The Largest Security-Cleared Career Network for Defense and Intelligence Jobs - JOIN NOW

Military

CHAPTER 8

Moving the Corps Force

Every requirement for troops or supplies generates at least one requirement for movement. The corps' transportation system provides for the rapid movement of troops and supplies about the battlefield. It affords the corps commander the capability to concentrate combat power at the critical time and place to influence the corps battle.

CONTENTS

PLANNING TRANSPORTATION SUPPORT

COSCOM TRANSPORTATION SUPPORT ORGANIZATION

COSCOM TRANSPORTATION DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

CONTROLLING TRANSPORTATION SUPPORT OPERATIONS

PLANNING TRANSPORTATION SUPPORT

Transportation planning encompasses determining what must be moved, where it must be moved, and when it must be moved. It also includes selecting a mode of transportation that best fulfills requirements. Transportation plans focus on the timely deployment of the corps force and its materiel to the AO. Proper transportation planning results in timely delivery of combat forces and the means for their support.

Transportation planning in support of a joint or combined commander's OPLAN addresses both intertheater and intratheater movements. It needs to include reception of personnel, materiel, and equipment from point of origin and movement to destination.

TRANSPORTATION SUPPORT BRANCH

The COSCOM transportation support branch is the planning staff that integrates and synchronizes transportation planning with all other support operations provided by the COSCOM under the supervision of the COSCOM support operations officer. As such the COSCOM transportation support branch executes planning responsibilities vested in the COSCOM support operations officer for the move function.

The transportation support branch performs longrange transportation planning in conjunction with the CMCC based on AOs and likely courses of action. Transportation support branch personnel coordinate with COSCOM support operations' CSS plans branch staff in preplanning an integrated distribution system based on corps projected transportation requirements for reception, onward movement, and logistics support in the AO. They relate likely courses of action, data on the AO infrastructure, and corps G3 priorities to the CMCC. As appropriate, they recommend ways to offset transportation shortfalls. See Table 8-1.

Transportation Support Branch Chief

The transportation support branch chief serves as the principal transportation staff advisor to the COSCOM support operations officer. He provides transportation planning, coordination, and implementation support to the corps G4, CTO, and CMCC.

The transportation support branch chief maintains liaison with transportation Capstone units. Based on projected transportation requirements, he develops and recommends the troop basis and modifications to the MTOEs for transportation organizations. He recommends priority of transportation and airdrop unit deployment. As required, he maintains liaison with US and allied nation commands. He exercises staff supervision over transportation mode and transfer operations to ensure an effective distribution system within the corps.

Transportation Support Branch Staff

Transportation support branch personnel prepare plans, policies, and procedures for transportation support in the corps area. In coordination with transportation staff in corps headquarters and subordinate CSGs, they implement priorities established for movement of supplies, equipment, and personnel over controlled routes. Transportation support branch personnel --

  • Recommend and coordinate plans, policies, and programs to support transportation, movement control, highway regulation, and cargo transfer operations.

  • Prepare movement management policies for the COSCOM.

  • Prepare estimates, plans, and policies for movement control, mode operations, and terminal operations.

  • Develop input for corps movement annexes and transportation estimates.

  • Review corps orders for transportation supportability and specified and implied tasks.

  • Coordinate plans for throughput from TA, interzonal transportation, intermodal operations, and trailer transfer operations.

  • Coordinate with the COSCOM procurement support branch on the acquisition and use of HN transportation resources based on the corps movement program or other planning documents.

  • Recommend locations of transportation nodes and units to support the distribution system and corps movement program.

  • Recommend changes in allocation of transportation units based upon changes in the distribution pattern or to weight the corps battle.

  • Advise the COSCOM support operations officer on the effective use and operation of transportation units.

  • Review material distribution plans to ensure that they are transportation supportable.

  • Recommend changes as necessary to increase the effectiveness of transportation.

  • Develop the transportation portion of contingency plans.

  • Recommend requirements to construct, improve, or maintain transportation facilities.

  • Determine support requirements for corps movement control and mode operating units and facilities.

  • Provide input to the corps movement program.

  • Provide policy and procedural guidance to the CMCC for formulation and preparation of highway regulation plans.

  • Coordinate transportation plans and polices with the CTO, corps G4, CMMC, CSG transportation branch staff, DTOs, TAMCA, and TRANSCOM.

  • Coordinate with medical brigade or medical group staff on transportation requirements to support medical supply and patient evacuation when resources are insufficient.

  • Develop the transportation movements annex to COSCOM OPLANs and consolidate input to the corps administrative/logistics plan for personnel and materiel movements.

During the planning, alert, and staging phases of an operation, transportation support branch personnel perform the tasks listed on Table 8-2. They plan for the reception of the COSCOM force in an AO and for its movement to final destination. They coordinate with the CMCC and MCTs, refining the time-phased transportation requirements list for the AO.

In addition to FM 100-17, the Joint Chiefs of Staff publication, Joint Operations Planning System, provides comprehensive guidance for planning the deployment of forces from CONUS to overseas areas. It also provides guidance on planning the reception and onward movement of forces in a theater.

TRANSPORTATION PLANNING STEPS

Regardless of the type of transportation planning, transportation staff officers perform the following planning steps:

  • Assess the distribution pattern.

  • Determine requirements.

  • Determine transportation capabilities.

  • Balance requirements against capabilities,

  • Determine shortfalls and critical points.

  • Coordinate the transportation plan with all affected.

  • Publish and distribute the plan.

Assessing the Distribution Pattern

The distribution pattern shows the locations of supply, maintenance, and transportation activities. It also delineates throughput and interzonal transportation requirements. Development of the distribution pattern is guided by the commander's concept of operation and the number, types, and location of in place and incoming units to be supported, and their time phased arrival.

Movement planners use the distribution pattern to develop the movement program and the transportation network of modes available to support movement requirements. It helps planners know where support should normally flow and where it may be diverted as METT-T dictate. The distribution pattern constantly evolves, requiring adjustments to the movement program.

Determining Requirements

The CMCC uses planning periods to forecast transportation requirements for current and succeeding periods. It forecasts requirements in coordination with the COSCOM support operations officer, the CMMC, CTO, corps G4, and CSG transportation branch personnel.

Material movement requirements are developed in terms of class of supply, estimated weight and cube, RDD, and planned origin and destination. Special handling requirements are also identified. Personnel movement estimates are grouped by category. Support for unit movement is also included, as are any OPORD specified or implied tasks.

