Supporting Corps Forces
The COSCOM supports the corps force by providing logistics support. It enables the corps to support high levels of combat over the duration of major operations. Its battlefield support mission facilitates the corps commander's ability to generate combat power at the decisive time and place. The COSCOM does this by --
- Arming corps weapon systems.
- Fueling stationary equipment, tracked/wheeled vehicles, and aircraft.
- Fixing damaged equipment.
- Moving soldiers, equipment, and supplies about the battlefield.
- Sustaining the soldier.
- Protecting the support structure.
SUPPORT TO DIVISIONS, SEPARATE BRIGADES, AND ACRs
SUPPORTING THE CORPS BATTLE
The COSCOM maintains the support structure and supply levels to support the corps. It supports either a contingency corps force in underdeveloped areas or a forward deployed corps in an established theater of operations.
CONTINGENCY CORPS FORCE
A contingency corps force is tailored for rapid deployment. Corps forces are projected to contingency operations in underdeveloped areas where there is no existing US military base. The contingency corps is initially an austere organization, with a mix of light and heavy maneuver forces. It establishes a lodgment with appropriate sea and air LOCs, often in conjunction with allied forces.
The composition of the contingency force depends on the situation, potential threat, and AO. While a contingency force that deploys with an entire COSCOM cannot be smaller than one division, it can expand to several divisions. A contingency combat operation involving a division or larger force would probably involve two or more US military Services and possibly allied forces.
The COSCOM can support the Army components of the contingency force. It may support other Services attached to the force. To avoid duplication of logistics efforts, interservice support agreements, memoranda of understanding, and other documentation assign logistics responsibilities.
FORWARD DEPLOYED CORPS
The COSCOM can also support a forward deployed corps in an established theater of operations. Based on treaty obligations, a predeployed corps operates in an established theater as a forward presence to deter mid-to-high level threats. Given current world politics and US treaty commitments, the corps normally fights as an element of a combined force, in cooperation with Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps. Table 1-1 lists the differences between logistics support of a forward deployed corps versus that of a force projection corps.
Major subordinate elements, to include a reduced COSCOM organization, normally locate with a predeployed corps. In the event of war, time-phased deployment of reinforcing forces occurs.
The corps is tailored for the theater and mission operations. It consists of organic combat, CS, and CSS required to support operations for a considerable period. Figure 1-1 depicts a sample corps organization. The specific number, size, and types of units vary.
Commanders may use a warning order to advise subordinates that the National Command Authority has determined a crisis situation exists which warrants military preparations or actions.The warning order generally equates to the planning directive used in deliberate planning processes.
- What courses of action are being explored by corps G3 staff.
- Potential COSCOM support missions in the AO.
- Possible specified tasks and implied tasks from corps directives, OPLANs, and the service support annex.
- What corps troops will be used.
- Estimated population of corps force.
- Estimated duration of the operation.
- Intensity and level of combat.
- What map series corps is using in its planning.
- Whether supporting units are specified.
- Whether HNS will be available.
- Quantitative logistics requirements.
Appendix A provides a deployment planning checklist. When possible, COSCOM staff officers coordinate support plans with higher, lower, and adjacent units before deployment. During the planning phase --
- Corps G3 and G4 staff officers provide initial input on the number of troops to be supported, the AO, and the support to be provided.
- CSS plans branch personnel coordinate with force design/plans branch personnel in tailoring force packages and preparing contingency plans to support the force.
- The CMMC develops fuel, ration, and ammunition push packages. It coordinates with AMC on identifying project codes to call forward prepositioned emergency supply packages. It identifies all known sources and quantities of contingency stocks to CSS plans branch staff.
- Contracting and procurement personnel in the COSCOM's procurement support branch identify requirements for contracting officers and ordering officers. They coordinate the assembly of contingency acquisition kits for each ordering officer.
- COSCOM transportation support branch personnel coordinate with ACofS, G3 force design/plans branch to establish initial distribution patterns and the transportation force structure to support it consistent with the TPFDL.
- The CMCC assists major subordinate commands in updating unit movement plans and loading force package data into the AALPS program.
- ACofS, G1 staff officers identify positions that require linguists.
- ACofS, G6 staff officers coordinates with the signal brigade to develop signal packages which will flow for duplication of networks by alternate means, data transmission links for the CMMC and DSUs, and CMCC control nets.
The alert order is a formal JCS directive. It follows a decision by the National Command Authority that US military forces may be required. The alert order states that the Secretary of Defense has authorized execution planning for the selected course of action.
During the alert, COSCOM staff officers facilitate disengagement of subordinate support elements from installations. Reserve component units mobilize and complete administrative functions prior to movement.
Alerted unit commanders provide ACofS, G3 staff with anticipated requirements to support planned, exceptional, or unanticipated operations. Requirements should address --
- Base development construction.
- Barrier construction.
- Force structure dependencies.
- When support will begin.
- Quantitative supply requirements.
- Priority of support.
- Common item support requirements of other Services.
- Whether units will deploy with their ASLs and PLLs.
- Supply sources of basic loads.
- Lead times required for supply requisitions.
- Possibility of propositioning brigade or division sets.
Ordering officers must be appointed prior to deployment. Sufficient funds need to be provided to support over-the-counter local purchase requirements, within limitations set forth in appointment orders, until periodic replenishment of funds by Class A agents.
FM 100-17 describes mobilization and deployment doctrine. The deployment/deployment preparation order increases deployment posture. It covers personnel recall through marshaling units at POE and first increment loaded. It may be included as a part of the warning, planning, or alert orders.
Support operations section staff officers develop customer support lists which clearly align deploying units with COSCOM supporting units. The support operations section provides deploying units a list identifying support activities and alternative support sources. This list allows supported units to use the applicable support activity address as a supplementary address on supply requests submitted prior to deployment. This helps ensure that supplies are shipped more efficiently and reduces frustrated cargo.
If a CMMC team does not deploy with the initial deploying units, the COSCOM support operations officer and ACofS, G6 officer need to modify the flow of requisitions. The modification should enable initial deployed units to transmit requirements to their home base via telephone or facsimile. To preclude rejection of requisitions, the COSCOM support operations officer ensures that the CMMC will recognize ad hoc unit requirements.
Depending on the theater, a base support battalion (TOE 63636L000) may be attached to an ASG or CSG. Its mission is to plan for, conduct or assist, and report on the reception and stationing of deploying, reinforcing, and relocating units. It supports the staging and onward movement of units passing through the BSB area of responsibility.
To provide base support to deploying and reinforcing units, a BSB may control the following type of fixed facilities:
- Dining facilities.
- Maintenance shops.
- Terminal facilities.
- Railway points.
- Fuel facilities.
- Laundry facilities.
Depending on the resources assigned to the battalion and the type of fixed facilities which it controls, a BSB can provide the following support:
- Intelligence dissemination.
- Organizational clothing and equipment.
- Military police support.
A base support battalion also conducts deploying facility turnover and inventory functions. BSB staff officers perform the following phase-down support functions:
- Phase-down commissary, AAFES, and related support.
- Coordinate mutual assistance efforts using later deploying units.
- Close-out community services.
- Secure essential facilities after deploying units leave.
Noncombatant Evacuation Operations
NEO are theater and situation dependent. In theaters where forces have established a forward presence, noncombatants are evacuated before or as hostilities begin. Noncombatants include soldier dependents and US government sponsored civilian employees. NEO relieve forward deployed soldiers of the psychological stress of worrying about their families at the onset of hostilities.
Theater dependent, a BSB executes the NEO notification plan within its area of responsibility. It controls and supervises the administrative processing and support of evacuees. The BSB performs the following NEO support:
- Maintains NEO rosters and schedules.
- Maintains housing plans and evacuation route plans.
- Provides information on documentation requirements and assembly areas.
- Plans use of HN vehicular assets.
- Assembles noncombatants.
- Provides evacuee security and protection.
- Houses and feeds assembled noncombatants.
- Arranges for emergency health services support.
- Maintains accountability of noncombatants throughout their evacuation.
- Coordinates with MCTs on movement of evacuees.
- Arranges for the storage and transportation of evacuee property and assets.
Movement phase activities include coordinating and monitoring the transport of elements of the contingency force or task force. To plan and coordinate the reception and onward movement of supplies from ports to supply support activities, COSCOM CSS plans branch personnel and CMCC staff officers need advance manifests.
The COSCOM ACofS, G6 develops an early deployment policy for deployment of automation devices in COSCOM units as well as early deployment of CSSAMO personnel from the COSCOM and CSGs. He coordinates signal support requirements with corps signal staff. CSSAMO personnel ensure that all incoming units use the same version software. They also help TACCS and ULC microcomputer operators resolve software operating problems.
Units deploy with accompanying supplies as indicated in deployment directives. Accompanying supplies usually include basic loads and selected critical supplies. These supplies support the assault force for two to five days, or until follow-up supply flow can be established. All units must follow supply economy for Class I, III, and V.
Initial logistics support is austere. Units which deploy with assault elements use their accompanying supplies as their primary source of supply. If available, prepositioned supplies and contingency stocks provide initial support. When practicable, preplanned resupply occurs by air and then by surface resupply. Resupply from CONUS or other sources will be limited.
