The reconstitution process begins with battlefield reorganization, followed by assessment by higher headquarters to determine the unit's combat effectiveness. Following assessment, further reorganization or regeneration may be required. Mission priorities, resource requirements, and time dictate the reconstitution process.
REORGANIZATION OF COSCOM UNITS
REORGANIZATION OF COSCOM UNITS CONTENTS
Given the current austere CSS force structure of forward deployed corps, reorganization is the only reconstitution effort, before the corps matures and CONUS-based CSS units and personnel replacements arrive in theater. Since reorganization consists of actions taken to shift internal resources within a degraded unit, this section focus only on the reorganization of COSCOM units.
During the early stages of combat, immediate and deliberate reorganization represents the reconstitution process most easily executed. Subordinate groups or battalions cross-level equipment and personnel or combine two or more attrited units to form a single mission capable unit.
Low density equipment and specialized MOSS make reorganization of logistics elements more difficult than reorganization of combat units. Reorganization of COSCOM units requires detailed planning, earlier selection of elements for reorganization, more extensive cross-leveling, and increased reliance upon individual replacements.
Immediate reorganization of COSCOM units consists of those actions which quickly or temporarily restore degraded units to a minimum level of effectiveness. Reorganization actions need to occur in or as close to the employment location as possible.
Subordinate commanders follow procedures set forth in OPORDs and FSOPs, to include succession of commands. Plans for succession of command or staff restoration need to specify the use of subordinate echelon assets. All subordinate unit SOPS need to include battle rosters, redistribution criteria, and contingency manning standards.
Following an attack, battalion and group staffs shift readily available assets and direct replenishment actions. All units attempt to replenish unit basic loads.
Given more time and additional resources, battalion and group staffs perform deliberate reorganization to restore subordinate units to a specified degree of mission effectiveness. The medical brigade/group can replace modules from hospitals with modules from another MTF. CSG groups or battalions conduct more extensive cross-leveling. DS maintenance can be more intensive. Some replacement resources may be available. All units use the lull to rebuild stocks of Class III, V, VII, and VIII. DS supply companies provide sundry packs and Class VI items to improve soldier morale.
Battalion S4s schedule soldier rotation through CEB points. Personnel service support, such as postal service and chaplain support, needs to be provided to improve morale and ease stress.
To provide supporting units more time in which to reorganize, CSG support operations officers can either adjust customer support lists to the degraded capability of the supporting unit or change support sources.
Commanders continually assess the ability of their unit, battalion, or group to perform assigned missions. Their staff officers keep the commander and their next higher level of command informed on --
- Personnel status. Commanders report on --
- Effectiveness of the remaining chain of command.
- Unit strength.
- Physical condition of soldiers. This includes battle fatigue, sleep deprivation and fatigue level, length of time in combat, number of rest periods, minor injuries and illnesses, and accumulated radiation dosage.
- Condition of key personnel.
- Number and experience level of replacements and whether replacements are individuals or crews.
- Level of training required.
- Equipment status. S4s continually assess the status of weapons, mission essential equipment, vehicles, and communications equipment.
- Current supply status. Supply personnel determine the quantity of ammunition and petroleum stocks remaining as well as the capability of logistics support units to resupply the unit.
- Maintenance status. Maintenance personnel report deadlined equipment and the capability of nondivision DS maintenance units or MSTs to repair or replace damaged weapons and mission essential equipment.
- Soldier and unit morale. Staff officers assess and report on intangible morale factors. These include unit leadership, esprit de corps, commitment, cohesion, and discipline. They also report on the length of time their unit has been in combat and the nature and intensity of the most recent combat experience. The availability of field services support and health services support also impacts on unit morale.
- Availability of combat and CS. Protective covering fires and a secure AO allow degraded COSCOM units to continue their mission support operations or to reorganize while remaining in the combat area.
Normally, the commander one echelon above approves reorganization. Subordinate group or brigade commanders approve the reorganization of their battalions. Subordinate battalion commanders approve the reorganization of their units. However, the corps commander must approve a reorganization that results in a major force structure change.
If the C2 of the unit undergoing reorganization remains viable, or C2 has been reinforced or reestablished, command lines remain the same as before reorganization. However, commanders should be prepared to modify command lines. All subordinate unit FSOP need to include command succession and procedures to reestablish CPs.
The unit commander structures and directs immediate reorganization as well as the reorganization of subordinate elements. Guidance from the next level commander ensures that deliberate reorganization efforts complement the corps commander's concept of operations.
Regeneration transcends normal day-to-day logistics support actions. It consists of the extraordinary actions planned by the corps rear CP to restore units to a desired level of combat or mission effectiveness.
