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Military

CHAPTER 7

Other Support

The major mission of the TAACOM is to provide combat service support; however, other support is required. This support is provided by nonlogistics TAACOM and other support units. Such support includes personnel support, finance support, health services, engineer support, MP support, civil-military operations, civil-affairs operations, and psychological operations.

PERSONNEL SERVICE SUPPORT

TAACOMs are normally established in areas of troop concentration within the TA's geographic area of responsibility. Direct P&A support, personnel services and administrative services (volume reproduction support), is provided by units assigned to the TAACOM P&A battalion. With its assigned PSCs, the battalion is extremely flexible, and PSCs can be tailored to provide service to the TAACOM headquarters and its subordinate units on an area or command line basis. PSCs perform the following:

  • Primary mission of strength accounting and casualty reporting.

  • Secondary mission of personnel accounting, personnel actions, personnel management, personnel records maintenance, and automated personnel data management.

Personnel service support during peacetime requires labor-intensive operation of a complicated, comprehensive personnel system that supports both soldiers and dependents provided on an area basis. Transition to war requires P&A commanders and organizations to simultaneously support transition-unique activities, such as mobilization and noncombatant evacuation operations, and move to a designated GDP for the purpose of conducting wartime missions. The intensity of the level of conflict and resulting transition may require P&A elements to pare down personnel service support to minimum essential services that commanders need to influence the battle. These minimum essential services are considered as the primary mission of P&A systems at war. Doctrinally, primary missions include--

  • Strength accounting.
  • Replacement operations.
  • Casualty reporting.

All other P&A functions are considered secondary missions and, while important, may be suspended altogether during initial or intense conflict.

The personnel service company provides DS personnel service support on an area or command channel basis to all TA nondivisional troops located in the COMMZ. The number of companies needed depends on the number of troops being supported. Functions of these companies include--

  • Strength accounting.
  • Casualty reporting.
  • Personnel management, actions, and records support.

The administrative services detachment (or company) provides centralized volume reproduction support.

The replacement regulating detachment performs replacement operations and provides command and control, mess, encampment, limited equipment supply, and personnel accounting for transient personnel. Transients may include individual, team, and small unit replacements; personnel returning to duty; personnel being rotated; and personnel returning from or going to rest and recreation areas. The replacement regulating detachment may be assigned to a PERSCOM personnel replacement battalion.

The morale support detachment establishes and operates rest and recreation sites for supported units. Morale support detachments may be assigned to the TA PERSCOM.

For more information on operational concepts, organization, and capabilities of direct support P&A elements in EAC, see FMs 12-3-3 and 12-3-4.

ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES

The administrative services detachment, which is assigned to the TAACOM personnel and administrative battalion, provides volume reproduction support to all nondivisional units. It is attached to a personnel services company or the headquarters detachment for dining and maintenance support.

REPLACEMENT OPERATIONS

The replacement regulating detachment processes small unit and individual replacements, return-to-duty personnel, and other transients into TAACOM units. The replacement regulating detachment may be assigned to a TA personnel replacement battalion.

MORALE SUPPORT SERVICES

The TAACOM ACofS, personnel, has general staff supervision and is the principal operator of the morale support services program. When the tactical situation permits, rest and relaxation facilities are provided for units located in the area.

The morale services detachment of the P&A battalion, TAACOM, provides support to units of the TAACOM. Support services will be limited to movies, library kits, games, athletic equipment, and rest and relaxation facilities. Live entertainment, either by troop talent, united service organizations, or available TOE bands, will be provided as operations permit. Application of morale support services 15 a unit responsibility. The detachment will order, store, distribute, and control the type items listed above to subordinate units. The detachment will not operate an active troop participation program, but will assist and coordinate unit morale services programs. Morale support services at ASG level are coordinated by the recreation services officer assigned to the directorate of personnel and administration.

FINANCE SERVICES

Finance support at theater level will be accomplished by a theater finance support center, a TA subordinate unit under the staff supervision of the theater army ACofS, comptroller. The composition of the TFSC will be based upon services provided, using appropriate TOEs. Area finance support centers, under command of the TFSC, will be fielded as required to provide the range of finance services described in FMs 14-6 and 14-7. The AFSCs carry out the policy of the TFSC and are normally assigned on the basis of one AFSC per 20,000 soldiers to be supported.

The TFSC may be attached to a TAACOM for logistics, chaplain, medical, and personnel and administrative services; signal support; and supplemental transportation support. There will be only one TFSC per TA regardless of the number of TAACOMs. Figure 7-1 depicts finance support in the COMMZ.