Follow-on support units deploying into the objective area assume support mission from the support elements in the assault echelon. To coordinate follow-on support, several support operations staff officers knowledgeable about the operation should remain at home base.
Supply levels, special authorizations, and troop strengths to be supported are confirmed in COSCOM OPLANs/OPORDs and administrative/logistics plans/orders. War reserve stocks are normally provided during initial resupply operations by preplanned increments from CONUS or overseas locations, or both. HNS and local procurement supplement the supply system. To ensure that normal resupply operations begin prior to termination of preplanned resupply, COSCOM support operations staff officers and CMMC staff officers need to take into account order-ship time.
CORPS AREA OF OPERATIONS
The corps area includes areas in which corps forces conduct deep, close, and rear operations. Though situational and geographically dependent, the corps AO could encompass an area roughly 100 by 210 kilometers or 21,000 square kilometers. Refer to Figure 1-2.
The corps G3 has overall responsibility for management of corps rear area terrain. The corps rear CP's operations cell plans and executes terrain management. The operations cell monitors the tactical situation. It directs repositioning of units to facilitate continuous support and survivability. It coordinates its analysis of unit positioning requirements with the corps G3 and the rear CP's CSS cell.
The corps rear CP uses its subordinate RAOCs to assign operating locations to units throughout the corps rear area. This includes positioning of HNS units and echelon above corps units. For example, RAOCs can position area support group elements in the corps rear area to assist in reconstitution. Units entering or relocating in the corps rear area must first coordinate with the area RAOC to obtain operating locations and with the supporting MCT to obtain movement clearance. This ensures that the locations selected do not conflict with current or projected rear operations.
CSGs coordinate positioning of their units with the RAOC in their area. Forward CSGs coordinate the positioning of their units in the division rear area with the division rear CR. CSGs provide general positioning requirements to the COSCOM support operations officer, supporting RAOC, and division rear CP.
Logistics Unit Positioning Guidelines
To accomplish their missions, COSCOM units often have unique terrain requirements. For example, supply units often need to employ near existing road, rail, air, and water nets. Supply points need to be accessible to both supported units and the transportation network. Whenever possible, the position selected should simplify the receipt, storage, and issue of supplies as well as the evacuation of damaged equipment.
The positioning of COSCOM units varies depending on METT-T, unit positioning factors, and the need to balance mission accomplishment with protection considerations. As appropriate, the COSCOM requests terrain which enables subordinate groups to --
- Position supply units near MSRs.
- Locate Class III points at least 100 feet from water sources to prevent contamination.
- Distance the nondivision ammunition company ATP at least 200 meters from other supplies and 650 meters from the nearest inhabited troop facility.
- Locate Class I points near the water point.
- Locate maintenance sites near supported units and evacuation routes. In built-up areas, maintenance units can use existing HN maintenance facilities.
- Position medical facilities away from likely target areas (ATPs, ASPs, CSAs, Class III points, bridges, and road junctions). Medical facilities need to be near evacuation routes. They also need an open area to allow for landing air ambulances and evacuating casualties by air.
- Position mortuary affairs collection points to take advantage of vehicle backhaul missions.
- Position logistics units to enhance their survivability. For example, position units with the heaviest firepower along the most threatened avenues of approach.
COSCOM Staff Input
COSCOM support operations staff officers and ACofS, G3 staff officers ensure that the terrain requirements and priority protection requirements of COSCOM units are relayed to the corps rear CP's CSS and operations cells.
COSCOM support operations staff officers continually prioritize the COSCOM's critical asset list. The COSCOM ACofS, G3 keeps the corps rear CP's operations cell informed of changes to the critical asset list.
WEIGHTING THE BATTLE
The corps commander uses the COSCOM's resources to weight the battle. His G3 staff sets priority of support. The COSCOM weights the battle for the corps commander by realigning its resources following corps priorities of support. This enables combat commander to grasp window of opportunity as front line forces seize the initiative.
Logistics characteristics prescribed by FMs 100-5 and 100-10 facilitate the ability of the corps force to attain operational and tactical success. To support the corps battle, COSCOM staff officers must adhere to the following five logistics characteristics.
COSCOM support operations staff officers must anticipate the impact which changing tactical situations will have on support systems. They need to clearly understand the corps commander's intent. To provide critical and timely logistics support, they need to anticipate requirements. They cannot wait until units place demands on the logistics support system. Comprehensive SOPs and contingency plans help subordinate support operations staff to respond rapidly to changes in demands resulting from changes in tactical operations.
To provide timely support, COSCOM support operations staff officers need to focus on support operations at least 48 to 72 hours in the future. Rather than merely react to support requirements transmitted to the CMMC or CMCC, they must focus on responsive support of future tactical operations. For example, they can anticipate a shift from high munitions requirements in a defensive operation to high fuel consumption as offensive operations begin.
To provide effective support, support operations staff officers need to understand the mission of supported units. They can then better assess the capability of the supporting COSCOM units and apply resources against requirements.
Tactical operations must be logistically supportable. Logistics sets operational limits. The success of tactical operations depends on the integration of logistics plans and battle plans. The lead time needed to arrange logistics support and resolve logistics problems requires continuous integration of logistics limits into the operational planning process. To enable support operations staff officers to determine the supportability of proposed courses of action these plans must be developed concurrently. Support operations section CSS plans branch and ACofS, G3 force design/plans branch personnel help to ensure that operational plans are logistically supportable. When the corps supports either a joint or combined force, the COSCOM integrates its logistics support plans with other Services and allies.
The COSCOM task organizes subordinate commands to complement the logistics requirements of the force to be supported. It forms task forces or realigns organizations for specific support operations or requirements.
Maintaining a depth of logistics resources ensures continuity. COSCOM units can then provide continuous support on time and on demand, without a lapse in support. A depth of resources ensures the capability to divert materiel to meet changing priorities.
The volume of supplies required to support the corps requires establishment and maintenance of long LOCs. Continuous provision of supplies to units over unsecured LOCs dictates increased reliance on airdrop or air-landed resupply. Air eligible Class IX and selected maintenance related Class II items are moved via air LOC to DSUs. However, when requested by the corps, any item can be moved by the Air Force. This includes high priority, low density Class V supplies and Class III products.
The availablity of critical logistics resources decisively influences tactical operations. Continual replenishment of corps reserve stocks enables the COSCOM to provide continuous, uninterrupted support. This helps ensure that maneuver commanders retain the initiative.
Table 1-2 lists additional areas or planning considerations which help ensure continuous logistics support.
Responsive logistics support enables maneuver commanders to meet changing requirements on short notice. To provide responsive support, COSCOM support operations staff officers need to be kept informed of what each of the supported elements does, when they do it, and how it is accomplished. Support operations staff also need to be kept informed on the type, quantity, and priority of logistics support required. Placing LNOs from the support operations section at the operations and CSS cells of corps main and rear CPs helps ensure responsive logistics support. Automated CSSCS reports keep them current on the status and capabilities of subordinate units.
Changes in tactical operations require different methods of support. To retain the corps momentum, COSCOM elements need to respond to these sudden changes quickly. Detailed plans should exist on alternative ways to support contingencies and diverse courses of action. As tactical operations change, COSCOM support operations staff officers need to work with CMMC, CMCC, and CSG support operations staff to --
- Divert assets.
- Redirect supply flows.
- Reallocate transportation assets.
- Task organize subordinate organizations.
A basic principle of logistics doctrine is to provide support forward. Depending upon METT-T, COSCOM elements operate as far forward as necessary to support the tactical plan. In accordance with support forward doctrine --
- MSTs make on-site repairs on disabled weapon systems.
- Truck units haul barrier materials and bridging supplies as far forward as possible.
- Medical units treat patients as far forward as possible to save lives and increase the possibility of return to combat.
The modern battlefield presents extraordinary logistics problems. The COSCOM support operations staff needs to devise innovative methods of support to offset the impact of battle losses and lengthy order and ship time. When CSGs cannot resolve day-to-day support problems using routine and traditional methods, COSCOM support operation staff officers need to devise ways to meet extraordinary requirements. This includes cross-leveling assets to cover the loss of support equipment and devising ways to meet unanticipated peaks in work loads.
Innovative solutions include exploiting unusual sources of supplies and transportation. This includes the use of captured enemy supplies (less medical), enemy equipment, and HN resources. Access to these stocks can significantly enhance logistics commanders' ability to improvise support on a fluid transitional battlefield.
COSCOM SUPPORT MISSION
As the logistics support command assigned to the corps, the COSCOM executes the corps CSS cell's support plan. The COSCOM provides logistics support to the corps force and to other units, Services, or allies as directed, to include a corps slice to offset LID shortages.
COSCOM MISSION AND FUNCTIONS
The COSCOM coordinates logistics elements in support of corps forces or the current operational plans of unified or joint commands. It organizes different types of logistics units into a support package to meet the mission requirements of the supported force. Appendices B through E provide guidance on supporting offensive, defensive, contingency, and other operations.