Determining Transportation Capabilities

The CMCC coordinates with the COSCOM transportation support branch and CSG transportation branch personnel to determine the --

  • Number of truck units and available truck assets.

  • Number, characteristics, and capabilities of HN transportation assets allocated, to include rail, highway, and inland waterway modes of transport.

  • Availability of contracted support.

  • Reception, material handling, and intransit storage capabilities.

  • Number and type of airlift and airdrop sorties allocated for CSS air movement operations.

Balancing Requirements Against Capabilities

Transportation planners consider all work load requirements, to include --

  • Direct shipments.

  • Multistops.

  • Retrograde.

  • Augmentation to unit movement.

  • Support to allies.

  • Support to civilian organizations.

  • Assistance in medical evacuation operations.

The CMCC uses publication and command specific guidelines to assign requirements against capabilities by mode. Guidelines may include --

  • Providing service according to priorities.

  • Minimizing cargo rehandling and cross hauls.

  • Planning for backhauls.

  • Allocating all available transportation modes.

  • Using the most efficient mode to complete movement as far forward as possible.

Determining Shortfalls and Critical Points

The CMCC considers the total transportation system, priority of movement, and the risk of failure. This surfaces any shortfalls. The CMCC then identifies shortfalls to the COSCOM transportation support branch staff for resolution.

The CMCC identifies critical points where control measures or placement of movement specialists could reduce or eliminate possible bottlenecks to movement. Critical points might include --

  • Aerial ports.

  • Railheads.

  • Terminal transfer points.

  • Transshipment points.

  • Bulk fuel terminals and pipelines.

Coordinating the Transportation Plan

To ensure integrated support, COSCOM transportation support branch personnel need to coordinate changes in assumptions, policies, priorities, allocations, and locations with other staff planners.

MOVEMENT PROGRAM

The movement program identifies total transportation requirements assessed in terms of point of origin and destination. It programs transportation assets to support these requirements and identifies shortfalls. The CMCC prepares the movement program and coordinates immediate support. FM 55-0 provides more detail on the movement program.

The movement program is the authority to commit transportation assets. Each approved movement requirement has a program line number. To activate a line number, the shipper contacts the MCT to verify the accuracy of the data, such as quantity, origin, and destination. The MCT commits the mode operator (CSG or HN) to provide support.

MOVEMENT MODES

The CMCC selects the most efficient and effective mode of transport to move cargo and personnel as far forward as possible. Although motor transport is the most flexible mode, the CMCC also considers the capabilities and limitation of alternative modes. The mode selected depends on --

  • Priority.

  • Required delivery date.

  • Commodity or cargo type.

  • Special restrictions.

  • Economy efficiency.

  • Available resources.

Movement by Rail

Rail provides maximum capacity for moving large quantities of materiel and personnel with limited resource expenditure. The COSCOM transportation support branch needs to acquire data on HN rail that can be used for movement of large quantities of supplies or heavy equipment. Other considerations include --

  • Rolling stock.

  • Rail-line clearances.

  • Rail gauge.

  • Rail bridges.

  • Restriction on outside movements.

  • Availability of off-road facilities.

  • Vulnerability of the rail net to enemy action.

In coordination with corps G4 and COSCOM ACofS, G3 plans and operations staff, COSCOM transportation support branch personnel develop and update contingency plans for rail movements.

Movement by Air

Depending on the theater of operations, the quantity of items moved by air forms a very small percentage of the total quantity moved. Only high-priority items and critically needed rations, fuel, ammunition, blood, or repair parts are normally moved by air. Army transport aircraft capacity seldom exceeds the amount required for movement of priority cargo. Therefore, plans should not provide for routine movements by air of other than priority cargo.

COSCOM transportation support branch personnel develop plans for CSS air movement operations in coordination with the CMCC. They formulate and issue policy directives on air transportation matters. They coordinate air movement capacity data with Army aviation and Air Force planners. They also coordinate arrival/departure airfield control group operations for units arriving or departing by Air Force aircraft. They need to know data relative to --

  • International airfield standards.

  • Primary, secondary, and unimproved airfields.

  • Effect of climatic conditions on use of airfields.

  • Drop zones.

The CMCC plans the use of allocated Army and USAF airlift or airdrop. Plans should take into account opportune lift for forward or retrograde movement.

AALPS automates load planning. During contingency planning, AALPS enables planners to preplan force packages and to determine airlift requirements for force packages. During deployment planning, planners can use AALPS to tailor and prioritize force packages based on mission requirements. Planners can also use AALPS to determine precise airlift requirements and to produce cargo manifests for loading USAF cargo aircraft.

Movement by Coastal and Inland Waterways

Coastal and inland waterways can help clear cargo in ports. However, movement is relatively slow. Extensive inland waterway systems compatible with requirements for transportation exist in only a few areas of the world. Inland waterway systems are susceptible to interdiction. They are difficult to restore to usefulness if the system relies on locks.

COSCOM transportation support branch personnel need to assess the availability of boats and barges and their average capacity and, in coordination with the CMCC, assess their desirability for use.

LOGISTICS PREPARATION OF THE BATTLEFIELD

COSCOM transportation support branch personnel can use IPB products developed by corps and COSCOM intelligence and operations staff officers to plan how to support movement requirements and how to protect transportation operations. They need to ensure that ACofS, G2 and G3 staff officers are aware of priority intelligence requirements needed for development of transportation and highway regulation plans.

Of the IPB products described in FM 34-130, the following IPB products provide information or overlays which can be used to determine critical points, plan support, and plan how to protect the corps transportation system.

Battlefield Area Evaluation Products

COSCOM transportation support branch personnel can use the following data from battlefield area evaluation products to plan deployment and select possible sites for transportation operations:

  • Locations and capacities of landing zones and airfields in the corps rear area.

  • Area port facilities and discharge capacities.

  • Rail networks, depots, and capacities.

  • Condition, throughput capacity, and restrictive features of highway networks.

Terrain Analysis Products

The following IPB terrain analysis overlays can be used to help plan the type of transportation units and equipment which can best deploy to the AO:

  • Surface materials (soil analysis) overlay.

  • Surface drainage or ground water overlay.

  • Surface configuration (slope and grade) overlay.

  • Ground water/table overlay.

  • Transportation net overlay.