The TFSC provides funding support to all AFSCs through deployment of mobile funding teams. The TFSC and its AFSCs perform finance and accounting functions that have not been transferred outside the theater but have been retrograded from CFSCs. The commander, TFSC, as staff finance and accounting officer during the transition phase of operations, continues to advise the comptroller about finance and accounting policy concerning such matters as combat payment amounts, DA financia policy interpretations, etc.

During peacetime, the mission of the finance support organization is greatly expanded to provide the full range of resource management services since funds determine how the theater commander is able to refine the force structure and train and maintain for war. The comptroller, as the ACofS, resource management, has a staff consisting of management,gprogramming and budgeting, internal review, staff finance, and administrative elements which provide the full range of comptroller services. Fund control and management are decentralized. Resource management is performed at all levels of command.

FIGURE 7-1. THEATER FINANCE SUPPORT

During the transition phase of operations, the emphasis on financial management is subordinated to the demands of the operation; therefore, comptroller operations are greatly diminished. There is only one comptroller in the theater and comptroller operations below theater level are either transferred to the theater comptroller or transferred outside the theater as determined by the Comptroller of the Army. In addition, as stated in the financial management plan for emergency conditions, the COA and the theater commander will also determine finance and accounting functions that are transferred outside the theater to a designated finance support activity.

During war, normal payday operations are suspended on declaration of the theater commander. Soldiers are paid when and where their commanders desire by mobile pay teams. In the COMMZ, all soldiers without regard to unit affiliation are provided finance service by MPTs dispatched by AFSCs directly subordinate to the TFSC. MPTs are able to make combat payments, process pay inquiries, reimburse imprest fund cashiers, and make limited local purchase payments.

During the sustaining phase, comptroller functions may be expanded as the theater matures and the tactical situation permits based on requirements and guidance from COA. Similarly, the TFSC and AFSCs may expand the scope of their operations (as outlined in FMs 14-6 and 14-7) through the addition of TOE teams in the areas of Joint Uniform Military Pay System-Army input, accounting, travel, allied forces pay, civilian pay, EPW pay, local or foreign national pay, and commercial accounts to meet the increased needs of a mature and stabilized theater. A CFSC may be established in the COMMZ by the TFSC in those instances when the span of control of AFSCs exceeds a reasonable limit due to the increased needs of a mature theater.

The TFSC and its subordinate AFSCs provide the full range of finance and accounting services to all soldiers and units in the COMMZ. In addition to its area support mission in the COMMZ, the TFSC also provides theaterwide finance and accounting services such as funding and providing currency to finance elements located far from military banking facilities.

The main objective of the area support concept is to provide finance services on an area basis without regard to unit affiliation. This objective will be accomplished through the operation of MPTs, which will provide the services desired by commanders as the tactical situation permits. Normal payday operations will be suspended during high-intensity operations.

The following services will be provided by MPTs:

  • Combat payments will be made to soldiers in specified amounts. The maximum amount payable will be determined by the theater commander. On the basis of local conditions, commanders (in grade 06 or above) may order a lesser amount paid.

  • Pay inquiry service will be provided by use of microfiche. Soldiers will be assisted in preparing miscellaneous pay documents.

  • Personal checks and other negotiable instruments will be cashed for soldiers or authorized civilians. The dollar limitations of combat payments will apply to cashing personal checks and other negotiable instruments.

  • Imprest fund cashiers will be reimbursed.

  • Currency conversions will be accomplished as directed by the commander, TFSC.

  • Leave and earnings statements will be distributed to supported units through postal channels.

POSTAL SERVICES

In the early stages of a conflict, postal services for soldiers will be restricted to personal mail (both incoming and outgoing). This service must conform to the types of communications and weight restrictions prescribed by the free mailing privilege authorized for members of the armed forces. It includes limited stamp stock sales and limited postal money order service. Additional postal services for soldiers are not provided until the TA commander determines that the military situation permits.

Technical supervision over all Army postal operations in the theater is the responsibility of the PERSCOM staff postal officer who serves as TA director of postal operations. Theater army GS/DS units are located near the APOD that serves them. Incoming and outgoing surface mail is processed through a surface terminal. When mail volume justifies and GS transportation is available, mail may be throughput to and from DS postal units in the COMMZ and the servicing air and surface terminal. All GS/DS and DS postal units in the COMMZ are assigned to the PERSCOM postal group.

OTHER PERSONNEL SERVICES

Other personnel support services that have an important but less direct role in influencing the outcome of battle include legal services and chaplain support activities.

LEGAL SERVICES

Legal services support at all echelons is provided by personnel of the Judge Advocate General's Corps and will include advice and assistance to commanders and staffs on matters concerning military, domestic, foreign, and international law (including law of war), and implementing statutes, treaties, and regulations. Assistance to soldiers with personal legal problems will also be available.