The COSCOM must be prepared to provide logistics support for the following possible corps missions:
- Combat operations in low- , mid- , or high-intensity environments.
- Forced entry operations.
- Show of force operations.
- Demonstration of force operations.
- Noncombatant evacuation operations.
- Disaster relief or mercy missions.
Depending upon METT-T, the COSCOM's units perform the following functions in support of its logistics mission.
Supply Support Functions
In general, COSCOM units provide DS and GS supply support to nondivision units. They provide GS supplies to the divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs. Supply support functions include:
- DS and GS ammunition supply.
- DS and GS Class III support.
- DS and GS water supply.
- DS and GS Class I, II, and IV supply.
- DS and GS repair parts supply.
- Major end item replacement.
- Airdrop supply.
- Reinforcing supply support to the FSBs/MSB.
- Local procurement.
- Materiel management performed by the CMMC.
Service Support Functions
The COSCOM provides the following service support functions on a corpswide basis:
- Mortuary affairs support.
- CEB, laundry, and textile renovation support.
- Tactical post exchange with or without AAFES augmentation.
- Salvage support.
Maintenance Support Functions
The COSCOM maintenance support functions consist of --
- Maintenance management performed by the CMMC.
- DS maintenance and AVIM to nondivision units.
- Reinforcing DS maintenance and AVIM to the divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs.
- Missile-rocket maintenance support.
- Calibration support.
Transportation Support Functions
The COSCOM corpswide transportation support functions consist of --
- Movement control.
- Mode operations.
- Cargo transfer operations.
- Terminal operations (to include water terminals when augmenting EAC).
- Airdrop support.
Medical Support Functions
The COSCOM medical brigade or medical group area support functions consist of --
- Emergency medical treatment.
- Medical evacuation.
- Hospitalization support.
- Medical regulation of patients.
- Whole blood management.
- Medical logistics (Class VIII supply and resupply).
- Preventive medicine services.
- Dental services.
- Veterinary services.
The following functional battalions assigned to the rear CSG provide corpswide support:
- The transportation battalion provides intra and inter corps transportation support.
- The petroleum supply battalion, ammunition battalion, and S&S battalion provide Class III, V and general supplies respectively on a corpswide basis. They supply the bulk distribution systems which support divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs.
- The S&S battalion also provides airdrop, mortuary affairs, CEB, laundry, and renovation support on a corpswide basis.
- The AVIM battalion provides corpswide aircraft maintenance support.
Area support is the most efficient and affordable way to provide support. The COSCOM's CSGs and medical brigade have an area support mission.
For CSGs, area support means that the DS supply and maintenance relationships in effect are determined by the location of the units requiring support. CSG subordinate DS units provide support on an area basis to units located in or passing through their area of responsibility. The CSG's support operations section maintains support operations overlays depicting support locations and times of operations. Supported units entering the corps rear area obtain a copy of the overlays when they report in to the sector RAOC. Those in the division sector obtain support overlays from the division rear CP.
Medical units provide health service support on an area basis to nondivision units lacking organic HSS. The forward supporting medical group of the medical brigade employs area support medical elements to provide Levels I and II HSS. This support is provided by the area support medical battalion and its area support medical companies. These corps area medical support assets reinforce division medical companies that provide Level II HSS.
Area Support Within the Division Area
The normal support arrangement for supporting nondivision units within division boundaries is to provide area support from the CSB in the division area. FSBs and the MSB can provide some support to nondivision units operating in the division area, but only within their capability. To provide support to corps forces beyond that capability, FSBs and MSBs must be reinforced or augmented by the CSB in the division area. Refer to Figure 1-3. Based on coordination between the CSG's LNO and FSB support operations staff, this CSB augments or reinforces FSBs to enable them to provide support to corps forces, such as corps FA, corps engineer, and ADA battalions, which employ in the brigade area. The forward CSB may also augment or reinforce the MSB to enable it to provide support to corps forces which employ in the division area. Based on coordination between the DISCOM/FSBs support operations staff and forward CSG, this CSB may establish forward supply, maintenance, and service points in the division area.
Area Support Within a New Division/New Corps Area
Area support is still the prevailing method when corps forces, such as an FA brigade, engineer brigade, or ADA brigade, move to a new division area (same corps) or to a new corps area. Those corps forces would receive support from the FSB in the new division area or new corps area. As required, that FSB would be reinforced with assets from the CSB in the division area.
CSG/CSB LNOs at the DISCOM and FSBs coordinate requirements to support corps organizations with the DISCOM/FSB support operations officer. The brigade S4 coordinates with the support operations officer of the CSG supporting the new division sector as well as with the support, operations officer of the FSB(s) providing area support in the brigade's new AO. The forward CSB would then be restructured to provide reinforcing support to FSBs/MSB to enable them to support corps forces in the brigade or division area. The forward CSGs coordinate the assets to be moved between their forward CSBs.
Area support continues to be the primary method of support when corps organizations move to a new corps area. However, coordination must be more comprehensive. Coordination needs to occur between the old and new COSCOM support structure. The operation order which directed the detachment and consequent attachment of the corps organizations alerts the COSCOMs of both corps. The COSCOMs coordinate which assets, to include MSTs, may be moved between corps. The COSCOMs cross level assets among forward CSGs to meet requirements. They also ensure that CSBs which operate along the route of march provide specified support, such as refuel-on-the move and maintenance and recovery assistance. Refer to Figure 1-4.
ACCOMPANYING SUPPORT ELEMENT/SLICE
METT-T may require that corps organizations, such as corps FA brigade, engineer brigade, or ADA brigade, be ordered out of the Army AO to support a sister Service or an ally. Since the brigade will be operating away from an Army support area, a different method of support is used. In this case, the COSCOM/forward CSGs must form a support element/slice to accompany those organizations to provide required support. Refer to Figure 1-5. There are two scenarios in which an element or slice of support must accompanying corps forces.
Operations in Support of a Sister Service
The sister Service may provide some Class I, III, IV, and selected II and V support. However, corps forces will still need to rely on the Army support structure for other support, principally maintenance and repair parts. Verbal or written agreements must be clear as to what and how much support will be provided by the host Service.
In most instances, the accompanying support element/slice is provided by the losing corps COSCOM. The brigade S4 coordinates with the COSCOM support operations officer to arrange for the corps support which accompanies the brigade or its battalions into the new AO. A reliable LOC must be established to ensure that resupply stocks will reach the support element.
The accompanying support element composition varies depending upon the requirements and the degree of support to be provided by the host Service. A maintenance element with a custom ASL usually is the core of the task organized support element. The order directing the support mission must clarify the command relationship between the brigade and support element, whether it be DS, operational control, or attached.
Operations in Support of an Ally
Operations in support of corps forces in an allied sector are similar to those in support of corps forces in another service area. The major difference is that less support can be expected because of a greater dissimilarity in equipment and munitions. Consequently, the accompanying support element will probably be larger.
The range and degree of coordination are greater. As with supporting a sister Service, the greatest challenge may be establishing LOCs and a responsive transportation network.
BASIC SUPPORT CONCEPTS
Though specific support is subject to the details expressed in OPORDs and administrative/logistics plans/orders or the service support portion of a particular tactical plan, basic support concepts are as follows:
Direct support refers to supply and maintenance support provided directly to a using or consuming unit. DS supply and DS maintenance units provide support to logistics units and to --
- Corps artillery units.
- Corps ADA units.
- MP brigade units.
- MI brigade units.
- Combat aviation brigade units.
- Corps engineer units.
- Corps signal units.
- Corps chemical units.
General support focuses on resupply of DS supply and maintenance units. GS supply units, heavy materiel supply units, and repair parts supply units provide GS supply to --
- Separate brigades.
- COSCOM DS units.
Supply Point Distribution
This is the normal distribution method for units which receive direct support from DS supply and maintenance units. Supported units use their organic transportation assets to pick up supplies at supporting supply points or maintenance units.
Corps or theater transportation assets deliver supplies to customer units. The receiving unit is responsible for timely down-loading of transportation assets. Unit distribution is the preferred method of distribution to using units and should be used whenever resources permit. It is also the standard method of distribution from GS to DS supply units.
Throughput is a method of supply distribution wherein an intermediate supply source is bypassed in order to provide more efficient support. For example, EAC trucks bypass GS supply points to deliver directly to DS supply points. Engineer barrier material may be shipped directly from corps or theater Class IV GS points to the emplacing unit. The receiving unit provides for timely down-loading of transportation assets.
Throughput is not automatic. It needs to be specified in appropriate plans and coordinated by COSCOM support operations staff, the CMMC, and CMCC.
The initial go-to-war supply system in an undeveloped theater is a push system. The push system of resupply does not require the submission of formal requisitions. Supporting supply elements automatically ship a predetermined quantity of push packages or supplies to a predetermined unit or location. Supplies are shipped to the theater to replenish expended supplies. The quantity of supplies shipped depends on previous coordination or anticipation of requirements.
COSCOM policy may be to routinely ship Class I, III, and V to divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs. These commands coordinate initial requirements with the COSCOM support operations officer. After implementation status reports update requirements. When update reports are not provided, the COSCOM continues to push resupply based on previous coordinated quantities or historical demand.