The deputy corps commander forms an RTF assessment element to determine whether regeneration is required. The RTF then forms battle damage assessment teams which assess unit status and regeneration requirements.
REGENERATION TASK FORCE ASSESSMENT
The RTF assessment element conducts an assessment of units which are candidates for regeneration. The RTF assessment element personnel assess the degraded unit's C2 and requirements for personnel services, logistics, and training. Though the exact composition of the RTF assessment element cannot be predetermined, Table 10-1 lists representative staff officers who may comprise the RTF assessment element. They --
- Conduct detailed assessments to determine unit status and remaining capabilities.
- Reestablish the C2 structure of attrited units.
- Determine CSS requirements to restore the units to required mission capability.
- Determine how able attrited units are to assist in their regeneration.
- Determine the availability of replacement equipment and personnel.
- Marshal unit resources to prepare the units for movement to the regeneration site.
Depending on the criticality and sensitivity of the information, the RTF assessment element transmits C2 and training requirements through command channels. It transmits detailed CSS status data and requirements through the COSCOM command net, or MSE area communication system, to appropriate staff sections/branches.
BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT TEAMS
The RTF commander forms BDATs which travel to degraded battalion/brigade units as they marshal and prepare to move to the regeneration site. Normally, one BDAT is assigned per battalion sized unit.
BDATs assess the requirements and materiel readiness status of the units. They assist the degraded units in their move. An MCT might accompany the BDAT to coordinate the move to the regeneration site. BDATs continue to assist the units until regeneration is complete.
The personnel and equipment assigned to each BDAT are METT-T dependent. However, BDATs need to be able to communicate with the RTF, with COSCOM/CSG support operations staff, and with supporting units. Each BDAT requires sufficient mobility and self-supporting life support Capability not to be a the burden on already attrited units.
Reconstitution planning and execution cannot be reactive. A reconstitution plan must exist which can then be adapted to the situation. Timely execution of the reconstitution plan maintains the corps momentum. COSCOM support operations section staff officers develop and update the logistics support portion of reconstitution plans to correspond to the corps commander's priorities and assessment input from the RTF reconstitution element and BDATs. They integrate and synchronize logistics support of reconstitution provided by CSGs and the medical brigade/group.
The corps rear CP plans and controls reconstitution. Corps rear CP operations staff officers plan for and control regeneration efforts, in conjunction with the rear CP CSS cell. The corps commander's reconstitution plan establishes his reconstitution intent, concept, and priorities. These influence the COSCOM and group commanders in developing plans for implementing reconstitution.
COSCOM CSS plans branch personnel develop COSCOM reconstitution support plans. The COSCOM support operations officer synchronizes logistics support requirements between the CMMC and CMCC and with agencies outside the command such as the TAMMC and TAACOM ASGs.
Reconstitution plans must take into account the situation, degraded units' conditions and missions, and the expected intensity of future conflicts. Reconstitution plans should cover --
- Information requirements.
- Reporting procedures.
- Assessment procedures.
- Staff reconstitution responsibilities.
- Function, composition, and equipment of BDAT assessment teams.
- Procedures to reestablish C2.
- Techniques to maintain cohesiveness.
- Procedures for acquiring assistance from TA commands.
In developing the logistics support portion of reconstitution plans, COSCOM support operations section staff officers need to consider --
- Time constraints.
- Level of capability desired, based on current and anticipated tactical situations and unit missions.
- Capability of COSCOM elements available to assist units in their move to the regeneration site.
- Availabtity of replacement supplies and equipment.
- Location of possible regeneration sites.
- Available lines of communication.
- Transportation assets available for medical evacuation and for recovery and evacuation of supplies and equipment.
- Exposure to mass casualty weapons.
- Accumulated radiation status and delayed weapons effects.
- Nature and extent of special requirements (decontamination and combat stress control teams).
Figure 10-1 provides a reconstitution planning and execution flowchart. Table 10-2 provides a reconstitution planning checklist.
If normal logistics support and reorganization actions are insufficient to restore combat effectiveness, regeneration support may be necessary. Regeneration consists of rebuilding a degraded or reduced unit through large-scale replacement of personnel, equipment, and supplies; reestablishment of C2; and the conduct of mission essential training. The COSCOM coordinates and executes the large-scale logistics support for regeneration of division/corps battalions/brigades. FM 100-9 provides guidance on regeneration of combat, CS, and CSS units and CSS support of regeneration operations.