Necessary legal support will be provided to the command under the supervision of the command or staff judge advocate. The command or staff judge advocate, a personal staff member who advises the commander directly on UCMJ matters, law of war matters, and other matters as appropriate or required by law, will provide full legal services to the command to the extent possible. However, the scope of legal services must remain flexible, dependent upon specific support requirements and theater limitations.

Specific functions which must be performed are--

  • Furnishing legal advice and assistance to the command, including the investigation of alleged war crimes and conducting war crimes trials.

  • Maintenance and custody of completed war crimes trial records and other records and reports relating to cases that are referred for trial or other disciplinary action.

  • Furnishing legal advice concerning relations with the governments and inhabitants of friendly nations within the area of operations.

  • Furnishing legal advice relating to the governments of occupied enemy territory and relations with inhabitants of these nations.

  • Furnishing legal advice on all aspects of the law of land warfare, especially targeting and weapons use.

  • Operation of the legal assistance program.

  • Operation of the claims program, including investigation of incidents that may result in claims and the settlement of claims.

  • Furnishing advice on all aspects of military justice and conducting criminal judicial proceedings.

  • Furnishing legal advice with respect to acquisitions involving appropriated and nonappropriated funds.

  • Assisting in the conduct of administrative boards and investigations.

  • Providing legal advice and assistance in other areas of the command as required by law, or as necessary or appropriate.

All legal services, except legal assistance, are required by statute notwithstanding the type of combat, the intensity of the combat environment, and the time phase of combat. Legal assistance is required by regulation. Missions and tasks must be performed to the standard contemplated by the governing statutes and regulations.

The command or staff judge advocate executes the legal mission through the efforts of--

  • Command or staff judge advocate sections.

  • Other legal personnel subject to the orders of the commander, such as judge advocate general service organizations and unit legal clerks.

  • Legal personnel of the US Army Legal Services Agency, such as trial defense counsel and military judges who are detailed to serve within the command.

CHAPLAIN ACTIVITIES

The TAACOM chaplain is a special staff officer with direct access to the commander. The chaplain may be on the commander's personal staff. The TAACOM chaplain supervises the staff section and provides technical supervision to chaplains in subordinate units. The chaplain advises the commander and staff on matters of religion, morals, ethics, and morale as affected by religion. The TAACOM chaplain coordinates with chaplains of supported units to insure that unit, denominational, and area ministry is available to COMMZ elements. The chaplain coordinates with other staff sections to provide religious supplies and equipment to chaplains within the COMMZ. Additional TAACOM chaplain responsibilities, functions, and relationships are addressed in FMs 16-5 and 101-5.

Chaplains perform their many faceted functions throughout the area of operations to make chaplain activities and ministry of presence available wherever the soldier goes. This ministry of presence includes, but is not limited to, the following operational concepts:

  • Unit ministry. Unit ministry is the general nondenominational pastoral, religious, and moral coverage chaplains provide within their units of assignment.

  • Denominational ministry. This is the ministry provided for distinctive and major faith groups. This coverage may be provided within a unit or on an area cove age basis, or both.

  • Area ministry. This focuses on geographic responsibility. The chaplain extends unit type and denominational ministry encompassing pastoral, religious, and moral coverage beyond his assigned unit to all persons within the command's geographical area or as specified in area coverage plans.

PUBLIC AFFAIRS

Public affairs (information) support for soldiers and commanders in wartime is progided through the information section assigned to TAACOM headquarters. This section is controlled by the public affairs officer. PAOs provide advice and services concerning all matters of soldier and media interest. Further information is contained in FM 46-1.

HEALTH SERVICES SUPPORT

AREA HEALTH SERVICES

The area support groups of the TAACOM have no organic medical units assigned or attached. Personnel assigned to these groups receive unit level health service support from medical clearing companies, medical treatment companies, or various-sized dispensary detachments attached to subordinate headquarters of the MEDCOM. Division level health service support is also provided by the medical clearing companies and medical treatment companies and by dental detachments and optometry detachments. Patient evacuation, hospitalization, preventive medicine support, veterinary support, and medical supply are also provided on an area basis by MEDCOM units. These various TOE medical units, detachments, and teams are allocated on the basis of troop strength supported and are established in locations appropriate to troop concentrations.

To insure adequate health service support to the TAACOM and its assigned ASGs, coordination between the TAACOM and the medical command is necessary. An exchange of information through effective liaison provides the medical command commander with the extent and location of troop concentrations to be supported, and provides ASG commanders with the specific types of health service support to be furnished. The senior medical headquarters/unit commander located within the geographical boundaries of an ASG will normally provide health service staff advice to the ASG commander. The medical command and the TAACOM establish standing operating procedures governing the relationship between each ASG commander and the senior medical unit commander in the area.