The pull system of resupply is used in a mature theater that has prepositioned war reserve stocks. Unlike the push system, this system reacts to formal requisitions.
SUPPORT TO OTHER SERVICES AND ALLIES
The COSCOM provides logistics support to other Services and allies taking part in a joint or combined operation. Operations in support of another Service normally are with the Marine Corps, although support to the Air Force or Navy could be required. For example, the COSCOM routinely provides jet fuel to the Air Force. Depending upon METIT-T, it provides the following support to Marine amphibious forces, Navy elements operating ashore, and the Air Force:
- Rations and water.
- Common ammunition items.
- Mortuary affairs services.
- Petroleum laboratory support.
- Health service support.
- Ground transportation support.
Verbal or written agreement and commitment must be clear and unequivocal as to what and how much support will be provided to the sister Service.
As a result of bilateral or negotiated agreement the COSCOM supports forces of allied nations. Allied forces forecast their needs and associated lead times. Agreements may cover --
- Base support.
- Interoperable computer systems.
- Interoperable allied command control, and communications.
The CMMC develops a catalog of common material to aid in identifying allied requirements. It reports logistics support requirements for allied forces separately.
EMERGENCY LOGISTICS ASSISTANCE
Under the provisions of STANAG 2135, combat commanders have authority to seek emergency logistics assistance from an adjacent or ally unit. Commanders faced with critical deficiencies may submit requests for logistics assistance to another commander. Allied corps can use the procedures in STANAG 2135 to affect emergency logistics assistance between one another.
Forces of NATO nations, international headquarters, or multinational formations may obtain emergency logistics assistance from one another. Nations with critical deficiencies submit requests to allied logistics company centers for emergency logistics assistance from other nations. The request should use NATO stock numbers and NATO accepted item names.
Reimbursement for emergency logistics assistance may be financial, in kind (as negotiated), or as prescribed in specific agreements. The standard NATO invoice/claim form is used to substantiate each emergency logistics assistance transaction.
COSCOM SUPPORT ORGANIZATION
The COSCOM support organization depends on the AO, number of soldiers to be supported type of organizations supported, number and types of weapon systems to repair, and tonnage of supplies to be issued and transported.
The corps commander assigns or attaches organizations to the COSCOM. The number and types of units assigned to the COSCOM vary based on the support requirements of the corps force. The COSCOM further attaches organizations or units to its major subordinate commands. Corps troop lists and plans identify the actual organization.
The COSCOM consists of a special troops battalion and headquarters company, functional control centers, a variable number of CSGs, and a medical brigade. A transportation group may be attached if three or more functional transportation battalions are assigned or attached to the COSCOM. See Figure 1-6.
Based on the scenario and tactical situation in the AO, the corps commander attaches CA or chemical units to the COSCOM's special troops battalion. To effectively support the theater commander's OPLANs, the TA commander may attach EAC logistics units to the COSCOM from TA resources, including TAACOMs.
The mission of the COSCOM HHC is to command, control, and supervise assigned and attached units. Its staff officers plan logistics support to the corps. They coordinate support requirements with COSCOM units and provide advice and assistance to supported commands. Chapter 2 describes the COSCOM HHC. Figure 2-5 depicts the COSCOM HHC organization.
FUNCTIONAL CONTROL CENTERS
The CMMC and CMCC implement COSCOM policies and directives. The CMMC provides centralized management over supply and maintenance. The CMCC provides centralized movement control and highway regulation for the corps. The centers task or work load COSCOM units. Both the CMMC and CMCC are covered in Chapter 3 of this manual.
CORPS SUPPORT GROUPS
CSG headquarters (TOE 63422L000) provides command, control, staff planning and supervision of three to seven assigned and attached logistics battalions. There is no standard CSG organizational structure. However, as shown by Figure 1-7, the forward CSG consists of CSBs, the rear CSG consists of one or more CSBs and functional battalions. The COSCOM tailors CSGs based upon logistics support requirements or workloads of supported customer units in their AO.
Forward Corps Support Groups
Forward CSGs employ in support of nondivison forces. Primary focus is on providing forward support to nondivison elements operating in the division AO. Forward CSGs provide support on an area basis to corps CS and CSS forces which support divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs. Because they provide reinforcing support to the committed division, forward CSG support operations staff officers habitually work with the DISCOM staff. The CSG's support operations officer serves as the initial point of coordination for the DISCOM.
Each forward CSG task organizes a CSB to support nondivision units operating in the division area. The remaining CSBs of the forward CSGs employ behind the division rear boundary to support nondivision units in their area of responsibility. Based on threat employment in the corps rear area, distance for attrited units to travel and time available, one of these CSBs can provide the nucleus for regeneration operations. The rear CSG then sends supplies to a regeneration site in the forward CSG's AO.
Forward CSGs are allocated on the basis of one CSG per division. Figure 1-8 depicts CSGs and their subordinate battalions employed to support a notional corps. Space constraints limit the figure to depicting only two of the normal four divisions on line. The number of CSBs which the COSCOM attaches to forward CSGs depends on the work load.
As shown on Figure 1-8, each forward CSG deploys a CSB in the division area to provide more responsive support to forward employed nonditilon elements. This forward CSB reduces the C3 problems caused by the long distances between supported nondivision elements and supporting COSCOM units in the corps rear area. Unlike the DISCOM's fixed structure MSB and FSBs, the CSB is tailored to the requirements of nondivision units operating in the division sector. It consists only of DS level units.
Figure 1-9 depicts a CSB task organized to provide DS support in the division area. It consists of a DS supply, ammunition, field services, transportation, and maintenance unit. To ensure more responsive support to corps forces, such as corps FA and corps engineer battalions, employed in the brigade and division area, this CSB provides reinforcing or augmenting support to the FSBs and MSB.
Though employed in the division area and merged with division bases or base clusters for rear operations security, forward CSBs remain under the command and control of the forward CSG. However, they will coordinate terrain management and highway regulation with the division rear CP and DTO.
The remaining CSBs of each forward CSG deploy behind the division sector. Unlike the forward CSB in the division area, these CSBs consist of GS as well as DS level units. Refer again to Figure 1-9. These CSBs provide area support to units in their assigned area of responsibility. They also provide GS supply, reinforcing maintenance, and field services support to the division, separate brigades, and ACR. If required, the CSB headquarters provides S-staff support for logistics elements providing support at a regeneration site.
Depending on the task organization of these CSBs, a --
- DS supply company provides DS supply to nondivision units.
- GS petroleum supply company, GS ammunition supply company, or GS supply company use habitually supporting truck unit assets to distribute supplies to nondivision DS supply units or DS ammunition unit, as appropriate. They also resupply DS level supply units of the division, separate brigades, and ACR.
- Field services company provides CEB and renovation support to both nondivision and division units.
- DS maintenance unit provides DS maintenance support to nondivision units and reinforcing DS maintenance to the committed division, separate brigades, and ACR.
The actual organization of each CSB depends on METT-T. When the supported division is pulled off line, the forward CSG realigns or tailors its CSBs to more effectively meet the requirements of the CS or CSS elements supporting the new division type.
Rear Corps Support Group
A rear corps support group is allocated per COSCOM. The rear CSG focuses on supporting the corps and providing reinforcing support to the forward CSGs. As shown previously on Figure 1-7, the rear CSG consists of functional battalions and one or more multifunctional CSBs. The CSBs provide DS level support on an area support basis to units in or passing through the rear portion of the corps rear area. These include hospitals, replacement units, signal units, corps headquarters elements, and corps units supporting a reserve division. The rear CSG can tailor a CSB to provide the nucleus of logistics regeneration support at a regeneration site in the rear CSG's AO.
The following rear CSG's functional battalions provide corpswide logistics support to corps forces as well as reinforcing support to the forward CSGs:
- The S&S battalion, ammunition battalion, and petroleum supply battalion maintain the corps' reserve stocks. These stocks provide the corps commander the ability to support combat and the surge capability to win.
- The transportation battalion provides corpswide transportation support of tactical operations. It supports supply and replacement distribution systems. Depending on its organization, --
- Truck companies move cargo, unit equipment, and ammunition and relocate heavy maneuver forces.
- Cargo transfer companies operate either a breakbulk or container operation at air, rail, or motor terminals and water terminals with EAC augmentation. They can also support hub-and-spoke distribution at the terminal.
- Trailer transfer teams operate trailer transfer points to support trailer interchange operations.
- The AVIM battalion provides corpswide AVIM support and reinforcing AVUM.
- A water supply battalion may be attached to the rear CSG to support requirements in an arid environment.
Theater dependent, a base support battalion maintains facilities in caretaker status for future reactivation to provide base operations support. Base operations support includes assistance with or control of --
- Fixed assets.
- Real property maintenance.
- Engineer resources.
- HN contract services and supplies.
The medical brigade provides command, control, and administrative supervision of assigned and attached corps medical units. The Medical Brigade HHC (TOE 08422L100) task organizes medical assets to meet the patient work load demand and requirements for HSS and medical assets. Figure 1-10 depicts the organization of a medical brigade. Subordinate elements provide dental, psychiatric, laboratory, preventive medicine, and veterinary services.