  • Key terrain overlay (fording sites, high ground and road junctions).

  • Built-up areas and congestion area overlay.

Weather Analysis Products

The following IPB weather analysis products can help COSCOM transportation support branch personnel assess the impact of weather on transportation support operations:

  • Overlay of areas susceptible to fog and smog.

  • Seasonal fog predictions summary.

  • Temperature and humidity forecasts (by season).

  • Rain predictions and annual summary (by season).

  • Snow predictions and annual snowfall summary.

  • Cloud cover (by season).

Threat Evaluation and Doctrine Products

The following IPB products on threat and threat doctrine can be used by COSCOM transportation support branch personnel to plan employment, how to protect transportation operations, and how to implement timely proactive support:

  • Threat conventional weapon systems and their ranges.

  • Threat rear area general doctrine analysis and likely course of action.

  • Friendly high priority targets, as considered by the enemy.

  • Threat unconventional warfare doctrine and units.

Threat Integration Products

COSCOM transportation support branch personnel can use the following IPB intelligence data and IPB products to plan for the best support operations on an integrated battlefield:

  • Probable enemy actions, if they use NBC weapons.

  • Threat air and ground named areas of interests.

  • Probable enemy actions overlay, for given weather and terrain conditions.

  • Threat naval and air force integration doctrine and capabilities.

NBC PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

NBC threats will have a direct impact on transportation and movement control planning and execution. Immediate effects include casualties, destruction of supplies and equipment, destruction of LOCs, and damage to communications equipment. Sustained effects result from residual radiation and radioactive fallout, contamination, and degraded personnel performance. These effects may result in --

  • Shortages of mode operating equipment.

  • Degradation of LOCs.

  • Disruption of movement plans and programs.

  • Disruption of communications.

COSCOM TRANSPORTATION SUPPORT ORGANIZATION

COSCOM transportation forms the critical link in the theater distribution system. Figure 8-1 depicts the COSCOM's organization for providing transportation support across the battlefield. The actual organization depends on forecasted work load and units available in the force structure. A transportation group headquarters is required from EAC when three or more transportation battalions are included in the force structure.

The transportation organization is structured to move cargo, equipment, and personnel by various modes of transport. To support campaigns and major operations, it needs to move maneuver units on the battlefield as well as reposition the corps support structure. HNS can help offset shortfalls in the US transportation support organization.

MOTOR TRANSPORT UNITS

The COSCOM commander attaches a variable number of truck companies and cargo transfer companies to his subordinate CSGs or transportation group for allocation/reallocation to CSBs and transportation battalions. FM 55-30 describes the operation of truck units.

Transportation Battalion

The transportation battalion (TOE 55716L000) attached to the rear CSG provides direct as well as general support to corps nondivision units and reinforcing support to assigned divisions. It focuses on throughput distribution as far forward as the brigade support area.

When employed in support of an independent corps operation, the battalion may need to operate from the waterline to forward areas of combat. This situation requires that the troop list include terminal and rail units from a EAC rail or terminal battalion.

Light-Medium Truck Companies

Light-medium truck companies (TOE 55719L100/200) move general cargo from the CSB in the division area, reinforcing the FSBs and the MSB supporting corps forces in the brigade and division area. They offset the work load beyond the capability of the MSB's truck company. They may also provide support to the ACR and separate brigades when these organizations employ on line or support rear operations.

Medium Truck Companies

Medium truck companies (TOE 55728L100-300) are allocated to CSBs or transportation battalions. These truck companies haul containerized and breakbulk ammunition and general cargo within the corps rear area and to supply points located in the DSA/BSA.

Combat Heavy Equipment Transport (HET) Companies

Combat HET companies (TOE 55739L100) may be initially attached on an ad hoc basis to a CSB during initial stages of deployment and the theater buildup phase. However, they are normally consolidated under the transportation battalion of the rear CSG.

HETs support operational and tactical mobility. HETs move heavy or outsized cargo and vehicles, such as tracked vehicles, howitzers, and personnel carriers. Initially, HETs move heavy armored forces from a port of debarkation to an initial assembly area in the corps rear area. They can relocate a brigade task force in a single lift. HETs also move heavy armored forces with slice elements from corps or division areas as far forward as METT-T factors permit.

Using HETs to move heavy armored forces to assembly areas reduces fuel requirements en route. It also reduces maintenance work load due to fewer systems breaking down en route. Crews arrive rested and prepared to fight.

HETs may also support evacuation and weapon systems replacement operations. When HETs perform a battlefield evacuation role, they may move as far forward as the most forward collection point operated by the maintenance company in the brigade area.

Cargo Transfer Companies

These companies (TOE 55817L100/200) transship cargo at air, rail, motor, and inland barge terminals. Sequenced early in the deployment flow, they operate initially at arrival airfields, supporting combat units in offloading and marshaling unit equipment and supplies. As the AO expands, they echelon forward to conduct cargo handling operations at forward mode transfer points. They unload, segregate, temporarily hold, redocument, stuff, and load cargo whenever a change in mode occurs. With attached cargo handling elements tailored to the mission, they augment logistics operations.

Trailer Transfer Detachments

These detachments (TOE 55540LE00) operate trailer transfer points. They receive, segregate, assemble, and dispatch loaded or empty semitrailers for line-haul operations in accordance with CMCC directed priorities. Trailer transfer points connect linehaul legs to throughput cargo. They also provide emergency refueling facilities and perform emergency repairs on arriving vehicles.

Terminal Transfer Cellular Logistics Team

Depending on the theater, a US terminal transfer CLT (TOE 55510LA00) could be allocated. This CLT provides liaison and serves as the interface in joint terminal transfer operations with WHNS terminal transfer units. Based on the mission of WHNS terminal transfer units, the CLT may operate at a railhead, airhead, seaport, inland waterway port, or depot.

Though assigned to the COSCOM and attached to a CSG, the headquarters section collocates with the WHNS transportation battalion headquarters. It serves as the WHNS battalion logistics operations section. The two company sections collocate with HN terminal transfer companies. They serve as a portion of the terminal transfer company's operations section. CLT personnel --

  • Provide operational mission coordination and taskings to the WHNS transportation battalion.

  • Consolidate and forward transportation management reports from HN units to the CMCC.

  • Coordinate mission taskings between the CMCC and HN terminal transfer units.

  • Maintain visibility of in-transit US shipments and supplies, providing status reports through US channels.

