Supporting Contingency Operations
The COSCOM might support a contingency force in an undeveloped area where a US military infrastructure does not exist. FM 100-5 delineates eight distinct contingency operations. However, the contingency environment considered most likely is one in which an undeveloped friendly HN requests military assistance. The corps tailors a contingency force to conduct operations short of war. It can also execute short duration combat operations to defeat threat forces or expel them from occupied territory.
PLANNING AND EMPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS
The supported force structure depends upon the potential threats and environment. The COSCOM tailors its support organization to the size and composition of the contingency force and whether it is a forced or nonforcible entry.
A contingency force that deploys with an entire COSCOM cannot be smaller than one division. Initially, only one division might deploy. However, the supported force may rapidly expand to several divisions in size.
If the initial division is a light infantry division, the COSCOM identifies corps augmentation required by that LID. The DISCOM needs to understand if the corps can provide additional manpower. If augmentation teams or assets cannot be provided in time, the COSCOM support operations officer determines how the required function is to be provided.
When supporting a contingency force, deployed elements of the COSCOM operate under the command of the major Army component of the task force. The major Army component commander provides mission orders, policies, priorities, allocations, directives, and guidance to the COSCOM.
The COSCOM headquarters exercises C2 of all Army nondivision logistics units and activities assigned to the task force. The corps might also assign the COSCOM to exercise OPCON of selected CS units in the contingency force rear area. These could include air defense, chemical, CMO, MI, ME and signal units. The corps authorizes additional personnel and equipment to enable the COSCOM headquarters to control these CS units in the contingency rear area.
The major Army component commander normally authorizes the COSCOM headquarters to deal directly with CONUS commands, centers, and agencies without going through intervening headquarters. These include, but are not limited to, the NICPs, LCA, Finance Group, and Military Traffic Management Command. The COSCOM places requirements for backup support and services on these agencies and coordinates the delivery of their support.
The COSCOM provides or arranges out-of-sector support for detached units deployed out of the geographical area. Whenever possible, units detached from a US corps need to be accompanied by a slice of corps logistics structure.
The COSCOM also provides or arranges out-ofsector support when US units employ under the OPCON and control of another nation or an alliance. The gaining allied nation might provide some commonuse ammunition, fuel, and field services.
PLANNING AND EMPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS
CSS plans branch personnel assigned to the support operations section prepare contingency plans for support of the contingency force. The commander's guidance states the COSCOM's involvement in support of a combined or joint task force. Table D-1 lists contingency planning considerations. FM 8-42 provides a detailed discussion of HSS planning factors for support of peacetime contingency operations.
Logistics staff officers use the contingency checklist at Appendix A during the planning phase. Planners need to consider the --
- Task force structure.
- Given situation.
- Climate, terrain, and weather.
- Man-made facilities, to include roads, building and fortifications.
The corps commander may task the COSCOM to prepare logistics plans, directives, and guidance for the contingency force as a whole, and not just for the Army elements. Upon approval, they are issued in the name of the contingency force commander.
If the COSCOM supports other Services or allies, the guidance needs to state the items and quantity of support required. For example, guidance needs to explain how the army component provides logistics to Air Force elements and what that support entails.
COSCOM ACofS, G5 section staff prepares and distributes industrial resource folders for the operational area. These resource folders include information on--
- Industrial capabilities and sources.
- The availability and skills of local labor.
- Business ethics in the contingency area.
To prevent shortages or uncontrollable excesses, that historically impair contingency force missions, support operations staff officers need to plan how to --
- Provide for a phased expansion of the initial contingency force.
- Keep sea ports clear of incoming cargo. This prevents tying up ships and delaying transport of supplies to users.
- Establish inventory control of supplies. This prevents port congestion due to submission of duplicate requisitions to CONUS for supplies already on hand but unidentified in port locations.
- Acquire real estate and facilities in the contingency area.
- Establish a timely requisition system to CONUS to prevent supplies being pushed into the contingency site.
- Tie in with advance lines of communication.
- Interface with automation management systems.
During the alert phase, COSCOM elements assigned to the contingency force disengage from CONUS installation responsibilities and prepare for movement, Reserve component elements then mobilize and complete all administrative functions prior to deployment.
During the movement phase, COSCOM transportation support branch personnel and the CMCC coordinate the transportation of contingency force elements. COSCOM support operations section staff and the CMMC coordinate the movement of supplies from CONUS installations to the contingency area.
Contingency plans need to designate the units responsible for preparing loads for sling loading. Plans should specify the quantity of slings that units need to bring with them. They should also cover sling return responsibilities and procedures.