The senior medical commander located within the boundaries of an ASG will normally be responsible for the development of health service support for the ASG commander's RAP plans. Once developed, these plans will be coordinated with the medical command to insure availability of adequate health service support to perform all required missions.

MEDICAL SUPPORT IN AN NBC ENVIRONMENT

Medical support in an NBC environment presents special problems. The patients or casualties caused by NBC weapons will create heavy demands for field medical services. The objectives of medical support in an NBC environment are as follows:

  • Make optimal use of limited medical resources in the face of a mass-casualty situation; manage the patients to minimize NBC weapon injuries.

  • Maintain continued operation of medical support facilities.

  • Protect medical and paramedical personnel from contaminated patients.

  • Avoid spread of contamination into medical support facilities.

In planning for medical support following an enemy NBC attack, every effort must be made to conserve and achieve the best possible use of available medical personnel. Individuals must be trained to apply first aid to themselves (self-aid) and to others (buddy-aid). Physically capable individuals are responsible for carrying out required decontamination of themselves and their equipment as soon as possible. Medical personnel are used primarily as supervisors of non-medical personnel. Nonmedical personnel are used for search and rescue of injured and wounded, immediate first aid, initial decontamination, and to assist with litter evacuation. Nonmedical vehicles may be used to supplement the movement of patients to the initial medical treatment facility after initial triage at the mass casualty site.

Patient decontamination stations must be established at medical treatment facilities. These stations will be primarily operated by nonmedical personnel working under medical supervision.

ENGINEER SUPPORT

The ENCOM provides combat and general engineering support to the Army and other services, agencies, and allied forces within the COMMZ and to the supported corps on a task basis. It can provide real property maintenance activity support in the COMMZ and topographic support for the theater. The TAACOM and ASGs are responsible for RPMA within their area. Each headquarters does have a small engineer section in the ACofS, services, and directorate of services respectively. These sections receive, prioritize, and coordinate their requirements with the appropriate ENCOM unit.

This support may involve coordination or management of host nation engineer support or contract engineer support as well as engineer troop units. It includes the following missions in support of CSS in the COMMZ:

  • Plan, design, supervise, and perform, as required, the construction, maintenance, repair, or rehabilitation of airfields, ports, tank farms, roads, railroads, and inland waterways.

  • Construct and repair hospitals, troop camps, enemy prisoner of war and civilian internee compounds, bulk petroleum storage and distribution systems, and dry cargo and ammunition storage areas.

  • Construct missile sites, air defense emplacements, protective shelters, field defenses, and other works supporting COMMZ air defense and local ground security.

  • Repair, maintain, and construct Army airfields throughout the COMMZ.

  • Perform emergency repairs that exceed Air Force capability at key Air Force bases, upgrade emergency repairs to permanent status, and repair other base facilities as required.

  • Perform area damage control functions on a task or operational control basis in support of area commands.

  • Provide minor construction, repair, maintenance, and utility operation support for all Army installations and facilities in the COMMZ.

  • Acquire, maintain, and dispose of real estate.

  • Provide topographic engineering support to the TA, supported corps and divisions, and other services as required throughout the theater. Topographic missions include providing terrain analysis, terrain data and maps, and topographic products.

  • Perform combat engineering missions in the COMMZ and corps areas on a task basis.

  • Provide engineering in support of deception operations; for example, construction of dummies and decoys and preparation of deceptive air defense and missile positions.

  • Provide engineering support of denial operations.

  • Provide construction or combat engineering support to other services and allied forces operating in the COMMZ on a task basis.

  • Provide subsurface water detection, location, well drilling, and construction in support of water supply activities. Provide construction in support of fixed installation water systems as required.

The engineer functions at TA area level can be categorized into four operational areas: general engineering, real property maintenance, topographic support, and combat engineering.

GENERAL ENGINEERING

TA engineer units provide construction support by decentralized operations. Engineers accomplish construction throughout the COMMZ in GS of all TA units, the Air Force, allied forces as directed, and to the corps on a task basis. For engineer requirements exceeding their organic capability, ASGs will request, through TAACOM, assistance from the appropriate engineer headquarters having responsibility for that area of operations. Engineer support will be provided to each ASG on an area basis by a specific ENCOM unit which normally will be located within the ASGs boundaries. Contract construction may be administered by engineer elements or other service theater construction managers in the overseas areas. Theater construction policy may incorporate alternate means, such as the engineer troop units, to satisfy this requirement.

REAL PROPERTY MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES

The ENCOM has overall responsibility for the RPMA mission in the COMMZ. ASGs are responsible to provide RPMA within their boundaries to insure that real property is acquired, developed, operated, maintained, and disposed of in a manner that is responsive to user missions. The TAACOM, through its ASGs and installation commanders, usually provides RPMA support through employment of organic and supporting engineer teams.