  • Divert cargo when directed by the CMCC.

  • Assist HN documentation personnel in preparing US documentation.

  • Provide technical guidance for loading US cargo on HN equipment.

An MCT passes taskings for transportation and terminal transfer support via a HN LNO team collocated with the MCT. The CLT headquarters section receives the terminal transfer tasking order with assigned transportation movement release number. It relays the tasking information to the WHNS transportation battalion S3. The WHNS terminal transfer company operations section tasks transfer platoons with the mission and provides cargo information. The CLT company sections assist with cargo documentation. Based upon input from the MCT/CMCC, the CLT may alter transportation movement priority of shipments.

SAMPLE BATTLEFIELD EMPLOYMENT

The COSCOM maintains a distribution system to support a corps which may occupy an area 100 by 200 kilometers. When supporting three divisions on line, COSCOM ground transportation assets may have to move a total of 18,000 tons of dry cargo and 2,000,000 gallons of fuel over corps MSRs.

Figure 8-2 depicts how a COSCOM commander employed his transportation assets on the battlefield. In this example --

  • The CMCC sets up near the COSCOM headquarters under staff supervision of the COSCOM support operations officer. The CMCC coordinates requests for transportation support beyond the capability of the transportation assets in each MCT's area.

  • An MCT collocates with each CSG headquarters to coordinate transportation support for customers in the CSG AO. The MCT executes the corps movement program and commits the CSG/CSBs to provide transportation support.

  • MRTs operate from critical points to regulate the movement of authorized traffic over MSRs.

  • The CSGs allocate truck units to CSBs to meet tactical or operational transportation requirements and to assist with requirements for support of retrograde, surge, or reconstitution operations. As necessary, CSGs cross-level transportation assets among subordinate battalions.

  • Truck companies operate in a habitual support role when supporting COSCOM units which require full time use of truck assets. The support provided to ammunition supply companies is an example of this habitual support role.

  • HET companies support operational and tactical mobility and onward movement.

  • In the rear CSG, subordinate truck companies are used in a GS role. Medium truck companies and cargo transfer companies provide corpswide transportation support of critical GS level supplies stored in the corps rear area.

  • A cargo transfer company operates in the corps rear area in proximity to off-loading points and support facilities. It discharges, backloads, and transships cargo at air, rail, and motor terminals and beachheads and inland waterway terminals.

  • The airdrop units allow the COSCOM to provide support when ground road networks are disrupted.

AIRDROP SUPPORT ORGANIZATION

Airdrop of supplies or equipment by Air Force aircraft provides an alternative means of support for movement of priority cargo when ground LOCs are disrupted or air-landed supply operations are impractical. When forces become isolated or contaminated areas cannot be bypassed via ground transportation, airdrop provides a means to respond to immediate requests for ammunition, fuel, rations, water, blood, blood products, resuscitative fluids, or other critically needed supplies. FM 10-500-1 covers airdrop support operations in a theater of operations.

Transportation support branch personnel can use airdrop resupply planning factors in FM 101-10-1/2 to determine the force structure needed to support the work load and the type of airdrop delivery. The COSCOM organization which supports airlift resupply operations may consist of the following units or teams normally attached to the S&S battalion HHD:

Light Airdrop Supply Company

The Quartermaster Light Airdrop Supply Company (TOE 10443L000) can receive, store, and prepare 120 tons of selected supplies and equipment a day for airdrop. Company personnel assist in loading supplies and equipment into the aircraft and releasing supplies from the aircraft in flight. They also provide technical assistance to units responsible for the recovery and evacuation of airdrop equipment. FM 10-400 describes company operations and procedures.

As directed by the COSCOM support operations officer, the company temporarily stores small quantities of fast-moving items, such as ammunition and petroleum products, to fill emergency requests. To further reduce response time, the COSCOM support operations officer directs the preriging of selected items.

Airdrop Equipment Repair and Supply Company

The Quartermaster Airdrop Equipment Repair and Supply Company (TOE 10449L100) provides DS/GS supply and maintenance support for airdrop equipment in support of a light airdrop supply company. Personnel assigned to this company perform maintenance on parachutes, airdrop equipment, and airdrop platforms for issue to the light airdrop supply company and other corps units. FM 10-400 describes unit support capabilities.

Force Structure Alternatives

To offset shortfalls in airdrop force structure, airdrop support units are often committed to more than one geographic area.

To offset a shortage of airdrop resupply units, COSCOM transportation support branch personnel can recommend --

  • Preriging critical supplies and equipment for airdrop.

  • Establishing airdrop equipment operational projects for selected high-risk theaters.

  • Requesting airdrop support teams organized under TOE10510. These include --

    • Team LA, Airdrop Supply Team, which can receive, store, and prepare 50 tons of selected supplies and equipment a day for airdrop.

    • Team LC, Airdrop Equipment and Supply Team, which can provide 25 percent of the mission capability of the airdrop equipment repair and supply company.

    • Team LE, Parachute Pack and Maintenance Team, which can support 1,000 parachutists with personnel parachutes and parachute maintenance.

COSCOM Staff Support

Transportation support branch personnel prepare the airdrop annex to the COSCOM OPORD. They provide staff supervision over the technical training of COSCOM personnel in packing, rigging, and loading, and in the maintenance of airdrop equipment, supplies, and parachutes for airborne operations. They coordinate airdrop requests from supported units with the CMMC. Once supplies and equipment are rigged, the CMMC coordinates transportation through the CMCC.

COSCOM TRANSPORTATION DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

The transportation distribution system provides the link between dispersed GS storage sites and supporting DS level supply points. The habitual support relationship between the GS level supply units and appropriate transportation truck units ensures more responsive daily support operations.

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

The distribution system has been developed to meet the volume of shipments and the special requirements associated with certain classes of supply.

Bulk Fuel

For bulk fuel, the distribution system may consist of rail tank cars and 5,000-gallon semitrailers. They provide the link between the pipeline system and DS Class III points. Due to the nature of bulk fuel and the requirements to continuously push fuel forward, transportation assets are dedicated to the fuel distribution system. Medium truck companies (petroleum) collocate with petroleum supply companies to support bulk fuel distribution.