As a composite, the medical brigade provides --
- Medical regulating coordination with subordinate corps medical groups.
- Patient movement and scheduling to COMMZ level facilities.
- Preventive medicine consultation and support. This includes --
- Coordination of attached preventive medicine detachments operating in the AO.
- Evaluation of the medical threat and the impact of NBC and directed enemy weapons.
- Evaluation of environmental health and sanitary engineering.
- Nursing care.
- Mental health and neuropsychiatric consultation. This includes --
- Coordination of the combat stress control companies in the AO.
- Monitoring the treatment of battle fatigue casualties.
- Monitoring alcohol and drug misuse patients.
- Dental services. (The dental surgeon exercises technical control over dental services within the medical brigade's AO. In the absence of a subordinate dental headquarters, he exercises operational control of dental area support units. He provides technical advice, reports, and recommendations on dental policies, and task organizes dental support.)
- Advice and assistance on site selection and preparation for HSS facilities.
- Supervision of Class VIII.
- Supervision of supply usage, resupply, and distribution within the medical brigade.
- Veterinary support, to include care of government-owned animals.
If three or more functional transportation battalions are included in the force structure, a transportation group could be attached to the COSCOM. The transportation group would focus on providing corpswide transportation support of tactical operations and supporting supply and replacement distribution systems. Figure 1-11 depicts a transportation group organization. Based on METT-T, the corps can attach a railway battalion to supervise the operations and maintenance of a railway approximately 90 to 150 miles long (145 to 240 kilometers).
The transportation group headquarters from EAC force structure provides command, staff planning, and control of the operations of attached transportation battalions and truck units in support of a corps force.
Subordinate transportation battalions provide corpswide transportation support of operations. They support supply and replacement distribution systems.
Cargo transfer companies operate either a breakbulk or container operation at air, rail, or motor terminals and water terminals with EAC augmentation. Trailer transfer teams operate trailer transfer points to support trailer interchange operations.
SUPPORT TO DIVISIONS, SEPARATE BRIGADES, AND ACRs
DISCOMs, support battalions, and support squadrons provide for most of the logistics support required by the divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs. However, the divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs depend on the COSCOM to provide --
- GS level supplies.
- Reinforcing DS maintenance.
- Transportation support.
- Medical supplies and evacuation.
- Reinforcing medical treatment support.
- Airdrop support.
- Mortuary affairs support.
- Secondary field services support (CEB, laundry, renovation, and salvage).
To provide support to nondivision units, such as corps artillery and engineer battalions, employing in the brigade or division area, FSBs and MSBs must be augmented with elements or resources from the CSB in the division area. This reinforcing support will be coordinated between the CSG LO at the FSBs and DISCOM and the FSB/DISCOM support operations officer.
Divisions also require augmentation with specialized equipment and organizations. For example, in arid climates, the COSCOM provides additional water storage and distribution. Extremes in temperatures and weather conditions degrade support capabilities and require augmentation with specialized equipment and organizations.
SUPPORT TO HEAVY DIVISIONS
Supply Distribution Support
Supply Point Distribution Support. Corps transportation assets deliver GS level supplies to MSB/FSB supply points and maintenance units. The MSB then resupplies the FSBs. Division units, and designated corps organizations, then go to the supporting supply points or maintenance unit to pickup their supplies.
Unit Distribution Support. Whenever possible, the COSCOM delivers Class IV barrier or fortification material directly to emplacement sites. Corps transportation assets also deliver aviation fuel directly to the aviation brigade in the division.
Aerial Resupply. When necessary, the COSCOM coordinates aerial resupply of critical fuels, ammunition, repair parts, rations, and blood supplies. Air movement of supplies by Army air or Air Force needs to be planned well in advance. See FMs 55-10 and 100-27.
In addition to supporting supply distribution systems, corps truck units can support the movement of personnel and heavy equipment as well as cargo transfer operations.
COSCOM DS maintenance units or AVIM units provide reinforcing maintenance support to division units. The corps G4 determines the priority of maintenance support. This is listed in the service support annex to the corps/COSCOM OPLAN. The COSCOM may also attach MSTs to a division task force.
Field Services Support
The DS field services company provides CEB, laundry, and renovation support to division as well as nondivision soldiers.
The mortuary affairs collection company operates collection points throughout the corps, division, and brigade areas. These collection points receive remains and perform initial identification of corps forces. Until the collection company is fielded, augmentation mortuary affairs platoons (TOE 42507 LA) can offset mortuary affairs support previously provided by S&S and field services companies.
Health Service Support
Corps air and ground ambulance evacuation assets evacuate patients from division treatment stations to corps hospitals. Corps HSS elements provide reinforcing treatment, dental, and preventative medical support. Units assigned to the corps MEDLOG battalion (forward) build prepackaged resupply sets of consumable medical supplies to support heavy division requirements.
SUPPORT TO LIGHT DIVISIONS
Organic CSS assets of light divisions, especially LIDs, perform only essential logistics support and HSS functions. Light divisions stock only mission essential supplies. They depend on corps and EAC units to provide resupply to the DISCOM, reinforcing DS maintenance, transportation, HSS, laundry, and airdrop support.
Since the LID MSB has the ability to resupply FSBs the LID requires more throughput from the corps rear area to the BSA. Throughput to a LID must be carefully planned so that the COSCOM doesn't provide too many supplies because the LID has extremely limited ability to move assets around the battlefield. Consumption rates for the LID are much less for many classes of supply.
Maintenance support and capabilities within light divisions, especially the LID, are limited. The LID maintenance system relies on replacement versus repair of components. ORF may be used in support of the LID. There is an increased maintenance work load passback to nondivision DS maintenance units. COSCOM maintenance support branch personnel must be sensitive to the different types and densities of equipment in light divisions.
Different requirements are placed on the COSCOM, particularly for LID and airborne divisions. The airborne division is the only light division with organic airdrop support.
Health Service Support
The LID has no surgical capability. The COSCOM provides HSS augmentation, to include the forward stationing of medical evacuation assets. In contrast to heavy divisions, the air assault division has organic air ambulance.
The LID was designed for low-intensity conflict. Firm constraints were placed on total personnel. Projected combat intensity quickly drives up support requirements.
Specific COSCOM elements have been designed or identified to perform required functions or offset work loads beyond the organic capabilities of LID DISCOMs. This augmented support, over and above the normal COSCOM support, is sometimes referred to as the corps slice.
The corps teams, detachments, and platoons which augment LID support organizations include
- LID Quartermaster Supply Support Detachment (TOE 42510LY00). This detachment provides materiel management support functions. It performs ADP related processes beyond the organic capabilities of the LID. It collocates with either the CMMC or the LID's DISCOM.
- Light/Medium Truck Company (TOE 55719L000). This company may offset the driver shortfall in the LID which resulted from an allocation of only one driver per vehicle for single shift operations. Other sources include using individual replacements and converting units to provide vehicle driver support.
- LID Missile Support Team (TOE 09550H3EY). This team is assigned to the corps DS missile support company to augment the division missile support element. LID missile maintenance support is limited to exchange of reparable items. Repairs are performed at corps.
- LID Aviation Intermediate Maintenance Support Team (TOE 01577LA00). This team is attached to a COSCOM AVIM company. It offsets an estimated 21 percent AVIM work load passed back to the corps.
- LID Maintenance Support Team (TOE 43509LP00). This team augments an estimated 20 percent ground maintenance work load passed back to a nondivision DS maintenance company providing direct support to a LID.
- Perishable Subsistence Platoon (TOE 42518LB00). Assigned to the general supply company, this platoon provides perishable subsistence support. It augments the LID's MSB HSC, providing A and B Ration storage and issue capability.
- CEB Team (TOE 42507LB00). This CEB team provides CEB support as required.
- LID Graves Registration Team (TOE 42507LA00). This team augments the MSB headquarters and supply company. It can process 79 remains per day, perform search and recovery as required, and operate a collection and evacuation point. Fielding of the corps MA collection company negates the requirement for this augmentation.
- Hot/Arid Environment Water Team (TOE 42526LC00). This team provides additional water storage and distribution capability in arid environments.
Even with corps slice augmentation, a LID places more support requirements on a COSCOM than other divisions. For a complete list of augmentation assets, refer to FM 71-100. For more information on support to light divisions, refer to FM 63-2-1.
LID Preconfigured Unit Loads
PUL provide a way to streamline supply support to the LID. They consist of a predetermined quantity of selected expendable supplies. They support a specific number of LID troops and equipment for a specified period of time. PUL are configured by function under one NSN. Thus LID units requisition one NSN instead of numerous stock numbers.
Three PUL have been created for LID units. They include --
- Class IV barrier PUL. They consist of all supplies needed to emplace 100 meters of hasty barrier material.
- Chemical defense equipment PUL. They consist of replacement MOPP gear and chemical related Class IX for 25 soldiers.
- Administrative PUL. They consist of administrative and housekeeping supplies designed to support a battalion size element for 15 days.