TOPOGRAPHIC SUPPORT

Successful CSS operations rely heavily on seeing the battlefield" and "using the terrain." Topographic engineer units insure that timely and accurate information of the battlefield terrain is available for each commander throughout all phases of military planning and operations. Topographic elements have the organization, personnel, special training, and equipment to provide terrain information and analysis throughout the COMMZ. Terrain data, to include digital terrain data and special map products, are provided through logistics and intelligence channels directly to operational units requiring them. Engineer topographic production, including topographic survey, photo-mapping, map reproduction, and digital terrain data production, is provided by the engineer topographic battalion.

COMBAT ENGINEERING

Requests for combat engineer support for rear area combat operations in the COMMZ will be routed from base or area commanders to the TAACOM and TA, which likewise may direct the ENCOM or senior engineer headquarters to provide support. Engineer units may be placed under the operational control of area commanders to perform this function. Engineers provide t eir own security and, in extreme emergency, may be reorganized as infantry by the functional commander. In emergencies, base or area commanders may direct the engineer units within their areas to provide necessary support. Engineer units may be required to reorganize as infantry in response to a major attack. A description of engineers fighting as infantry is provided in FM 5-100.

MILITARY POLICE SUPPORT

The military police organizatgon is designed to perform a variety of missions within the COMMZ in support of TAACOMs and other functional TA commands. Figure 2-13 shows an example of an MP force in the initial stages of mobilization, and figure 7-2 reflects an example of an MP force when the theater matures. In both cases, the MP brigade provides two types of support, area and functional. See table 7-1. See FM 19-1 for more information on area and functional support.

AREA SUPPORT

Area support is provided by multicapable MP units on a task basis. To accomplish this support, an MP brigade is assigned to each TAACOM, providing general support within an area of operations that normally coincides

TABLE 7-1. AREA AND FUNCTIONAL SUPPORT
AREA SUPPORT FUNCTIONAL SUPPORT
Battlefield circulation control EPW operations (evacuation and internment)
Area security
EPW operations (collection) Confinement of US military prisoners
Law and order operations Criminal investigation activities

Security of nuclear ammunition and
designated LOC facilities

with the TAACOM boundary. This permits the brigade to provide responsive support not only to the TAACOM, but to the other functional commands and agencies located within the TAACOM area. MP battalions are normally assigned an area of operations which is aligned with ASG boundaries. MP battalions may be placed under the operational control of the ASG for RAP.

Battlefield Circulation Control

Battlefield circulation control includes all measures taken to expedite the movement of

personnel, supplies, and vehicles on the MSR network leading into the corps rear area. This function must be viewed as a total process consisting of the forward, lateral, and rear-ward movements of combat resources, military assets, and civilian personnel on the MSR. To be effective, this process must integrate the capabilities of available HN and allied forces and various US staff elements to include transportation, personnel, engineer, and civil affairs. Army aviation may be used to support circulation control.

Vehicular Circulation. The objective of the control of vehicles is to impose minimum restriction of movement while insuring that traffic gets to its destination rapidly and efficiently. In the COMMZ, traffic normally is regulated only on designated MSRs; however, where applicable, the host nation movement control headquarters is responsible for designating other routes to be regulated. To do this, MP coordinate with the highway traffic division of the TAMCA and local transportation movement offices.

Personnel Circulation. The movement of stragglers is controlled in conjunction with other battlefield circulation control tasks. Stragglers in the COMMZ will be controlled by MP operating traffic control points and mobile patrols in order to facilitate the return of stragglers to their respective units through prescribed personnel channels.

Refugee Control. The control of refugees is primarily a HN responsibility and their movement is restricted to other than MSRs. However, refugees may overflow from prescribed evacuation routes and threaten the flow of US military traffic. If this occurs, MP are used to control refugees. If host nation support is not available, the MP will assist the civil affairs organizations in providing refugee control.

US Noncombatant Evacuation. Evacuation of US noncombatants may be accomplished either during the mobilization period or immediately after initiation of hostilities. In either event, as required and within their capabilities, MP will provide escorts from prescribed noncombatant assembly points to theater embarkation terminals.

Area Security

Area security encompasses all measures taken to protect personnel, materiel, and facilities from enemy attack, loss, damage, sabotage, destruction, and compromise. MP actions must be an integral portion of the coordinated RAP plans and operations of the TAACOM and subordinate ASG. The area commanders have command responsibility for RAP on an area basis. Area security operations include protection of designated critical facilities, convoys, units, MSR critical points, and key personnel; RACO; area reconnaissance; NBC detecting and reporting; intelligence collection and reporting; and area damage control.