Ammunition

To support ammunition requirements, the distribution system provides for continuous refill. It relies on PLS trucks to move ammunition from CSAs and ASPs to ATPs. Replenishment of ATPs might occur four times daily. Peak volume could require approximately 300 semitrailer loads daily. To support daily high tonnage shipments, medium truck units collocate with GS/DS ammunition supply units which operate a CSA and ASPs.

Repair Parts

The volume of shipments of repair parts warrants establishing standing movement requests for the routes between the repair parts supply company and DS maintenance units. The majority of repair parts shipments are configured as throughput pallets for ALOC designated units. However, pallets are broken down at the airhead for transshipment to consignees.

Replacement Weapon Systems

Through the volume of movement is small, the unique weight of outsized Class VII weapon systems requires a HET distribution system when these weapon systems cannot be moved by rail.

HABITUAL SUPPORT

An habitual support relationship exists between truck companies and GS level supply units. This enables CSGs to provide continuous, responsive corpswide GS level supply of bulk fuel, munitions, and general supplies. The daily habitual support relationship between truck units and supply units ensures faster reaction times and more efficient use of logistics support personnel and equipment.

The MCT collocated with the CSG HQ assigns blocks of TMRs to the CSG/CSB transportation branch to support routine, recurring logistics support requirements. These are considered programed moves. CSB or transportation battalion staff officers keep CSG transportation branch staff informed of the status of subordinate truck assets. Based on local procedures, this is reported to the supporting MCT or CMCC. The MCT coordinates with the CMCC HTD for road clearance if the routes require a movement credit.

The CMMC maintains visibility of truck usage through its subordinate MCTs. The habitual support relationship between truck units and supply units can be broken only by the CMCC, upon direction of the COSCOM support operations officer, in order to meet unusual transportation requirements. Based on higher priorities and changes in the tactical situation, the CMCC, through its MCTs, then recommits CSG/CSB truck assets previously providing habitual support of logistics support requirements.

OTHER SUPPORT

COSCOM units and other units in the corps rear area submit requests for transportation support which are beyond their organic truck capabilities to the MCT serving their area. Divisions also transmit shortfalls to the CMCC for additional transportation support when division assets are exhausted.

As shown by Figure 8-3, MCTs coordinate the requirement between the truck unit, the shipping unit, and the receiving unit. MCTs fit the requirements into the overall program in accordance with the COSCOM support operations officer's priorities. The COSCOM support operations officer determines priorities for the movement of cargo and personnel based on COSCOM or corps commander guidance and information received from the CMMC and supported units. Depending upon the COSCOM SOP, MCTs either commit individual truck companies directly or coordinate committal through the CSG/CSB transportation branch or transportation battalion S3.

MCTs issue TMRs to commit the CSGs or transportation units to support movement requirements. MCTs also forward movement bids to the CMCC HTD for movements on MSRs that require movement credit (clearance). In this respect, they synchronize both the transportation support and movement clearance.

If necessary, MCTs request additional transportation support beyond that existing in the CSG AO from the CMCC. The CMCC can either commit another CSG to provide support or recommend that the COSCOM support operations officer cross-level transportation assets among its subordinate CSGs. When necessary, the CMCC requests reinforcing support from the TAMCA.

To the maximum extent possible, during peacetime the transportation requirements process follows that prescribed for war. Units submit requirements through their supporting MCT. The MCT follows local post or installation procedures to obtain transportation support assets.

INTERCORPS MOVEMENTS

COSCOMs normally employ transportation assets to meet its transportation and distribution requirements, execute the corps movement program, and meet requirements within the corps and division areas. Movements that cross corps boundaries are coordinated between the CMCCs.

THROUGHPUT DISTRIBUTION

Throughput distribution of supplies should occur whenever possible. As shown by Figure 8-4, the term throughput applies to direct delivery of cargo as far forward on the battlefield as practical. The objective is to bypass intermediate supply organizations. This expedites the movement of supplies forward and eliminates unnecessary handling.

Throughput, however, does not mean that a container of supplies is moved by a single mode or single vehicle from the port directly to the using unit. The container might require terminal transfer from the rail to truck mode or trailer transfer from a theater prime mover to a corps prime mover. It may need to undergo break bulk to enable distribution of the supplies it contains to multiple units. The transportation system needs to be properly force-structured to permit these options.

The efficiency of throughput of supplies within the corps depends on the ability of the CMCC and CMMC to maintain in-transit visibility and ensure that supplies are routed or rerouted to meet changing tactical situations. To do this, the CMCC maintains an in-transit shipment file. The file is based on data transmitted by its subordinate MCTs, MRTs, and ATMCTs regarding the passing and receipt of TA-directed shipments, shipments received from CONUS NICPs, and shipments generated within the COSCOM. This file helps to prevent shipments to a unit in excess of the unit's ability to receive and unload the shipment.

LOC DISRUPTIONS

Movement on MSRs may be disrupted due to --

  • Priority movements of reconstituted units and critical equipment.

  • Large-scale movements of casualties and patients.

  • Blocked routes, due to damage or contamination.

  • Refugee traffic departing the area of hostilities.

  • Congestion.

The CMCC HTD and COSCOM transportation support branch personnel coordinate with the corps rear CP's CSS cell for alternate supply routes. They assess the impact of NBC on transportation and take measures to --

  • Determine location of attack, time, type agent, and radius of contaminated area.

  • Assess the in-transit status of highway movements and whether any movements are immediately or potentially effected.

  • Receive route information, assess routes, and determine which routes should receive priority for reconnaissance and decontamination.

  • Determine which programmed movements should continue as scheduled and which should be cancelled or rerouted.

  • Provide en route diversions through traffic control points and/or MRTs.

After making an initial assessment and immediate adjustments, the CMCC and transportation support branch consider the capability to support based on changes in priorities, operating areas, support relationships, and distribution patterns. Follow up actions may include --

  • Reallocating areas of responsibility among movement control elements.

  • Coordinating with the CMMC for disposition of contaminated material.

  • Revising the movement program.

  • Obtaining updated priorities.

  • Coordinating for decontamination and repair of routes.

  • Coordinating for movement of large quantities of water for decontamination.

CSS AIR MOVEMENT OPERATIONS

Motor transport is normally the primary mode to support forces. However, airlift becomes an increasingly important mode as the intensity, depth, and duration of operations increase. Airlift can provide rapid movement of cargo, passengers, and equipment as far forward as possible, without regard to terrain restrictions. Army aviation in corps CSS air movement operations includes support for --

  • Intracorps airlift.