Unlike unit configured loads assembled in the corps by supply units, PUL are assembled and stored in a CONUS depot. However, to shorten response time and allow for turnover, COSCOM units supporting a LID might maintain limited PUL stockage. PUL are packaged so that they can be airlifted and airdropped. Corps transportation assets throughput PUL to the DSA or BSA.
SUPPORT TO SEPARATE BRIGADES AND ACRs
As with support to the divisions, the COSCOM provides GS supply support, reinforcing maintenance support, HSS, corpswide field services, and corps transportation support to separate brigades and ACRs. Refer to FM 63-1. When a separate brigade or ACR is the forerunner of a corps-size force, elements of a forward CSG deploy to provide support. Their deployment depends on the requirements of combat, CS, and CSS units to be supported. Elements to deploy depend upon the --
- Size, type, and mission of the separate brigade or ACR force deploying.
- Self-supporting capability of the separate brigade or ACR.
- Support capability of the force to which the brigade or ACR is assigned.
- Agreed upon HNS.
- Possibility for local procurement.
Depending upon how the forward CSB is task organized, it may provide --
- Ammunition support from ASPs or the nondivision ammunition company's ATP.
- Reinforcing DS maintenance support and MSTs.
- Field services support (CEB and laundry teams).
Depending upon the task organization of the CSBs employed behind the division boundary, the supporting forward CSG may provide --
- GS ammunition supply from a CSA to brigade/ACR ATPs.
- GS bulk fuel trucked to Class III points in the BSA/RSA.
- GS general supplies to resupply Class I, II, packaged III, IV, VI, and VII stocks at DS supply points.
- Reinforcing DS maintenance support and MST teams.
- Field services support, to include mortuary affairs support provided by forward collection platoons.
- HET movement support.
When a separate brigade deploys adjacent to US forces and the allied force to which it is assigned cannot adequately support the combat force, forward CSG/CSB reinforcing support elements from adjacent US forces provide out-of-sector-support. If this support is precluded by distance, terrain, or the size of the force to be supported, CSG/CSB elements deploy with the brigade/ACR to augment the support battalion/support squadron.
SUPPORT FROM OTHER SOURCES
In addition to support provided by the COSCOM, support to corps forces may derive from other sources. These include --
- Corps elements.
- TAACOM/Theater Army.
- NATO allies.
- Logistics Civil Augmentation Program.
- DA civilians.
- Captured or found materiel.
SUPPORT FROM MSB/FSBs
Table 1-3 lists corps combat and CS elements which normally locate in a heavy division sector. While the actual number varies, nearly 8,000 nondivision soldiers require support. Corps elements in the division area can receive support from the MSB/FSBs within their capability. However, to provide support to larger forces, such as corps FA, engineer, or ADA battalions, the MSB/FSBs need to be augmented or reinforced by elements or resources of the CSB operating in the division sector.
To coordinate more responsive support of corps units in the division sector, forward CSGs/CSBs provide unstaffed LOs from their support operations section to the DISCOM or FSB headquarters. LO placement is METT-T driven. The LOs coordinate with DISCOM/FSB support operations staff in determining which of the following three support options to use:
- The FSBs/MSB could support corps elements or teams operating in the brigade/division rear area. This occurs only when there is a limited number of corps personnel to be supported, and if it does not create a significant work load for the FSBs/MSB.
- The corps augments the FSBs/MSB with corps assets, if the logistics work load generated by the corps units exceeds FSB/MSB capabilities. This option has the advantage of not increasing the number of support locations within the FSB/MSB area.
- The CSG can establish forward logistics points in the FSB/MSB area. Since the FSB and the DISCOM commanders are the respective terrain managers for the BSA and DSA, the CSB/CSG LO needs to coordinate the placement of these forward logistics points with the FSB/DISCOM and their move with the DTO.
SUPPORT FROM CORPS ELEMENTS
While the COSCOM supports corps elements logistically, it depends upon corps elements for specific support. FM 100-15 describes these corps elements. The corps issues mission-type orders to describe the support which the following corps organizations provide in support of the COSCOM:
- Corps rear CP operations cell and subordinate RAOCs. These elements coordinate rear operations functions. FM 100-15 describes rear operations support in the corps rear area.
- Corps signal brigade. The signal brigade provides area signal support and connectivity to CONUS units via DDN through its subordinate corps area signal companies. FM 24-1 prescribes basic signal support doctrine. FM 11-30 describes the organization and mission tasks of the corps signal brigade and its subordinate signal battalions.
- Military police brigade. MP companies perform battlefield circulation control, area security, EPW operations, and law and order functions. FM 19-1 describes MP support functions. The corps provost marshal sets the priorities of need for MP operations based on corps commander intent.
- Engineer brigade. Engineer units perform mobility, countermobility, survivability, and sustainment engineering support missions for corps units. Engineer assets protect key logistics activities. FM 5-100 describes engineer combat operations.
- Air defense artillery brigade. ADA units counter low to medium altitude air threats to critical assets, such as CSAs and Class III points.
- Chemical brigade. This brigade provides centralized control of chemical companies. Chemical companies provide NBC reconnaissance, decontamination, and smoke screen production. FM 3-101 describes chemical unit support operations.
- Civil affairs brigade. CA brigade staffs perform area studies which identify available local resources, facilities, and HN support. CA elements coordinate requirements for and assist the COSCOM's contracting agent in the acquisition of local resources, facilities, and support. CA personnel also coordinate the distribution of life-sustaining goods and services to civilians within occupied territory. FM 41-10 describes the mission of CA elements.
- Psychological operations battalion and cellular teams. PSYOP elements focus on weakening the will of enemy soldiers to fight. They create attitudes, emotions, or behavior that minimize civilian interference with military operations. FM 33-1 describes PSYOP elements.
- Personnel group. This group provides --
- Personnel services and personnel data base management through its personnel service companies.
- Replacements through a DS replacement company.
- Postal services through DS and GS postal companies. FM 12-6 describes personnel support doctrine.
- US legal services command (TOE 27602L000) and legal teams (TOE 27512LA00 to 27512LH00). As the theater expands, these teams are activated to provide legal services support to nondivision forces.
- Finance group. The finance group provides pay support to corps personnel through its subordinate finance support commands. FM 14-7 describes finance support operations.
- Chaplaincy support teams. These teams provide direct and general religious support to over 40,000 soldiers in the corps area assigned to units with no organic unit ministry team.
SUPPORT FROM TAACOM/THEATER ARMY
The TAACOM's primary mission is to provide logistics support to units located in or passing through its assigned area in the COMMZ. Its secondary mission is to provide backup logistics support to the corps.
- TAACOM/TA GSUs provide specified GS supply support to COSCOM GS/DS supply units.
- TAACOM units provide additional Class III, V, and VII supplies as well as Class IX repair parts required specifically for units to be reconstituted. The CMMC coordinates support requirements with the TAACOM MMC.
- The TAMMC work loads TAACOM GS maintenance units to repair items beyond nondivision DS maintenance unit capability. TAACOM DS maintenance units provide reinforcing DS maintenance for specified commodities.
- TAACOM GS field services units backup COSCOM DS field services units.
- The TAACOM's mortuary affairs company operates a personal effects depot in support of the theater. Depending upon the MA program in effect, it may operate two temporary cemeteries, a theatereevacuation point, or an in-theater mortuary.
- TAACOM units assist in receiving and equipping arriving corps units and redeploying units.
- TA transportation assets supplement corps transportation assets.
- The TAMMC or TAACOM MMC can function as a backup CMMC.
- The TAACOM provides out-of-sector support to corps units deployed out of the geographical area normally considered the support responsibility of the COSCOM.
SUPPORT FROM A LOGISTICS SUPPORT ELEMENT
The COSCOM may also receive support from a LSE. LSE organizational elements can provide the COSCOM with limited depot-level/GS type logistics support on an interim basis, primarily from the COMMZ. LSE activities request supplies from the supporting MMC.
The LSE is a TDA civilian oriented element which supervises AMC elements as well as contractor activities, forward repair activities, individual DOD personnel, and HNS activities in the AO. It is under operational control of the US Army senior logistics headquarters. Though technical lines tie the LSE with elements of AMC, DLA, TRADOC, and FORSCOM, the senior logistics headquarters identifies force requirements and assigns tasks and priorities to the LSE.
Initially, the LSE is composed of battle rostered, emergency-essential civilians provided by existing TDAs and by AMC, TRADOC, and FORSCOM headquarters, and their respective subordinate activities. DLA support of the logistics assistance program is determined by a memorandum of understanding. DLA personnel who provide direct support to the LSE remain under the operational control of the theater commander.
As TOE units fall in place and become functional, the mission and work force of the LSE will be adjusted to meet new or altered work requirements. Depending on requirements, LSE organizational elements can provide --
- Management, storage, and distribution of select high tech, high dollar-low density items.
- Control of various contractor operated activities in the theater.
- Administration of contracts for forward repair activities.
- Limited depot-level/GS maintenance for selected wheeled, track, and stationary equipment.
- Repair of designated items in support of the reparable exchange program.
- Limited depot-level repair of aircraft, their engines, and components.
- Maintenance of intelligence/electronic warfare systems.
