functions: collection, identification, and evacuation. Casualty feeder reports (DA Form 1156) and witness statements (DA Form 1155) are completed by a soldier who knows how the casualty died. The casualty's military equipment is collected and turned over to the supply sergeant during LOGPAC operations. Remains are placed in a body bag along with personal effects. The completed DA Forms 1155 and 1156, the remains, and personal effects are evacuated by LOGPAC vehicles returning to the field trains. If necessary, companies evacuate remains to the supply route and report the location to the combat trains CP; a collection point can be established at the combat trains under the control of the S4. Remains are evacuated as quickly as possible to the brigade collection point in the BSA (FM 10-63-1 provides more details.)
Clothing exchange and bath services are established in or near the BSA when they are available through augmentation from division or corps. These services, supervised by the supply company, provide uniform/clothing exchange (dirty for clean) and showers. A unit requesting this service must specify the sizes of clothing needed for exchange and must be prepared to furnish soldiers to aid in the operation.
The FSB supply company provides salvage services. A salvage collection point is established in the BSA. Serviceable excess, unserviceable (repairable), discarded, abandoned, and captured supplies and equipment are received at a salvage collection point in the BSA. The salvage point does not accept COMSEC or medical supplies, toxic agents, radioactive materials, aircraft, explosives, ammunition, and contaminated equipment. This salvage point evacuates materials to the division support area but does not renovate or retain them.
The COSCOM provides this service, which includes cleaning and mending soldiers' uniforms.
Airdrop support units are allocated to the corps and theater, but only the airborne division has organic airdrop support. Airdrop resupply missions are classified as either preplanned or immediate. Procedures for requesting airdrop resupply are detailed in FM 100-27. (FMs 55-2, 57-230, and 100-27 provide more details on airdrop resupply to include its advantages and disadvantages.) The unit receiving airdrop resupply support must--
a. Select, mark, and secure the DZ.
b. Ensure the safety of the DZ during the airdrop operation.
c. Recover the supplies/equipment provided by airdrop.
d. Recover and evacuate airdrop equipment, if time and the situation permit.
e. Perform CCT functions in the absence of an Air Force CCT (DZST).
Personnel support encompasses many CSS functions that sustain soldiers' morale and welfare. These include personnel services support, religious support, legal services support, finance support, public affairs support, health services support, and disposition of enemy prisoners of war.
The battalion S1 supervises personnel service support, which includes the following:
a. Replacement Operations. Replacement operations plan for and coordinate the support and delivery of replacements and RTD soldiers. This includes issuing orders, accounting for personnel, providing logistical support, processing, and transporting. In the field trains, the PAC monitors replacement flow. The HHC commander establishes a replacement receiving point in the battalion field trains and notifies the brigade S1 of its location. The division is responsible for delivering all replacements to their point. The division AG manages hospital returnees as replacements if they have been evacuated beyond the BSA clearing station. All replacements or returnees are brought to the replacement receiving point for initial processing then moved with the daily LOGPAC forward to their teams. Returnees from the BSA clearing station are released directly to their battalion field train location. Replacements are equipped with necessary field gear before departing the field trains (Figure 8-2).
b. Strength Management. Strength management assessess the unit's personnel strength and anticipated future operations, and it assigns replacements accordingly. Companies submit a PDS to the battalion S1 in the combat trains CP. The S1 forwards a battalion consolidated report through brigade to division. The PAC in the field trains is furnished an information copy. These reports, together with authorized position vacancies, are the basis for requesting individual replacements. Accurate strength reports also provide the commander and staff with information to plan future operations. Reports covering the past 24 hours are submitted to the combat trains CP daily. Unit SOP describes this report (Figure 8-3).
c. Personnel Accounting and Strength Reporting. The S1 must ensure that strength reporting occurs in a timely and accurate manner during combat operations. This system accounts for soldiers, reports their duty status, and allows input for the personnel estimate.
d. Casualty Reporting. The S1 must ensure that casualty reporting occurs in a timely and accurate manner during combat operations (Figure 8-4).
(1) Casualty reports provide the detailed information necessary to requisition specific replacements. The Casualty Feeder Report (DA Form 1156) is carried by all small-unit leaders to report battle/hostile action casualties and nonbattle/nonhostile casualties. It provides initial information to the AG for preparing the report that is used by DA to notify next of kin (NOK). The report also validates the soldier's line of duty status. This status determines the benefits paid. When a soldier is reported "missing" or "missing in action," or when the remains are not under US control, a Witness Statement (DA Form 1155) accompanies the Casualty Feeder Report.
(2) Casualties are reported to the 1SG, who collects the reports and forwards them to the combat trains CP. The S1 confirms the report, requests any clarification necessary, adjusts unit strength reports, and forwards the report to the PAC. The PAC maintains a casualty log, verifies casualty data, updates the personnel data base, and forwards completed reports through the brigade S1 to the PSC.
e. Postal Operations. Postal operations include managing and operating a postal network to move, deliver, and collect mail in the battalion. The postal network delivers official mail, including critical spare parts and medical supplies, and provides an alternate delivery system for personnel information.
