Supporting Other Operations
This appendix addresses the COSCOM's responsibility for planning and supporting the other corps operations identified in FM 100-15.
LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT OPERATIONS
PASSAGE OF LINES/RELIEF IN PLACE
LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT OPERATIONS
LIC operations include political-military confrontations between contending states or groups. They are above routine peaceful competition among states, yet below conventional war. The four major LIC operational categories are:
- Support for insurgency or counterinsurgency.
- Combatting terrorism.
- Peacekeeping operations.
- Peacetime contingency operations.
FM 100-20 prescribes doctrine for military operations in LIC. FM 63-6 provides guidance on how CSS elements support forces engaged in LIC operations. FM 8-42 covers medical operations in LIC.
LOGISTICS SUPPORT STRUCTURE
The logistics support structure and augmentation remain situation dependent. Support for LIC situations may be provided by a task organized CSB or by the normal support structure for units committed to the operation, CSS elements often precede combat or CS units and may be the only military force deployed to the area.
Civilian contracts or the host country augment this support. Situation permitting, local purchase or contracts for HN services, utilities, and transportation assets are obtained. However, use of local supplies and facilities are limited by economics and social and political constraints.
SUPPORT FOR INSURGENCY AND COUNTERINSURGENCY
US military actions in support of insurgency and counterinsurgency range from providing intelligence, materiel, and training support to strategic, operational, and tactical advice. COSCOM elements might be tasked to support --
- Special operations forces.
- Advisory teams.
- Technical training teams.
- Indigenous resistance forces.
- HN civil organizations.
Depending upon the situation and environment, COSCOM assistance could include --
- Humanitarian assistance to civilian agencies.
- Transportation assets to move cargo in support of civic action projects, such as distribution of ration supplements.
- Class X supplies for relief of civilian distress and civic assistance programs.
- HSS teams assigned to the support organization.
- Water purification and distribution teams.
Combatting terrorism includes protecting installations, units, and individuals from the threat of terrorism. Logistics support might be limited to that carried by counterterrorism teams during the operation. However, if logistics forces are deployed to support this type of LIC operation, they need to take antiterrorism measures, They also need to implement measures to protect supplies and surface LOCs.
Peacekeeping operations attempt to maintain a negotiated truce or achieve, restore, or maintain a diplomatic resolution or peace in a potential conflict area. Peacekeeping forces traditionally possess a multinational composition. DA Pamphlet 700-15 covers logistics support of United Nations peacekeeping forces.
The COSCOM maybe tasked to provide a significant amount of logistics support to multinational forces and to support that force for an extended period. The CMMC increases supply stockage levels to support the peacekeeping force for an extended period.
COSCOM elements might be tasked to provide --
- Sundry packs.
- Supplementary rations.
- Class II items.
Logistics support elements need to deploy prior to or with the peacekeeping force. The corps deploys EOD teams early for munitions disposal. If the peacekeeping force employs in a hostile environment or a potential conflict area, sufficient transportation assets need to be allocated to provide for rapid relocation of the peacekeeping force.
Civilian contractors may --
- Provide custodial base maintenance.
- Deliver fresh food supplies.
- Operate the dining facility.
- Maintain vehicles.
- Provide packaged fuels and barrier material.
Contracted services might include --
- Trash disposal.
- Electrical power.
- Pest management.
- Fire fighting support.
PEACETIME CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS
Peacetime contingency operations range from security assistance surges to strike operations and unconventional warfare. They include --
- Operations to restore order.
- A show of force.
- Demonstrations in crisis avoidance or crisis management situations.
- Counter drug operations.
- Disaster relief.
They are normally of short duration, occur in bare base environments, and receive limited HNS. If HNS exists, the logistics support structure is tailored to include that HNS. If HNS does not exist, a US logistics structure needs to be provided. The base development plan sets forth the required logistics functions. Appendix F describes logistics support of contingency operations.