- Logistics assistance program technical assistance to users of AMC fielded equipment in theater, to include new equipment fielding.
- TMDE program coordination.
- Administration of the Army Oil Analysis Program, coordinating oil sampling procedures and distributing test results.
- Quality assurance functions for various commodity/weapon systems.
- Logistics automation software support management, to include troubleshooting and software replacement.
- Special program requirements.
- Field assistance in science and technology. LSE/AMC advisors coordinate changes in performance specifications and provide technical requirement changes to AMC laboratories and centers for solution.
- Retrograde/redistribution support, to include automated reporting of accountable transactions to NICPs under the materiel return program.
SUPPORT FROM NATO ALLIES
Dissimilarity between equipment and munitions may limit support. However, allies could provide Class I and III support.
US forces will use the standard NATO invoice/claim form and NATO loading bill to document the request and receipt of supplies from national land forces or national logistics support commands. These forms support national accounting procedures and subsequent reimbursement action. Unless specified in the logistics assistance agreement or special instructions from the CMMC, the requesting unit provides truck assets to pick up the supplies.
HNS includes civilian and military support services furnished by the HN to forces stationed on HN territory in times of peace and war. HNS helps to offset US manpower, equipment, and supply requirements. It is the preferred method of meeting unsatisfied military support requirements. In times of crisis, using HNS helps reduce the time required for deployment and fielding of US reinforcing units.
The two categories of HNS that offset US requirements include direct HNS and indirect HNS:
- Direct HNS consists of HN military or paramilitary units organized similarly to US type units. This HNS relates to comparable US organizations and capabilities.
- Indirect wartime HNS refers to support that is anticipated based on agreements with the host country.
In addition to HN military or paramilitary unit support, HNS includes --
- HN government agencies. These agencies may operate and maintain utilities and telephone networks or coordinate air traffic, rail operations, river traffic, and harbor pilot services.
- Host-country contractors. Contractors can coordinate construction and transportation labor; light textile repair, laundry, bath, and food services; and maintenance of equipment and facilities.
- HN civilians. Civilians may serve as laborers, stevedores, truck drivers, clerks, couriers, and technicians. WHNS allows for long-term civilian labor support for certain jobs. Other HN civilians who help at the outset of a conflict eventually need to be replaced by US military personnel.
- HN supplies and equipment. Food items and expendable are included.
- HN buildings or facilities. These include billets, warehouses, maintenance shops, gymnasiums and recreation facilities, and temporary grave sites.
The type and volume of HNS services provided depend upon agreements between the nations involved and the HN's actual capabilities. Table 1-4 lists questions which COSCOM ACofS, G5 section personnel need to ask in order to take advantage of logistics assets available in the AO. This helps minimize the need for strategic lift of logistics units, equipment, and supplies.
Specific requests need to be processed individually, through HN authorities, following procedures established by international agreements. As civilian relief agencies weaken, reciprocal support from US sources is required. Unless other provisions apply, the corps G5 coordinates with the finance group to reimburse the HN for contractually provided services.
Table 1-5 lists the logistics functional areas and tasks which may be accomplished by HNS. Due to the proximity of combat operations, some functions should only be performed by HN military personnel. HN civilian firms can provide bath, laundry, and food services. HN buildings and facilities and HN transportation and distribution systems can offset logistics support requirements, particularly in port areas. COSCOM ACofS, G5 section personnel conduct a risk assessment to determine the impact when planned HNS of logistics areas is not available.
Table 1-6 lists combat support operational areas provided by HNS.
Depending upon the HN's economic development, its relationship with the US, existing agreements, and risk assessments, --
- HN civilian labor groups or labor units contract to build obstacles or repair highways, railroads, and pipelines as well as provide construction and barrier materials.
- HN police and military or paramilitary units provide highway regulation and traffic control of supply movements to forward locations as well as security for critical logistics facilities.
- HNS of NBC defensive and smoke operations in the corps area is limited to those areas shown on Table 1-6. The HN provides fog oil if it has oil refineries.
- HNS of intelligence, security, and EW operations includes interpreters, translators, and interviewers or liaison teams that use the HN language and language of the enemy forces.
- HN communications structures provide communications support to initially deploying forces as well as supported operations. HN signal facilities help keep the civilian population informed. This minimizes civilian disruption of combat operations. HNS of signal operations encompass the supply and maintenance functions required to install cable, wire, and antenna systems.
COSCOM ACofS, G5 section personnel plan and coordinate HNS that has been negotiated and agreed upon by the HN in peacetime. This negotiated HNS is expected to be provided in wartime to offset the COSCOM's support mission. ACofS, G5 section personnel serve as the single point of coordination with the HN concerning COSCOM HNS requirements (preplanned and ad hoc). They coordinate actions with the corps G5, CA teams, and subordinate CSG HNS section personnel. CSG HNS section personnel --
- Monitor the performance of logistics HNS activities within their geographical area.
- Ensure that HNS products and services are inspected and quality controlled.
- Task subordinate battalions to provide technical support on a temporary basis to the HNS activity.
- Coordinate the deliveries of reparable and US supplies to the HN activity.
- Facilitate the delivery of HNS supplies or services to US units. The CMCC commits HN truck assets.
- Report to COSCOM ACofS, G5 section staff and the CMMC on HNS production or services.
In support of LIC operations, a HNS coordination team (contingency) (TOE 63500LA) can be assigned to the senior logistics headquarters of the task force. This team locates, obtains, and coordinates available HNS resources. It coordinates closely with CA teams accompanying the contingency force. The team obtains HNS resources through local purchase or contracts. It coordinates with finance and legal activities in execution of HNS contracts.
WARTIME HOST-NATION SUPPORT
Based on national agreements, WHNS reinforces forward deployed corps forces. The composition of WHNS is unique to each forward deployed corps. Depending upon the theater of operations, WHNS may consist of ammunition supply, petroleum supply, transportation, casualty evacuation, and security as well as smoke generator battalion/companies or even bridge companies.
Cellular logistics teams provide the liaison and interface between US distribution systems and WHNS organizations supporting US logistics units. These teams process work load data, maintain visibility on assets, and report status to the CMMC. Chapters 5 through 8 provide more detail on cellular logistics team missions/functions and their interface with the CMMC or CMCC.
CONTRACTING AND LOCAL PROCUREMENT
Contracting and procurement of locally available resources helps reduce dependence on a CONUSbased logistics system. Contracting provides a means to obtain local supplies and services in an area where no HNS agreements exist or where HNS agreements do not cover the required supplies or services. It improves response time and frees airlift and sealift for other priority requirements. The decision to purchase supplies on the local economy depends on need for the supplies as opposed to time and distance considerations if provided through normal supply channels.
Contracting augments existing supply and service capability. For example, contracting can augment the following supply and service areas:
- Class I fresh fruits, vegetables, and ice.
- Class II housekeeping supplies.
- Class III bulk fuels and packaged lubes and oils.
- Class IV construction materials.
- Class IX hardware and automotive parts.
- Laborers (stevedores, drivers, mechanics, etc.).
- Dining facility and KP service.
- Clothing exchange and bath services.
- Mortuary affairs services (within specific parameters).
COSCOM procurement support branch personnel coordinate contracting support for the corps. They maintain and update CA area studies and maps of potential areas of deployment. In conjunction with corps G4 and G5 staffs, they program, manage, and coordinate available contracting resources, LOGCAP, and HNS obtained to support corps forces. They coordinate corps requirements with the following staff and organizations:
- The corps G4/COSCOM support operations officer who determines whether the supply or service is filled from the military supply system, by HNS, contract, or LOGCAP.
- CA units which identify local resources, materials, and services available in the AO.
- Corps G5 staff officers who monitor LOG CAP and HNS resources and assess the impact of procurement of supplies and services on the local economy.
- Applicable CMMC divisions relative to direct purchase of items available on the local economy which are not readily available for issue.
- Corps G1 staff officers relative to policies and procedures governing use of indigenous civilian personnel.
- Corps engineers who determine construction requirements.
- Contracting staff officers in subordinate CSGs who coordinate contingency contracts for supplies and services prior to and immediately following deployment of division and corps CS elements.
- US Embassy officials and local nationals for locally available resources and requirements for interpreters.
- Finance support group staff for finance support of contracting actions.
- SJA staff for legal counsel during acquisition.
LOGISTICS CIVIL AUGMENTATION PROGRAM
LOGCAP provides contract augmentation capability to assist support base units get ready for war or contingencies not covered by global OPLANs. It is designed primarily for areas where no multilateral or bilateral agreements or treaties exist. LOGCAP may also be used in areas where HNS agreements or contracts exist. AR 700-137 governs the program.
COSCOM procurement support branch contracting personnel coordinate with the finance group for LOGCAP contracts to help resolve logistics shortfalls in OPLANS.
DA civilians and contract civilians who signed agreements to remain in place in overseas activities in wartime provide another source of support. By continuing in their peacetime work, they supplement personnel required for essential logistics functions. The COSCOM FSOP needs to include DA civilian personnel management in its personnel annex.
CAPTURED OR FOUND MATERIEL
Captured or found materiel provides another source of supply support. The corps commander and G4 set policy. Support operations section staff officers recommend procedures regarding the use of captured or found materiel.