Security of MSR critical points, such as bridges and tunnels, may be required. US MP provide this security, in the absence of other security arrangements, when these choke-points are being crossed by US forces.

Security of critical facilities and resources includes the protection of designated command and control headquarters, nuclear ammunition, and convoys. Because of the nature and sensitivity involved, these security requirements are met exclusively by US forces.

The protection of the unified theater headquarters is shared by each of the component services that staff the headquarters. Security proponency is a US Army responsibility.

The security of the TA and TAACOM headquarters is provided by COMMZ MP on a dedicated basis.

Convoy security will be furnished only for high-priority cargos. When security is required but cannot be provided by the user, TA military police may provide security for the cargo's transit to its final destination point in the corps area. Normally, corps MP assets will pick up the security mission for the convoy when the convoy enters the corps MP element's area of operations.

The security of Army airfields located within the COMMZ is the responsibility of the using unit. Requests for support to meet requirements that exceed the capability of the using unit are forwarded through command channels.

Area commanders may delegate detailed RACO planning, coordination, and execution to the MP brigade or battalions. As a response force, MP aggressively patrol and reconnoiter likely avenues of approach and landing and drop zones. They also identify, close with, and destroy small threat forces before they can reach their objectives. In the event of a major enemy incursion, they

  • Determine the size and apparent intent of the threat.

  • Provide timely, accurate reports to the RACO control element.

  • Delay and disrupt the threat prior to the arrival of US or host nation combat forces.

  • Assist the combat force in defeating the enemy force, if requested.

    Enemy Prisoner of War Operations

    Since there will be RACO operations in the COMMZ, the capture of enemy soldiers by general-purpose MP units providing area support and other combat units is always possible. If enemy troops are captured, these general purpose units will collect all EPW and evacuate them to other EPW units in the theater.

    Law and Order Operations

    MP enforce compliance with laws, orders, and regulations of the commander. Included in the law enforcement function are the areas of crime prevention and customs operations. MP provide liaison to allied and HN police, as well as to other HN government and US military authorities. Military laws and command regulations pertaining to US personnel within the COMMZ are enforced in areas provided for exclusive US use. These areas include logistical clusters, bases, headquarters, etc., and built-up, urban complexes that are shared with other non-US military forces and civilians.

    Within logistical clusters, depots, and other US facilities, the MP operate on a unilateral basis without assistance from allied police organizations. Within built-up areas and population centers, operational jurisdiction is shared with other law enforcement agencies. Liaison teams are provided, and police patrolling is combined with allied and HN police. In exceptional cases, the civilian capability to operate and provide governmental services may deteriorate to the point that martial law may be established by the US commander. Under such circumstances, MP may assume greater operational law enforcement responsibilities within areas not normally associated with the exclusive interests of US forces.

    FUNCTIONAL SUPPORT

    Functional support to the theater army is provided by military police elements that perform only one specific MP mission. They are introduced gradually into a maturing theater as the need for their particular mission increases in proportion to the size of the force being supported. Functional MP units are assigned to the PERSCOM for EPW operations and confinement of US military prisoners. They are assigned to the TRANSCOM, the petroleum group, and the nuclear ammunition brigade for security of highly critical facilities and security of nuclear ammunition. Criminal investigation activities are under the command and control of the criminal investigation command.

    Enemy Prisoner of War Operations

    EPW operations involve the evacuation and internment of EPWs. MP are responsible for the evacuation, control, humane treatment, and transfer of EPWs.

    EPW operations are considered a US responsibility and are performed by US military personnel. Subject to a national level agreement, US captured EPWs may be transferred to HN custody under the provisions of the Geneva Convention. However, complete administrative processing must be accomplished prior to effecting such a transfer. Another alternative is to evacuate EPW out of the theater of operations.

    Confinement of US Military Prisoners

    Confinement of US military prisoners involves detaining, sustaining, protecting, and evacuating US military prisoners. Convicted military prisoners are evacuated as rapidly as possible from ASGs to the COMMZ confinement facility. Further evacuation of US prisoners from the COMMZ to CONUS will be in accordance with DA policy.

    Criminal Investigation Activities

    The TA develops plans for employing MP investigators and coordinates with US Army Criminal Investigation Command field elements to provide investigative support to the COMMZ and combat zone. Offenses investigated by CID are governed by USACIDC regulations and MOU between CID and MP units. Matters requiring investigation include--

    • Offenses committed against US forces personnel.

    • Offenses committed against property of the United States.

    • Offenses committed by military personnel subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice.

    • Violations of the law of war.

    • Offenses committed by civilian personnel serving with US forces, such as civilian employees, contract personnel, Red Cross employees, reporters, and third country nationals.