The corps commander directs regeneration. He forms an RTF to execute regeneration. The corps commander appoints an RTF commander to control the regeneration process. The RTF commander may be a deputy commander, a key member of the G3 staff, or a elements. CSS elements coordinate provision of resubordinate commander.
As soon as the decision to regenerate is made, division, brigade, or ACR units are attached to the corps headquarters. This assists the RTF in extracting the units from combat. It also precludes the parent division from cross-leveling critical assets from the degraded units for use elsewhere by the division. To further reduce the capability of already attrited units makes it almost impossible to regenerate them later.
REGENERATION TASK FORCE
The exact composition of the RTF is METT-T dependent. It includes both CSS elements and operations placement or RTD personnel and provide the supplies, field services, HSS, maintenance, and transportation support required to regenerate units. Operations elements help reestablish and reinforce the chain of command, manage regeneration site terrain, provide a safe site for regeneration, and execute training. Table 10-3 lists elements which might be attached to the RTF. The RTF commander adjusts the makeup of the RTF based on initial assessments and the tactical situation.
The reconstitution plan designates a headquarters element, such as a CSB headquarters, as part of the RTF. The RTF commander should not ad hoc headquarters from various units. CSB or CSG support operations staff officers supervise the execution of the bulk of logistics regeneration missions.
After the corps commander decides to regenerate units, the RTF performs the following tasks:
- Assesses regeneration site location recommendations.
- Moves RTF elements to the regeneration site.
- Dispatches BDATs.
- Coordinates the movement of supplies and personnel replacements to the regeneration site.
- Coordinates the evacuation of assets to the regeneration site.
- Establishes training areas.
- Plans the distribution of deadlined equipment after redeployment.
The RTF operates the regeneration site. RTF personnel coordinate --
- Emergency medical treatment and advanced trauma management.
- Medical evacuation.
- Battlefield repair.
- Equipment recovery.
- Materiel evacuation.
- Large scale resupply.
- Psychological and stress counseling.
- Chaplain support.
The RTF possesses communications assets which enables it to communicate with degraded units, supporting units or elements, and corps and appropriate COSCOM sections/branches. The corps signal brigade needs to supplement communications capability. To facilitate communications, the tactical CP of the battalion/brigade being reconstituted collocates with the RTF headquarters.
SUPPORT OPERATIONS SECTION STAFF
Support operations section staff officers revise reconstitution plans based on assessment from the RTF assessment element and BDATs. They perform tasks listed on Table 10-4 as they integrate logistics support of regeneration.
The CMMC reviews RTF assessment reports and transmits MROs to GSUs to ship replacements for combat losses and critical equipment shortages. To minimize supply action processing time, the COSCOM support operations officer directs that supporting units give priority to MROs for attrited units.
To reduce the burden on the maintenance system, the CMMC needs to make every effort to maintain equipment integrity within the unit. Increasing the types of major items increases the type of repair parts and TMDE required. This would result in a disparity between available maintenance MOSS and required maintenance. It would also result in an increase in maintenance assets needed to support the mix of weapon systems.
INITIAL SOLDIER SUSTAINMENT
Initially, soldiers need hot meals, showers, clothing exchange, and a safe place to sleep. Following this, combat medical stress teams and UMTs assist in stress reduction. The DS replacement company provides uniforms, MOPP gear, and individual and organizational equipment. The RTF provides public affairs information (newspaper and radio broadcasts) and phone contact with families. Ration supplement sundry packs and personnel service support, such as postal service, MWR activities, and finance support should also be available.
COSCOM units may provide fuel, water, rations, and ammunition to attrited units as they move to the regeneration site. Supply elements may need to move forward to a link-up site to provide this support.
Initially, the RTF emphasizes rearming and refueling of operational systems. Attrited units which do not require decontamination draw sufficient ammunition from an ATP or an ASP to cover their move to the regeneration site. The CMMC and CMCC redirect ammunition in transit from the supporting ATP to another ATP or ASI. COSCOM munitions support branch personnel need to plan for ammunition stocks for area defense, unit basic load replenishment, and training requirements.
The RTF elements or units at the regeneration site arrange for --
- Resupply of essential major end items.
- Replacement of chemical defense equipment.
- Replenishment of basic loads of Class III and V.
- Supply of critical repair parts, water, rations, and sundry packs.
Contracting personnel assigned to the CSGs and COSCOM procurement support branch contract for fresh fruits, bread and locally available ration supplements.
The RTF uses existing area support CSB units to provide logistics support for regeneration efforts. Ammunition and fuel may be available from supply points near the regeneration site. The RTF would not have to establish stocks of these items at the regeneration site.