- Captured subsistence is used to feed EPWs and civilians. Found US subsistence feeds US troops. Subsistence must first be inspected by veterinary personnel and declared fit for consumption.
- Captured or commandeered fuels can decrease the drain on our own bulk fuel stocks. They must first be tested with a captured fuels test kit or by a petroleum laboratory specialist. A fuel transfer pump has been designed to allow tactical vehicles to use captured fuels.
- Barrier or fortification and construction materials can be used immediately. This reduces requirements on our logistics support system to supply and transport these items.
- Captured vehicles and equipment are reported through intelligence channels and turned into maintenance collection points. The CMMC provides disposition instructions.
- Captured enemy medical supplies treat EPWs and civilians. They are not authorized for use on US forces.
COSCOM weapon systems support branch and munitions support branch personnel must consider the work load which captured weapons and ammunition place on the support structure. This includes the receipt, storage, safeguarding, controlling, and movement of captured items.
SUPPORT OF JOINT OPERATIONS
Corps forces can operate as part of a joint task force such as that shown in Figure 1-12. As the logistics command of the corps, the COSCOM supports corps units conducting joint operations. Joint Pub 3-0 describes the interfaces for joint operations. In a single corps contingency environment, the COSCOM assumes the role of theater level logistics manager. As directed it provides logistics support to other Services. Joint Pub 4-0 covers doctrine for logistics support in joint operations.
SINGLE SERVICE LOGISTICS SUPPORT
In principle, each military Service provides logistics support for its own forces. In practice, the joint task force commander tasks the Service that is the dominant user to provide or coordinate support for all service components.
As necessary, the CINC allocates critical logistics assets among the Services. To resolve crisis conditions, the CINC issues directives to transfer logistics functions between Service components.
Interoperability of military and commercial communication devices, automated systems, and message text formats is as critical to operations as interoperability of materiel used by forces. The CMMC and COSCOM CSS plans branch personnel need to be aware of interoperability requirements with other Services and allied nations. Interface requirements are specified in joint reports, allied standardization agreements, regulations, and directives. Joint Pub 6-04 prescribes the exchange of joint common service supply support requests and responses with other Services.
GENERAL SUPPLY SUPPORT
Subject to directives from the CINC, Service components provide supply support for their forces. Each Service performs its own requirements forecasting. Each needs to consider high-priority materiel needed at the outset of an operation and significant time-phased materiel requirements necessary to support the OPLAN. Services keep the CINC informed of the impact of supply on force readiness.
Common Item Support
Common item support is provided by the Service component command that is the predominant user. The CMMC needs to maintain a file of materiel commonalities among the Services.
Supply and Storage Requirements
Each Service establishes priorities and computes requirements for storage. This includes requirements for refrigerated, covered, and open storage; tankage; and hardstands. The CINC allocates available storage space and facilities between Services.
Map Supply Support
Based on agreements between the joint task force commander and the Defense Mapping Agency, the Army's map distribution system supports the map requirements of other Services.
COSCOM troop support branch personnel plan subsistence support. Plans should consider the number of troops and rate of buildup as well as the possible allocation of subsistence to civilians in the occupied area.
Plans also need to include requirements for Army veterinary staff, AF environmental health personnel, or local health authorities to perform food inspections. Army veterinary personnel perform sanitary inspections of facilities supplying storing and issuing subsistence. They also inspect all subsistence received stored, and issued in operations following exposure to NBC contamination.
The Army is responsible for joint policy and procedures for all components responsible for water resources in support of land-based forces. COSCOM troop support branch personnel plan water support. Water resource support beyond a Service's capability is provided by the Army or another Service, as appropriate. Preventive medicine teams monitor water quality.
COSCOM munitions support branch personnel need to consider --
- Ammunition requirements to support a designated period of time.
- Ammunition requirements of assigned US forces and augmentation forces being deployed to the area.
- Requirements for allies.
- Support to other agencies from US stocks.
- Available ammunition stock which can be used to satisfy requirements.
- Ammunition handling systems to support the OPLAN.
- Capability to store and handle ammunition.
- Ability to transport ammunition.
- Limiting factors.
The Army coordinates inland distribution of fuel to all US-based forces within an overseas theater. COSCOM petroleum support branch personnel coordinate with supported units to develop plans based on time-phased requirements for Class III support during the deployment phase.
COSCOM petroleum support branch personnel need to assess --
- Petroleum requirements to support the OPLAN for a period determined by the commander.
- US forces in the theater.
- Augmentation forces being deployed to the theater.
- Bulk fuel resupply requirements.
- Requirements for allies, civilians, and other agencies supported from fuel stocks.
- Stocks available to meet requirements.
- Availability and capability of facilities to store and handle fuels.
- Capability to distribute fuels to required areas.
- Possibility of procurement of packaged products.
- Quality surveillance assets.
- Limiting factors.
Each Service provides maintenance support for its own forces. Nondivision DS maintenance units can establish maintenance facilities for joint Service use. An example is a calibration facility for joint use. However, service components provide service maintenance of service peculiar items.
COSCOM maintenance support branch personnel need to assess --
- The type of units which require DS maintenance support.
- In-country repair sources to include other Services allies HN, or contractors.
- Evacuation to offshore bases or CONUS maintenance facilities.
- Development of preplanned and emergency resupply packages.
- Prepositioned requisitions for Class IX and maintenance-related Class II items.
- Capability to transport Class IX parts.
- Limiting factors.
Services share available airfields and road, rail, and inland waterway capabilities with allied forces and civil commerce. A joint transportation board recommends allocation of jointly used transportation resources.
In a joint command, the commander normally assigns the responsibility for providing and coordinating surface transport to support all US forces to the Army component commander. COSCOM transportation support branch personnel or the CMCC perform intratheater transportation planning in the absence of a JMC established by the theater combatant commander.
The transportation annex to the logistics portion of the COSCOM OPLAN covers intertheater and intratheater movement. It details reception of personnel, materiel, and equipment from point of origin to destination. It addresses the means to coordinate and control the flow of materiel into the area so that throughput and lift capabilities are not exceeded.
COSCOM transportation support branch personnel need to analyze --
- Type and quantity of transportation units needed in the AO.
- Capabilities and limitations of water and air terminals, ports, and beaches in the AO.
- Existing intratheater transportation network.
- Sequence requirements for desired destination arrival.
- Ports of debarkation and intermediate PODs.
- Movement constraints.
- Revisions to procedures to compensate for transportation shortages.
FIELD SERVICES SUPPORT
Field services may be performed by one Service as a result of interservice or cross-service agreements. Whenever possible, they should be performed by the HN or by contractors.
Services are responsible for providing MA and personal effects disposition for their own forces. The COSCOM is responsible for operating one or more collection points for the remains of all the Services. It provides for temporary internment until provisions are made for subsequent custody. If circumstances require internment in a temporary cemetery at EAC, the MA company at EAC provides separate sections for US, allied, and enemy remains.
Personal effects of allied dead are evacuated through logistics channels until the point specified for reversion to representatives of the nation concerned. A Joint Central Registration Office provides guidance on the transfer of allied and enemy remains and their personal effects to their respective governments.
BASE FACILITIES SUPPORT
Adequate base facilities are needed to support a military operation. Theater dependent, a base support battalion can coordinate joint service use of base facilities. BSB personnel provide assistance in utilities management, rear property transfer and acquisition, and land management.
HEALTH SERVICE SUPPORT
Joint Pub 4-02 provides doctrine for HSS in joint operations. Each Service component provides hospitalization support for its forces. Each determines HSS requirements based on service policy. Each Service provides HSS units for the interim care and treatment of its patients and, as required, for those of other Services. While each maintains command blood programs, the AF operates theater blood transshipment centers for the other Services. Each Service is responsible for its own medical supply and for maintenance support of its medical equipment. As directed, each provides care, treatment and hospitalization of EPWs and civilians in their areas of assigned responsibility.
Joint Service Use
The COSCOM's medical brigade/group can operate facilities for joint use. Hospitals are either staffed and used jointly or staffed by one Service and used by all others. To maximize the availability of HSS, Services jointly use --
- Aeromedical staging units and aeromedical evacuation.
- Medical laboratory support.
- Blood product distribution.
- Dental facilities and services.
- Veterinary support.
- Preventive medicine survey and support.
- Optical support.
- Combat stress reconditioning centers.
HN and bilateral support agreements provide for interim hospitalization of US soldiers in allied facilities and vice versa. Agreements cover sharing of blood, medical materiel, and evacuation assets.
Support of Civilians and EPWs
Care of military patients in civilian and allied military facilities is restricted to emergencies. Provisions of the Geneva Convention prescribe care of civilian casualties in occupied areas and medical care of EPWs.
The Army is responsible for all medical evacuation by land. This includes inland water transportation within assigned areas. Except for areas supported by AF airlanded logistics support, the Army is also responsible for short distance aeromedical evacuation within the Army combat zone.
The AF is responsible for long distance aeromedical evacuation. The Military Airlift Command provides aeromedical evacuation for joint operations.
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