  • Aerial preplanned and immediate resupply.

  • Movement of critical high priority items.

  • Movement of support teams.

During movement programming the CMCC identities requirements for airlift. It forwards these requirements through the COSCOM support operations officer to the CTO. The corps G3 allocates aircraft to support the distribution system.

FMs 55-10 and 100-27 prescribe request channels. They detail the request flow for preplanned and immediate airlift requests for both Army air and Air Force.

Preplanned Requests (Army Air)

During the planning process, the CMCC receives preplanned requests from the COSCOM staff, MCTs, and corps units. It also receives validated division airlift requests. For corps units, MCTs review requests and either pass the request to the CMCC or recommend another mode. The CMCC coordinates requirements with the CTO to obtain G3 allocation.

The G3 allocates airlift assets for CSS air movement operations. The CMCC then validates requests and programs and commits the allocated airlift assets through the aviation LNO to support the missions. The CMCC informs the origin MCT of the validation and committal. The MCT concurrently commits highway assets to move the personnel or cargo to the onload site or airfield, The MCT also clears inbound movement with the destination MCT or DTO/MCO.

Immediate Requests (Army Air)

If airlift assets have not been previously allocated for CSS missions, the requesting unit passes the request through command channels to the corps G3 and informs the CMCC. The G3 is the committal authority for immediate requests. If the corps cannot support CSS missions at that time, the G3 may validate and pass the airlift request to the TA. If the G3 does not validate the request, he passes it through the CTO to the CMCC to use an alternate mode. Simultaneous coordination in logistics channels is required to support the mission.

Airlift Resupply Support (Army Air)

For airlift and airdrop, the COSCOM provides the supplies and equipment to be moved and the parachutes and air items used. DSUs and GSUs, to include DS maintenance units and medical units, prepare loads for movement by external airlift. They must maintain a stock of slings and airdrop related items to use in support of airdrop requirements. The airdrop supply company issues airdrop equipment to DSUs and GSUs. The DSUs and GSUs need to provide a sling-out area to enable helicopters to land and pick up loads which have been rigged for external airlift.

Plans designate the units responsible for preparing loads for sling loading. They need to specify the quantity of slings each unit needs to bring with them. They should also describe how to return slings to the airdrop equipment repair and supply company.

Air Force Airlift and Airdrop

As with Army CSS air movement operations, Air Force airlift and airdrop missions are either preplanned or immediate. Within the immediate category, requests can be annotated as emergency requests. Air Force airlift and airdrop requirements can begin at any level, either as a request for airlift or airdrop or as a transportation support request that the CMCC determines can best be satisfied using airlift or airdrop.

Preplanned Requests (Air Force)

Preplanned airlift or airdrop missions are based on known or projected requirements. They are programmed in advance per command directives. The amount of time required to coordinate preplanned airlift is established by the commander of mobility forces based on operational requirements and the capability of available airlift apportioned by the theater combatant commander.

The CMCC receives airlift requests from corps units or validated airlift requests from DTOs. It either validates the request or selects an alternate mode. If the CMCC validates the request, it forwards the request to the TAMCA. If there is no TAMCA, the CMCC forwards the request directly to the theater airlift validator.

Immediate Requests (Air Force)

Immediate requests are unprogrammed requests which fall inside the planning window for preplanned requests. They are validated and passed through command channels to the corps G3. The TALO notifies the Tanker, Airlift Control Center of the impending request through an advance notification net. Coordination between the corps G3, G4 (CTO), CMCC, and COSCOM support operations officer is essential.

Army Support

The corps has specific requirements for drop zone or landing zone control and survey, for consolidating supplies or personnel and preparing them for movement, and for preparing documentation. Refer to FMs 55-12 and 100-27 for these requirements.

CONTROLLING TRANSPORTATION SUPPORT OPERATIONS

The COSCOM transportation support branch plans transportation support. It exercises staff supervision of mode, cargo transfer, trailer transfer, and intermodal operations. The CMCC implements movement priorities for movement of materiel and personnel in accordance with the corps or task force commander's priorities. Both may recommend cross-leveling of assets among CSGs based on changes in distribution patterns or to weight the battle. Centralized control over exceptional transportation requirements and highway regulation prevents congestion and conflicting movements over ground LOCs.

The CMCC uses its MCTs to coordinate all movement into, within, and out of the corps rear area. The CMCC maintains direct coordination with the TAMCA and HN concerning movements into and out of the corps rear area, to include requesting new supply routes from the HN as the situation dictates. The CMCC's highway traffic division controls movement on MSRs, into, within and out of the corps rear area.

CMCC MISSION

The CMCC is the corps' movement control organization. It provides centralized movement control and highway regulation for moving personnel and material into, within, and out of the corps area. Centralized control ensures effective and efficient use of available transportation capability. The CMMC plans, programs, coordinates, manages, and analyzes transportation and movement requirements and implements corps priorities. It provides highway regulation, in-transit visibility, asset visibility, and liaison with MP and EAC movement control organizations.

Analyze Transportation and Movement Requirements

The CMCC commands and supervises attached teams engaged in movement control and highway regulation. It monitors transportation usage data transmitted by MCTs. It consolidates and tabulates requirements by class of supply, tonnage, and movement program line number. It matches requirements to transportation capabilities and the mode selected and forecasts transportation needs based on priorities.

The CMCC receives requests for priority nonprogramed movement requirements. It retains committal authority over transportation assets required for exceptional requirements, to include requests for exceptional surge requirements submitted by DTOs. The CMCC coordinates individual movements when the MCTs receive a transportation support request which is --

  • Best handled by a mode which the MCTs are not allowed to commit.

  • Not to be resourced per the corps movement program using COSCOM assets.

The CMCC verifies the requirements with the origin MCT. If necessary, the CMCC makes adjustments to the corps movement program. The CMCC establishes policies for positive inbound clearance and directs the origin MCT to coordinate with the destination MCT to confirm receiving capabilities and to obtain a transportation movement release.

Maintain In-transit and Asset Visibility

The destination MCT coordinates with the receiving unit to ensure that the movement is completed by the required delivery date. As necessary, the CMCC coordinates with movement officers at all levels to ensure that the receiving and unloading capabilities of supported units in the division and corps areas are not exceeded and that visibility of cargo in transit is provided.