(1) Postal support is provided by a postal element assigned to the AG unit supporting the division. The postal element receives and separates mail by battalion, then transfers it to the battalion mail clerk. The battalion mail clerk delivers mail to the company mail handlers, who deliver it to the individual soldiers. When a soldier wants to mail a letter home, this procedure is reversed. Mail is picked up or delivered along with the LOGPAC.
(2) Postal services to soldiers are limited to personal mail (incoming and outgoing) that conforms to type and size limitations prescribed by the theater headquarters.
f. Other Administrative Services. The S1 completes all other necessary personnel administrative actions during lulls in the battle. If possible, he can accomplish this by forming and using personnel contact teams, which move forward to company locations.
The battalion UMT provides religious support to the battalion and supporting units as far forward as the most exposed units on the battlefield. The UMT addresses the spiritual needs of soldiers. The team performs religious rites, sacraments, ordinances, and memorial services. Other important services include pastoral care, counseling, and ministry for battle fatigue. The UMT is vital for support in mass casualty situations, mortuary affairs, unit reconstitution, and emergency religious services.
Legal specialists in the battalion S1 section provide limited legal services. The corps provides more staff judge advocate support. SJA responsibilities include legal advice and aid on all matters involving military, domestic, foreign, and international law and regulations. The SJA also supervises the administration of military justice, processes claims for and against the US government, and furnishes personal legal aid to authorized soldiers.
Finance support commands are assigned responsibility by battalion deployment area. Finance support commands provide their services through finance support teams. The teams make combat payments to soldiers in amounts established by the theater commander. Payment of lesser amounts (with the remainder held for future payment) can be authorized by intermediate commanders or by the soldiers. The commander determines when and where the soldier is paid. The S1 coordinates with the finance support command for payments and for other finance actions beyond the capability of the PAC.
Information support for the division is provided by the public affairs officer. The PAO is the commander's official spokesman on all matters related to command information, public information, and community relations. In wartime, the PAO supports the S5 in civil affairs matters that involve community relations. The PAO controls all public affairs assets assigned or attached to the division. In combat, thc command must keep soldiers well-informed. A well-managed command information program dispels rumors and keeps soldiers confident and motivated.
The medical platoon conserves the battalion's fighting strength by providing health service support (HSS) which includes preventive medicine; patient acquisition, treatment, evacuation, and stabilization; and routine medical care (sick call) services. A medical platoon is organic to each combat battalion HHC. The platoon organization consists of a headquarters section, a treatment squad (two treatment teams), an ambulance section, a combat medic section, and a combat lifesaver.
a. Medical Platoon Headquarters. The headquarters section, under the direction of the battalion surgeon, provides for platoon command, control, and logistics. The field medical assistant and the platoon sergeant remain in platoon headquarters. This headquarters is normally collocated with the treatment squad to form the BAS.
(1) The battalion surgeon or medical platoon leader is the medical advisor to the battalion commander and his staff and is the supervising physician of the medical platoon treatment squad.
(2) The field medical assistant, a Medical Service Corps (MSC) officer, is the operations/readiness officer for the platoon. The field medical assistant coordinates HSS operations with the battalion S3 and S4 and coordinates patient evacuation with the supporting medical company. The field medical assistant serves as the medical platoon leader in the absence of an assigned physician.
(3) The platoon sergeant helps supervise platoon operations and serves as the ambulance section sergeant. He supervises the activities and functions of the ambulance section, including operator maintenance of ambulances and equipment, operations security (OPSEC), and emergency medical treatment.
(4) The physician's assistant (PA) is a warrant officer. He performs general technical health care and administrative duties. The PA is qualified in advanced trauma management (ATM) and works under the clinical supervision of the medical officer.
b. Treatment Squad. The treatment squad is the basic medical treatment element of the BAS. This squad provides routine medical care, triage, ATM, and tailgate medicine. It consists of a battalion surgeon, a PA, two EMT NCOs, and four medical specialists.
(1) The treatment squad can split into two treatment teams and operate as two separate aid stations (BAS minus) up to 24 hours. Each team deploys treatment vehicles with two medical equipment sets, one trauma set, and one general sick call set.
(2) The BAS is under the tactical control of the battalion S4 and is deployed near the combat trains. To reduce ambulance turnaround time in providing ATM to patients within 30 minutes of wounding, the BAS may split and place its treatment teams as close to maneuver companies as tactically possible. Treatment teams situated close to (within 1000 meters of) maneuvering companies on contact must be prepared to withdraw to preplanned, alternate positions on short notice.
(3) When maneuvering companies anticipate large numbers of casualties, augmentation of the medical platoon with one or more treatment teams from the forward support medical company should be made. Augmentation treatment teams are under the tactical control of the battalion S4 but are under the operational control of the battalion surgeon. Patients are triaged (sorted), as the treatment squad receives them, according to the extent of their injuries. The triage categories are as follows:
(a) Minimal: Those patients who have minor injuries and can be expected to return to duty quickly.