The move to the regeneration site is normally classified as an administrative move, organized and planned by the CMCC. The CMCC coordinates with the rear CP's CSS cell to ensure that the move does not conflict with tactical movements. As additional status data is received from the RTF assessment element and BDATs, the CMCC adjusts the movement plan, to include special requirements for vehicles not off-road capable or that require special road clearances.
An MCT can be attached to the RTF to help coordinate movement to, within, and from the regeneration site. If degraded units are able to move themselves, the CMCC provides the units with priority road time. The COSCOM petroleum officer ensures that the degraded units receive adequate refuel-on-the-move support. If additional corps transportation assets are required to support the move, the COSCOM support operations officer tasks the CMCC to provide recovery vehicles and HETs.
A truck company may be OPCON to the RTF to provide direct support. Allied nation or HNS transportation assets help offset recovery and evacuation shortfalls.
CEB teams accompany the RTF advance party to the regeneration site in order to begin sustaining soldiers soon after their arrival at the site. Force provider equipment may be set up at the regeneration site to provide showers, dining facility, laundry, and field sanitation.
The BDAT assesses requirements for immediate battlefield repairs, use of expedient repairs, and crossleveling. COSCOM maintenance support branch personnel establish priorities for recovery, repair, and cannibalization and the degree of maintenance to be performed.
CMMC maintenance managers concentrate on repair of major end items critical to the degraded unit's combat effectiveness. They perform a lateral search for critical repair parts identified by the BDAT and coordinate with the CMCC/MCTs for movement of parts to the regeneration site.
Evacuated inoperable and battle damaged end items provide a major source of replacement systems. Therefore, recovery and evacuation of combat damaged equipment must begin as soon as practical. All available assets, including additional recovery and transportation assets from TAACOM and HN assets (truck, rail, and barge), should be used.
AVIM forward support platoons send teams forward to perform expedient battle damage repairs. If large numbers of aircraft are damaged, the RTF should con sider locating the regeneration site at or near a corps AVIM location.
DS maintenance units and MSTs focus on recovering items, such as radios, installation kits, thermal sights, machine guns, communications security devices, and basic issue items, needed to make complete weapon systems. They use controlled substitution and cannibalization to recover serviceable components and repair parts. COSCOM maintenance support branch personnel ensure that units undergoing reconstitution receive priority of maintenance efforts, replacement equipment systems, tools, and test equipment.
The GS repair parts supply company ships repair parts directly to the RTF maintenance company element. Designating that maintenance element as an ALOC unit aligns air shipment from CONUS NICPs directly to the RTF unit.
WEAPON SYSTEMS REPLACEMENT
The COSCOM weapon systems support branch chief manages weapon system replacement actions in support of regeneration. To help provide more responsive regeneration, he recommends that some Class VII items be configured in unit sets. Unit sets should be prepared for those units which corps G3 staff officers estimate could receive heavy losses or require more rapid reconstitution based on future missions.
Major weapon systems are replaced per RTF status reports and corps commander priorities. CMMC weapon systems managers allocate these systems based on the corps commander's priorities, known losses, and available replacements. They monitor systems undergoing maintenance and their anticipated due-out date.
COSCOM/TAACOM heavy materiel supply company personnel prepare weapon systems ready-for-issue. This means that all ancillary items (fire control, machine guns, radio mounts and radios) are installed. They also ensure that basic issue items are aboard and that vehicle are fueled.
Crews link up with weapon systems at the regeneration site. They bring the system to a ready-to-fight status. Weapon systems which are ready-to-fight have been boresighted and verified and have ammunition stowed aboard.
HEALTH SERVICE SUPPORT
Emergency medical treatment is performed as far forward as possible to stabilize patients for evacuation or for return to duty. Air and ground ambulances evacuate soldiers to medical treatment facilities. Combat stress control elements assess the mental health status of unit personnel and advise the commander on unit morale and cohesion. Medical treatment personnel coordinate incorporation of RTD soldiers with the RTF's personnel replacement element.
When units have been severely degraded due to events such as a NBC strike, additional assistance is required to intensify support in the following areas:
- Health service support.
- Personnel services.
- Clothing exchange and bath.
- Religious support.
- Straggler control.
- Recovery of damaged equipment.
TAACOM BACKUP SUPPORT
The COSCOM of a committed corps may not be capable of providing the full magnitude of support required by a large scale regeneration effort. The TAACOM might need to provide --
- Additional transportation backhaul or recovery assets.
- Critical weapon systems and GS level supplies.
- Reinforcing DS/GS maintenance.
- Additional field services support.
- Units to assist the RTF.
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