Implement Corps Priorities

The COSCOM transportation support branch chief validates relative priorities. Transportation priorities are based on UMMIPS and supplemented by corps priorities. MCTs ensure that the transportation priority is correct. If necessary, MCTs identify programed movements which can be delayed and recommend relocation of transportation support assets.

Coordinate with DTOs and the TAMCA

The CMCC coordinates the flow of motor, rail, or water movements originating in, terminating in, or crossing the corps rear area. It coordinates movements coming into and leaving the corps rear area with the DTOs and the TAMCA. It coordinates with the TAMCA for information on the capabilities of MSRs that cross corps and EAC boundaries. It coordinates moves which cross sector boundaries with the origin, intermediate, and destination traffic headquarters prior to issuance of movement credits to the requesting unit.

When possible, alternative modes and other assets within the corps rear area are used. If not available, the CMCC requests assistance from the TAMCA. When requirements exceed transportation capabilities, movements are accomplished by priority.

Exercise Highway Regulation

The CMCC exercises highway regulation over designated MSRs within the corps rear area. It develops the highway regulation plan for inclusion in the corps OPLAN. The highway regulation plan describes the scheduling techniques and control measures applicable to each MSR or segments of MSRs. These control measures dictate the requirement to submit movement bids, which authorize movement on the MSR. The CMCC synchronizes movement with maneuver and issues movement credits based on priorities.

Coordinate with MP Brigade

The CMCC coordinates circulation and security missions with the MP brigade. The MP brigade ensures that authorized traffic moves smoothly, quickly, and with little interference along MSRs. The MP brigade reroutes traffic to meet changes in the situation, enforces MSR regulations, and reconnoiters main and alternate supply routes.

JOINT MOVEMENT CENTER

A JMC is established by the theater combatant commander for joint or combined operations. The JMC plans future operations and monitors overall theater transportation performance. It accomplishes its mission by conducting cyclic reviews of apportionment and by acting on emergency transportation requests. It ensures effective and efficient use of common user transportation resources among all participating services. It apportions transport assets to the Army component commander, which may be made available to the corps. The coordination function of the JMC remains essentially the same as that of the single Service. However, the scope of operations would be enlarged. The JMC --

  • Plans common user theater transportation by land, sea, and air (excluding bulk fuels that move by pipeline) by developing a movement plan which supports the theater combatant commander's priorities.

  • Apportions common user transportation capability within the command among the projected transportation tasks.

  • Forecasts long-term movement requirements by analyzing requirements, Capabilities shortfalls, alternatives, and enhancements to the Defense Transportation System.

  • Receives and acts on airlift requests received from authorized component validators. In a contingency corps, the CMCC is the army component validator.

  • Monitors deployment of forces and recommends changes to movement requirements and priorities in JOPS.

  • Deconflicts transportation requirements that cannot be met at lower levels in the movement control system.

If the corps is the Army component of a joint force, the CMCC may form the nucleus of a JMC. Another option is for the corps to provide personnel to serve in the JMC. These personnel may come from the support operation section's transportation support branch and/or the CMCC.

MOVEMENT CONTROL TEAMS

MCTs process both transportation support requests and movement bids. For transportation support requests, the MCT commits transportation units to provide support based on corps priorities from assets they have committal authority for in their geographic area of responsibility. For movement bids, the MCT forwards the bid to the CMCC HTD for processing. If the CMCC HTD approves the scheduling and routing, it issues a movement credit back to the MCT. The MCT provides the credit to the requesting unit authorizing movement on the MSR. If it cannot be approved as requested, the MCT works with the HTD to obtain an alternate schedule for movement.

MCTs maintain visibility of transportation assets in their AO and commit transportation assets of the CSBs, transportation battalion, or other allocated modes. CSGs consolidate and pass truck status and commitment information to the MCT serving their area.

MCTs forward requests exceeding mode capability to the CMCC. If the mode of transportation is rail, MCTs arrange rail transportation with the HN or allied force rail operators or forward requests to the CMCC. If the mode is by air, MCTs validate and pass requests to the CMCC. For inbound air shipments, they coordinate the transfer of cargo from air to surface modes. As required they coordinate temporary storage sites for cargo requiring break-bulk.

After the transportation mode has been selected MCTs issue a transportation movement release number and instructions to the shipping unit concerning shipping and handling. They ensure that shipping units consolidate less-than-truck load shipments where practical. They coordinate with mode operators to ensure that assets arrive at the required time and check with the shipping unit to ensure prompt loading of transportation assets. If required, MCTs request MP escort for sensitive cargo. MPs provide guards on EPWs in transit.

Destination MCTs coordinate with receiving units to ensure that the availability of transportation assets are not reduced due to unloading delays. As necessary, they spot check unloading procedures.

To ensure effective use of transportation assets, MCTs coordinate the arrival of transportation assets. They forward reports of movement status on cargo shipping actions to the CMCC. They report on cargo held, diverted, reconsigned, transferred, traced, or expedited. MCTs also maintain an inventory of containers and submit the status of containers arriving and departing within their area of responsibility to the CMCC.

As necessary, MCTs expedite the handling of cargo frustrated due to missing or improper documentation, improper packaging, or mixing of noncompatible hazardous material. Requests for follow-up shipment status or tracing is submitted to the MCT which originally scheduled the shipment. The requesting unit provides the transportation control number of the shipment.

AIR TERMINAL MOVEMENT CONTROL TEAMS

ATMCTs operate primarily at Air Force or civilian air terminals. They arrange transport, coordinate loading and expedite movement of personnel and materiel (inbound intratheater, and retrograde) through air terminals. ATMCTs support reception and onward movement. They coordinate materiel clearance with the servicing terminal transfer company, supporting mode operators, Air Force personnel and attached liaison personnel from other Services.

MOVEMENT REGULATING TEAMS

MRTs operate at critical highway points, APODs, SPODs, TTPs, terminal transfer locations, first destination reporting points, and railheads. They divert cargo, troubleshoot movement problems, and expedite movements. They report disruptions in the flow of traffic due to vehicle breakdown, road conditions, or enemy action. As necessary, they adjust movement schedules and change truck or convoy routing. They then notify convoys of changes in routes or schedules. MRTs also provide convoy commanders the latest intelligence on route conditions, possible threat action, and the availability of en route support.