(b) Delayed: Those patients who require medical treatment but can await treatment without endangering life, limb, or eyesight.
(c) Immediate: Those patients who without immediate medical treatment are in danger of losing life, limb, or eyesight.
(d) Expectant: Those patients whose injuries are so severe that they are beyond the medical capability of sustaining life.
(4) At the BAS, patients requiring further evacuation to the rear are stabilized for movement. Constant efforts are made to prevent unnecessary evacuation; patients with minor wounds or illnesses are treated and returned to duty as soon as possible.
(5) Evacuation from the BAS is performed by the FSMC ambulance platoon and by corps air ambulance teams.
(6) Patient holding and food service are not available at the BAS. Therefore, only procedures necessary to preserve life or limb, or to enable a patient to be moved safely, are performed at the BAS.
c. Ambulance Section. Medical platoon ambulances provide evacuation within the battalion. Ambulance teams provide medical evacuation and en route care from the soldier's point of injury to the BAS. In mass casualty situations, nonmedical vehicles may be used to assist in casualty evacuation (Appendix F) as directed by the commander. Plans for the use of nonmedical vehicles to perform medical evacuation should be included in the battalion's tactical SOP (Appendix A). Under the modular medical system, the ambulance squad consists of two ambulance teams. Infantry battalions have two ambulance squads, each equipped with HMMWV ambulances.
(1) The ambulance team is a mobile combat medic team. It collects, treats, and evacuates the sick and wounded to the nearest treatment station or AXP. To do this, it must maintain contact with supported elements. For communications, the team uses an FM radio mounted on its ambulance. The team is deployed in the medical platoon's operations net; however, in certain circumstances it may operate in the S4 net or as established in the SOI. The team also provides Class VIII resupply to combat medics and serves as messengers within medical channels.
(2) The ambulance team routinely deploys with the maneuver company trains; however, it operates as far forward as the tactical situation permits, and frequently finds and treats patients who have not been seen by the company medic. This team, when operating in a company's area of operations, is normally under the tactical control of the company XO or first sergeant. However, it remains under the technical and operational control of the medical platoon. An ambulance team is normally designed to support a specific company.
(3) During static situations where the company is not in enemy contact or is in reserve, the team returns to the BAS to serve as back-up support for other elements in contact. During movement to contact, however, the ambulance trains immediately deploys to its regularly supported company. During combat operations, the team may dismount (leaving the ambulance in the trains area), find, treat, and move patients to safety, and later evacuate them to the BAS.
d. Combat Medic Section. To foster good interpersonal relations and morale of combat troops, combat medics are attached to maneuver companies on a continuing basis. However, during lulls in combat operations, they should return to the medical platoon for consultation and proficiency training. Functions of combat medics are as follows:
(1) Perform triage and EMT for the sick and wounded.
(2) Arrange medical evacuation for litter patients and direct ambulatory patients to patient collecting points or to the BAS.
(3) Initiate the field medical card for the sick and wounded and, as time permits, prepare an FMC on deceased personnel.
(4) Screen, evaluate, and treat, within their capability, those patients suffering from minor illnesses and injuries. Return to duty those patients requiring no further attention.
(5) Inform the company commander and the battalion surgeon (or the PA in the absence of the surgeon) on matters pertaining to the health and welfare of the troops.
(6) Maintain sufficient quantities of medical supplies to support the tactical operation.
(7) Serve as a member of the unit field sanitation team. In this capacity, advise the commander and supervise unit personnel on matters of personal hygiene and field sanitation (FM 21-10-1).
e. Combat Lifesaver. The combat lifesaver is a nonmedical soldier selected by the unit commander for medical training beyond basic first-aid procedures. The soldier serves as a combat lifesaver when the situation permits, but mission accomplishment always takes priority.
(1) Combat lifesaver duties include stabilizing the casualty before he can be medically evacuated. Combat lifesavers also help evacuate casualties.
(2) Combat lifesavers help the morale of the unit and allow soldiers to attack more vigorously by giving them confidence that they will be cared for if wounded.
(3) Units should strive to have one combat lifesaver for each squad-sized organization. This includes maintenance platoons and all CPs as well as maneuver units.
f. Medical Support Matrix. The medical support matrix provides an easy way to understand the medical support plan. It is a planning and execution technique used to explain how each maneuver element is medically supported during the battle (Appendix F).
Enemy prisoners of war are evacuated from the battalion area ASAP. Companies follow the five S's when handling EPWs. Documents with intelligence value must be removed quickly and reported to the S2 who reviews and reports documents or information of immediate value. The EPWs are evacuated on returning LOGPAC vehicles to the brigade EPW collection point, or they are moved to the supply route under guard. The location is reported to the S4 who coordinates further transportation (Figure 8-5). The S4 also coordinates the evacuation of large amounts of enemy equipment. Wounded EPWs are treated through normal medical channels, but separately from US and allied patients.
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