RIVER CROSSING OPERATIONS
In river crossing operations, assault or delaying retrograde forces might be separated from their support elements by the river. COSCOM CSS plans branch personnel analyze how to provide continued support, yet minimize congestion in the crossing area. They need to understand the tactics and techniques described in FM 90-13 for river crossing operations.
OFFENSIVE RIVER CROSSING
In support of offensive river crossing operations, MSTs locate in the crossing areas. MSTs perform emergency equipment repairs to minimize delays in rafting operations and bridge construction. At the earliest opportunity, recovery vehicles with winch position on the far side of the river. Recovery vehicles ensure that immobile vehicles do not block crossing exits or lanes.
CSS plans branch personnel assigned to the COSCOM support operations section and CMMC commodity managers plan for increased requirements for repair parts needed to repair equipment used in swimming and fording operations.
Supply support elements need to echelon forward to provide continuous support. Transportation assets deliver critical supplies to forward distribution points on the exit bank of the river. During the early stages of the operation, helicopters might provide supplies to combat elements. COSCOM CSS plans branch and munitions support branch personnel plan for increased expenditures of Class V for preparatory fires, air defense, and the assault. The CMMC adjusts minimum supply levels to ensure continued operation if the LOC is disrupted.
The COSCOM provides unit distribution of bridging material to engineer units. Engineer equipment is reserved for the operation. COSCOM transportation support branch personnel plan how to transport bridging material to the bridge site, which is often on secondary roads with no hardstand.
Units cross the river with basic loads intact. However, supplies might need to be airdropped, either to the distribution points, at the bridgehead or forward across the river. An ASP sets up on the exit bank as soon as possible. A Class III supply point sets up in the bridgehead to support fuel tankers crossing the river on rafts or bridges. An alternative is to plan for a hoseline system or a pipeline to transport fuel to the far bank.
Assault boats, rafts, or amphibious vehicles transport less critical supplies across the river. As soon as practicable after the initial assault, preloaded supply vehicles cross the river by bridges, raft, or air.
RETROGRADE RIVER CROSSING
For retrograde river crossings, logistics units echelon to the rear to support delaying, defending and crossing area forces. Supply points position critical supplies at prestock points for delaying forces to use as they move to the rear. Aircraft help maintain required supply levels and remove excess supplies across the river.
In retrograde operations, the corps tasks the COSCOM to provide continuous mobile support forward while moving the bulk of its supporting units and supplies rearward. While continuing to provide essential supplies forward to delaying forces, the COSCOM relocates supplies and equipment from forward areas to new rear supply areas in support of forces out of contact moving to the rear.
The COSCOM support operations officer reduces forward stocks by stopping forward supply. The CMMC diverts resupply shipments entering the corps area to the new rearward positions. Stocks are evacuated to an area where support is needed for subsequent operations.
To continue to provide support to forward units, supply points prestock limited amounts of Class V and III supplies behind selected division delay positions. COSCOM petroleum support branch personnel plan to provide emergency delivery of bulk Class III stocks. Delivery occurs aircraft if ground delivery becomes impractical.
Forward CSGs dry up forward supply points until forward positioned stocks approximate only what is required to support the delaying forces. This avoids a requirement to retrograde excess supplies from forward supply points.
Corps trucks evacuate supply stocks rearward to successive positions. The movement of units, supplies, and equipment to the rear severely taxes transportation assets of tactical units and the DISCOM. The DISCOM may request corps transportation support during the retrograde.
The CMCC programs all movements throughout the retrograde operation to regulate highway movement. It identifies evacuation routes, publishes movement schedules, and designs a battlefield circulation plan. The CMMC coordinates with the COSCOM weapon systems support branch chief on use of HETs to evacuate priority weapon systems. These priorities are passed to the COSCOM transportation support branch to ensure that priorities are being met by the CMCC.
To avoid interfering with the rearward movement of combat units, logistics units displace early. Normally they try to displace during periods of limited visibility. To avoid traffic congestion, the CMCC requests that the MP brigade provide battlefield circulation control.
Corps transportation assets transport Class IV materials for obstacles, demolitions, and strengthening battle positions to delay the enemy's advance. If a rail system remains in operation in the area, inoperable equipment can be evacuated by rail. Transportation priority is given to --
- Movement of combat troops and their supplies.