    Security of Nuclear Ammunition and Designated LOC Facilities

    Nuclear Ammunition. Security of nuclear ammunition involves the MP security forces organic to the TA nuclear ammunition brigade. Security is furnished from the ammunition's entry into the theater, and during its movement to and storage at designated weapons holding areas. Security is also furnished during its subsequent movement to and storage at corps-level WHAs or nuclear ammunition supply points.

    Designated LOC Facilities. Security is provided to selected lines of communications within the COMMZ. These include ports, inland waterways (canals and rivers), railways, pipelines, and MSR critical points. However, it can be expected that none of these facilities will be used only by US forces. They are shared with allied forces, and security for such facilities is provided by all users. When such facilities are not used by other forces, security becomes a US responsibility.

    Theater port operations are normally the responsibility of the HN. However, a MOU with the HN allows the military traffic management command to coordinate US port requirements. Port security requirements for US forces will be identified by the HN. Arrangements to meet requirements are accomplished by the MTMC with the TA provost marshal.

    CIVIL-MILITARY OPERATIONS

    This information provides guidance for the conduct of civil-military operations during peacetime, cold war, limited war, and general war. FMs 33-1 and 41-10 provide more detailed discussion of doctrine and practice. CMO are those activities in support of military operations embracing the--

    • Interaction between the military force and civilian authorities and populations.

    • Development of favorable emotions, attitudes, and behavior in friendly, neutral, or hostile groups.

    All CMO must support the commander's mission in a thoroughly planned and coordinated manner. Whenever possible, CMO are conducted through and with the existing or reestablished civilian authorities.

    The scope of CMO varies with the level of combat activity, the locale, the attitudes and status of various populations in the area of operations, and in accordance with US national policy and objectives as directed by higher headquarters.

    US commanders and staff officers must recognize that the activities, combat or noncombat, of all US military personnel and units have CMO implications. Staff responsibility for CMO is assigned to the ACofS, CMO, within the TAACOM.

    Generally, CMO provide support as needed to insure the successful completion or achievement of the required military mission or operation, while fulfilling treaty ■and international agreements, obligations, and requirements of international law, military law, and US national policies and guidance.

    CMO missions include, but are not limited to--

    • Domestic action programs.

    • Civil-military relations other than those dealt with through public affairs and public information functions.

    • Training in CMO.

    Operational missions can include, but are not limited to-

    • Maximum use of civilian resources, as practicable, to support achievement of the military mission, while considering future mission requirements and the effective future use of civilian resources.

    • Minimizing civilian interference with the military operation.

    • CMO liaison with foreign country officials, US nonmilitary representatives, staff and command units, and with international organizations and agencies.

    • Preparing CMO plans (annexes, appendixes, tabs, etc.).

    • Conducting local CMO surveys on a continuing basis.

    • Serving as staff advisor to tactical commanders.

    • Carrying out foreign internal defense efforts. Foreign internal defense is the participation by civilian and military agencies of a government in any of the action programs taken by another government to free and protect its society from subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency. If the host nation agreement is viable, all contact with civilian elements will be primarily through territorial force commanders.

    While CMO activities are command responsibilities at all levels, intensive civil-military operations are carried out by specialized civil affairs and psychological operations elements. Given the broad range of potential TAACOM missions, the number, size, and functional capabilities of these elements will vary according to the mission and environment in which employed. See FMs 33-1 and 41-10 for further information.

    CIVIL AFFAIRS OPERATIONS

    CA operations are the activities of a commander embracing the relationship between the military forces and civil authorities and people in a friendly country or area, or occupied country or area when military forces are present. CA operations include command, governmental, domestic support, and support of internal defense and development.

    TAACOM Support

    The following CA activities are designed to be performed in direct support of the TAACOM commander if HN territorial forces are not available or able to perform them. They include--

    • Identifying available local resources, facilities, and support.

    • Coordinating US requirements for and acquisition of local resources, facilities, and support.

    • Minimizing local population interference with US military operations.

    • Assisting the commander in meeting legal and moral obligations to the local population by temporarily providing support to local governmental agencies or services for the local population.

    Governmental Support

    These activities are performed by civil affairs elements in direct support of the theater commander. They are designed to support governmental agencies or people to facilitate the accomplishment of objectives oriented to meeting the needs of the civilian sector. These types of activities are initiated upon the direction of the US national command authorities. Governmental support functions include the following:

    • Domestic support. DOD sponsored military programs which support the people and government at any level within the United States and its territories. (In all such operations, the authority and responsibilities of the commander are closely regulated by civil law and Army regulations.)

    • Support of internal defense and development. Although CA is highly interdependent with all aspects of internal defense and development, it is primarily concerned with the civil affairs and populace and resources control operations of military forces and civil government agencies.

    Civil affairs elements are organized and employed to achieve--

    • Maximum economy of US personnel and resources.