DA MOVEMENTS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM -- REDESIGN

When fielded, DAMMS-R is to be the standard Army theater transportation management system, encompassing all levels of movements management and all modes of transport. Through interaction with supply and deployment systems, DAMMS-R provides information essential to wartime movement control and distribution. It enhances the planning, programming, coordination, and control of movements and transportation resources. DAMMS-R supports movements management by the CMCC, transportation operation operations by mode operators, and transport asset control functions of MCTs. Refer to Figure 8-5.

At corps level, applicable subsystems or modules of the objective DAMMS-R system include
the --

  • Shipment management module. The CMCC uses this module to process advance ocean cargo manifests and forecast inbound containers to the destination MCT. It can also use it to forecast shipment delivery to customers.

  • Transportation addressing subsystem. This subsystem enables the COSCOM/CMCC to maintain current activity address records. It enables them to send and receive theater address data and information on shipping and receiving capabilities, communications data, and the supporting movement control element.

  • Mode operations subsystem. The transportation battalion and CSB/CSG transportation branch can use this subsystem to process commitments and tasks truck units. It enables them to plan the use of transport assets, to maintain the location and status of transport assets, and to track the location and status of assets.

  • Wartime MCT operations subsystem. This subsystem provides in-transit shipment visibility. It enables MCTs to task movement requirements and to monitor and control specified cargo movements, containers, and intermodal assets.

  • Highway regulation subsystem. MRTs will use this subsystem to schedule the use of the road network, receive and approve road routing requests, and maintain current road status.

  • Convoy planning subsystem. The subsystem will provide the capability to plan convoys and prepare load plans.

  • Operational movement programming subsystem. This subsystem allows for movement programming by recording the physical distribution network capabilities.

CMCC Use

The CMCC can use DAMMS-R programs to assist in developing the movements program and monitoring the status of movements. DAMMS-R can enable the CMCC to monitor the delivery of deploying forces equipment and resupply operations. DAMMS-R supports scheduling MSR traffic, planning transport allocation to meet command priorities, and recording surface distribution decisions. The CMCC can use DAMMS-R to aid it in programming movements, selecting mode of transport, committing mode operators, and coordinating and issuing export traffic releases and border and customs clearances.

MCT and MRT Use

MCTs run DAMMS-R on TACCS to assist them in controlling movements. DAMMS-R provides in-transit visibility which enables the MCTs to trace, hold, divert, and expedite shipments. MRTs run DAMMS-R on ULC for the same purpose. DAMMS-R can enable them to maintain data on the identity, location, and current status of --

  • Each transport unit's movements.

  • Each traffic control element.

  • Each highway, rail, and inland waterway link and critical point (bridges and tunnels).

  • Each active or potential shipping, transshipping, and receiving terminal.

MCTs and MRTs can also use DAMMS-R to capture and disseminate shipment and movement advice among shippers, transshippers, receiving units, logistics managers, transport operators, and movements coordinators.

Transportation Units/Battalion Use

DAMMS-R provides transportation organizations with an interactive transportation information processing system. Transportation units run DAMMS-R applications on ULC devices. CSBs and the transportation battalion run DAMMS-R on TACCS devices.

Interfaces

The future interface between DAMMS-R and SAAS-3 and 4 can generate forecasted or pending Class V transportation requirements. The interface with SARSS-2A/2B can provide transportation forecasts and operational data regarding supply movement requirements.

CSSCS TRANSPORTATION REPORTS

CSSCS tracks selective transportation data. It can obtain key summary transportation data from the DAMMS-R system. The exact format on the display screens and data to be obtained from DAMMS-R depends on the evolution of the two systems.

Projected transportation status displays include --

  • Transportation shortfall reports and transportation shortfall impact reports. These reports highlight shipment shortfalls as well as intransit losses which occur.

  • Movements pass back reports. They display data on requests for support that could not be satisfied at the level of the reporting activity and had to be passed back to the next higher activity.

  • Transportation task asset displays. These displays identify transportation assets available at locations to satisfy movement requirements. Assets include any truck and rail or marine assets, to include HNS, allied, and contractor support.

  • MSR status displays. They provide timely status on supply routes.

  • Critical cargo movements summary displays. These displays update records of movement events of controlled cargo.

  • Inbound traffic volume summaries. These summaries forecast inbound scheduled and received quantities of personnel, fuel, ammunition, and other supplies.

  • Unit movements displays. These displays can be used to monitor the movement status of designated unit elements. The CMCC can use these displays to monitor the movement events of elements during initial deployment and relocations within a theater.

MANUAL STATUS/SITUATION REPORTS

Control over transportation assets and movements is maintained through submission of the following reports through the servicing MCT and CMCC to the COSCOM transportation support branch chief:

Movements Situation Report

This report provides the status of all modes of transportation within the corps rear area. It highlights the movements situation and the changes or limitations to current movements which impact on transportation capability. It reports --

  • Factors which reduce the capability and efficiency of movement networks and facilities. Factors include enemy action, population movements, lack of resources, and manpower shortage.

  • Planned or initiated actions to meet requirements or reduce the impacts and the time estimated to overcome problems.

  • Progress on previously reported remedial actions that were not yet completed.

  • Forecasts for the next planning period. Forecasts are provided for planned arrivals of reinforcements, resupply by air and sea, and major moves to be executed.

The CMCC consolidates movements situation reports for submission through the COSCOM transportation support branch chief to the corps G4 (CTO).

Movements Spot Report

Subordinate units report events which impact on their operational capabilities. They report the DTG of the event, grid coordinates and required support assistance. Submitted through the servicing MCT, the report flows through the CMCC to the COSCOM transportation support branch chief. If required, an information copy is sent to the area RAOC and corps rear CP operations cell.

Vehicle Availability Report

Subordinate battalions report the total number of vehicles, by type if critical, that are --

  • Assigned.

  • Operational.

  • Committed at the time of the report.

  • On extended dispatch.

  • Used for internal support.

  • Used for habitual support.

  • Available for commitment.

  • Not available because of preventative maintenance

  • Not available because they are in DS maintenance.

The report also annotates the total number of drivers --

  • Authorized.

  • Committed.

  • On extended dispatch.

  • Available for commitment.

  • Not qualified.

Road Status Report

This report provides the status of all MSRs. It relates changes or limitations to current routes which impact on transportation capability. As applicable, it also reports on the status of railway tracks and inland waterways. Colors may be used to rate the usability of roads, rail tracks, and inland waterways and to quickly denote operational limitations.



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list