- Movement of items used to impede the enemy.
- Evacuation of casualties.
- Evacuation of reparable materiel.
Only essential maintenance is performed forward. MSTs take replacement modules forward and concentrate on quick fix items.
Unit recovery vehicles move damaged equipment to the nearest MSR or maintenance collecting points set up in the rear areas. Recovery equipment needs to be marshalled at critical locations to keep routes open and recover all materiel possible. Corps trucks backhaul reparable equipment.
DS maintenance units concentrate on materiel required to conduct delaying operations and withdrawal. COSCOM CSS plans and maintenance support branch personnel develop plans to resolve the problem of evacuating inoperable equipment in maintenance units to the rear. The COSCOM OPLAN contains orders to destroy items which cannot be backloaded or render unusable. This prevents the enemy from repairing captured vehicles or equipment by cannibalization.
In accordance with the Geneva convention, medical units mark and leave medical supplies and equipment which cannot be evacuated.
The rearward displacement of corps hospital units results in a temporary loss of bed capacity. If temporary facilities cannot be obtained, the corps requests additional aeromedical support. Nonmedical transportation assets move wounded personnel to TA or CONUS hospitals.
The longer the force remains encircled, the more depleted its basic load stocks become. When all ground routes of evacuation and reinforcement have been cut by enemy action, the corps commander determines whether he wants the force to break out or to defend encircled prior to linkup or exfiltration.
Encircled forces practice strict rationing of supplies and enforce supply economy procedures. The COSCOM support operations officer arranges for aerial resupply of these critical supplies --
- Food and water.
- Medical supplies.
- Bulk fuel.
- Barrier materials.
To support a break out, the COSCOM shifts critical ammunition resupply assets so that supporting fires mass at the breakout point. If limited forces, wounded soldiers, and equipment are left behind, sufficient supplies need to be left. Medical personnel remain to attend to the wounded. CSS plans branch personnel assigned to the support operations section prepare plans to support link-up operations and regenerate attrited units.
LARGE UNIT MOVEMENT
Large unit movement places exceptional requirements on the transportation system. The CMCC assists the corps rear CP's CSS cell in planning, coordinating, and supporting tactical movements. Its MCTs and MRTs control traffic movement. MPs provide circulation control. The corps rear CP's operations cell coordinates the rerouting of logistics movements to prevent congestion on road networks required for the tactical move. Units replenish their basic loads and refuel equipment prior to the move. DS supply units setup refueling sites where units can refuel while on the move. Forward CSGs attach MSTs to the movement columns for rapid repair on site.
PASSAGE OF LINES/RELIEF IN PLACE
A passage of lines occurs when a force moves forward or rearward through another force's positions in order to move into or out of contact with the enemy. The support operations officer's staff coordinates logistics support provided between the two forces.
A relief in place occurs when all or part of a unit is replaced in an area by an incoming unit. The senior maneuver commander determines when support shifts to the relieving force.
Passage of lines and relief operations require that the CMCC coordinate with the corps rear CP's operations cell on priorities for routes. The CMCC coordinates the additional corps transportation assets needed to expedite the passage or relief operation.
The COSCOM support operations officer coordinates priorities for logistics support with the corps rear CP's CSS cell. Plans specify the logistics support provided by the stationary force to the passing force or by the relieved force to the relieving force.
The CSG support operations section informs the passing force or relieving force of supply point locations in the area and their times of operation. The CSG sets up a refuel-on-the-move site. The CSG also attaches MSTs to the passing force to perform repairs on-site.
The headquarters directing the linkup between units or forces coordinates logistics support mutually provided to units linking up for subsequent missions. If time exists, ASL levels are adjusted to support the operation. The COSCOM support operations officer directs that the CMMC analyze the PLLs of the converging units or forces and recommend adjustments in the ASLs of the supporting DS maintenance units. CSG support operations officers recommend revisions to customer support lists to redirect sup port operations in the AOR.
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