    • Maximum flexibility of employment.

    • Minimum practical ratio of command, administrative, and overhead personnel to operational personnel.

    In achieving these objectives, both standard (fixed) and cellular TOE elements are employed. CA functional teams, to include language teams, may be attached to either type unit.

    PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS

    PSYOP encompass those political, military, economic, and ideological actions planned and conducted to create in neutral or friendly foreign groups the emotions, attitudes, or behavior to support the achievement of national and US objectives. PSYOP are conducted in support of consolidation, strategic, and tactical operations. The ACofS, CMO, is primarily responsible for PSYOP in the TA.

    Consolidation Operations

    Consolidation operations are those operations and activities directed toward the populations in either liberated or occupied areas to facilitate military operations and promote maximum cooperation with the liberating or occupying power. Consolidation operations are the responsibility of the theater commander.

    Strategic Operations

    Strategic operations are those operations directed at large segments of a population to exploit economic, military, sociological, psychological, and political vulnerabilities. Strategic operations are normally coordinated at national levels. Strategic operations are generally designed to further broad or long-term aims in coordination with general strategic planning with gradual results realizable in the indefinite future. They are directed at enemy troops and civilians behind the combat zones or in any enemy, friendly, or neutral country.

    Tactical Operations

    Tactical operations are integral coordinated portions of any overall tactical plan used to prevent civilian interference with military operations, to exploit individual and group susceptibilities, and to weaken the will of enemy soldiers to fight in combat areas. The primary difference between PSYOP conducted in support of strategic and tactical operations is in scope.

    PSYOP elements may be assigned direct support missions to the TAACOM. They may also be assigned special missions under TAACOM direction, such as EPW command support or support of consolidation operations. PSYOP elements, organized under the cellular TOE 33-500 series, are tailored to perform missions that may be given to the TAACOM. The use of cellular teams permits balanced elements to be formed with minimal personnel and administrative overhead. These teams also permit units to be formed without affecting the organized structure of the PSYOP unit or requiring unit redesignation. TOE 33-500 series provides for cellular augmentation for administration, maintenance, medical services, dining, and signal services. Supported units, however, furnish common facilities and items.

    COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS

    Within the TAACOM

    CA/PSYOP assets assist and are responsive to the ACofS, CMO, and to subordinate component units of the TAACOM. Personnel, component elements, or functional teams of CA/PSYOP assets may be allocated to TAACOM component units in either general or direct support roles. For example, in a command support role, the CA units are attached to supported units and maintain "technical back channels" with the TAACOM CA element. Normally, PSYOP units perform in a DS role and maintain command and staff relationships with the parent unit.

    With Higher Commands

    Formal communications on CMO matters within the TAACOM area of operations is through the ACofS, CMO (TAACOM). Normally, there is a close and constant interaction between the ACofS, CMO (TAACO and the CMO officer at the TA level.

    For training purposes, reserve component CMO assets may establish varying command relationships through tailored mutual support programs. Most commonly, mutual support agreements and command relationships are established directly between the reserve component units and the active component unit.

    It is important to note that regardless of formal command structure, US Army efforts in CMO call for an unusually high degree of coordination and cooperation among all Army units and other service assets involved in a CMO activity. Hence, coordination and cooperation with lower and higher headquarters and laterally with adjacent units are necessary and required.

    TAACOM CIVIL-MILITARY OPERATIONS CONCEPTS

    CMO efforts in nonoperational environments normally emphasize the following:

    • Training of TAACOM staff, commanders, and subordinate component units in CMO doctrine, policy, and procedures.

    • Domestic action training and military-civic action efforts.

    • Mutual support programs with reserve component CA and PSYOP units.

    • Coordination with ACofS, CMO (TAACOM), supported and supporting units in exercise and contingency planning.

    • Reviewing, maintaining, and updating SOPs, force structuring, TOE modifications, etc., for a variety of potential TAACOM roles.

    • Anticipating and planning for CMO logistical requirements (transportation, supplies, material, etc.), which may b■e filled from available resources in the host country. CMO efforts in operational TAACOM missions normally emphasize--

      • Maximum use of civilian and non-US military assets to achieve the military mission.

      • Minimizing civilian interference with military operations.

      • Security and rear area defense operations, including defense against guerrilla and sabotage operations directed against TAACOM elements.

      • Compliance with policy guidance and requirements of international law.

      • Exploiting newly developed intelligence and PSYOP opportunities as they occur.

      • Coordination of TAACOM area of responsibility with host country civilian and military personnel, and with allied, joint, or combined command operational elements.

      • Close coordination of CMO activities with other TAACOM operations. The physical location of CMO staff should be such as to facilitate this coordination.


    06-03-1996; 09:19:26



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