Operations phase activities include the establishment of operations in the contingency area. They also include development of operating relationships with elements of the task force organization and HN officials.
PHASED CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS
The contingency force organizes into an assault force echelon and a follow-on force echelon. Since logistics support remains austere, it is important to plan for and deploy sufficient assets to support each deployed increment. Depending on the situation in the AO, the contingency force usually conducts the following phased operations.
The assault force moves into the objective area by air or sea. Initial assault objectives might include ports or airfields. This facilitates the landing of follow-on forces during the lodgment phase. The assault force establishes security within the area of influence to protect the airhead or beachhead from direct or indirect fire. It also acquires information on the enemy.
The lodgment phase begins with the introduction of follow-on forces. Follow-on forces reinforce the assault force, establish the lodgment area, and begin buildup of the lodgment logistics base.
EXPANSION OF THE LOGISTICS BASE
The logistics base expands once the security area has been stabilized and the lodgment area firmly established. This supports a further buildup of forces to initiate or continue offensive action. To limit taxing the supply system, command policy needs to clearly state the level of base development.
Local procurement reduces logistics dependence for CONUS furnished supplies and services. It provides improved response time, while freeing airlift and sealift assets for other priority needs. Depending on the area, available local resources might include --
- Bulk fuel and packaged products.
- Ration enhancement items.
- Bulk supplies.
- Health services support.
CSG contracting and procurement personnel accompany the division. Contracting management officers and procurement NCOs assigned to the COSCOM'S procurement support branch and CMMC as well as a finance support element accompany the CSG or CSB jump element into the AO. Upon deployment, COSCOM contracting personnel establish an area procurement section. CSG contracting personnel then become field agents of the COSCOM. They prepare contracts in support of COSCOM and CMMC taskings. They coordinate with the HNS coordination team (TOE 63500LA), if fielded. The finance element provides funding support and payment of contract procurement actions.
During the initial phase, the contracting management officer and procurement NCOs focus on buying rather than contracting. They focus on direct hire and small purchase by ordering officers. They --
- Provide initial technical assistance to unit ordering officers.
- Distribute industrial resource folders on the AO to the ordering officers.
- Assist ordering officers in obtaining funds.
- Ensure that ordering officers comply with the limits imposed by the appointment order. This may be modified by the COSCOM OPLAN or directive.
Unit ordering officers coordinate all purchases with the area procurement section in their area. This prevents competition for local resources. The contracting management officer, with CA personnel, determines fair market value and administers the lease/contract. In coordination with the CSG support operations officer, COSCOM procurement NCOs use the procurement criteria in Table D-2 to determine whether supplies will be purchased locally or requisitioned through the supply system.
The COSCOM contracting management officer and procurement NCOs establish the corps procurement section in theater. They --
- Establish a relationship with the local US State Department office.
- Coordinate with HN officials on local procurement of supplies.
- Coordinate with the finance support element for funding support of procurement actions.
- Work with COSCOM ACofS, G5 staff to develop and distribute industrial resource folders for the AO.
- Coordinate with the corps G4 on interservice support requirements that might be filled through local purchase actions.
- Coordinate with engineers on real estate requirements above the scope of the ordering officer limitations.
In coordination with the COSCOM's procurement support branch staff, CMMC procurement branch personnel locate sources. They purchase or rent supplies, services, and real estate following corps resource allocation priorities.
Related local procurement responsibilities are performed by --
- The ACofS, G1 who establishes policies and procedures for daily hire of local civilian labor.
- The comptroller office that provides budgetary authorizations for local procurement.
- The corps' finance group which provides funding support and payment of contract procurement actions.
- Engineer staff officers who plan for the acquisition of real estate.
LOGISTICS UNIT DEPLOYMENT
The COSCOM commander coordinates deployment of logistics units with the contingency force commander. As necessary, he recommends in changes the deployment sequence.
TIME-PHASED TRANSPORTATION REQUIREMENTS LIST
ACofS G3 force design/plans branch personnel use the TPTRL to plan, organize, and phase the deployment of the force, its materiel, and its arrival in the contingency area. The CMCC and task force commander's transportation staff refine the TPTRL into a series of time-phased programs for the contingency area. These programs provide a complete movement schedule. They cover from the time of arrival in the area to final receipt of all units and shipments at their ultimate destination.
Though based on requirements and METT-T, the following teams, elements or units might be required early in the operation:
- MCTs and MRTs.
- DS supply company or elements.
- DS ammunition company elements (ASPS and ATP) and habitual supporting truck companies.
- Cargo transfer unit.
- GS petroleum supply platoon(s) and supporting truck platoon(s).
- DS maintenance company elements and MSTs.
- CEB teams.
- Mortuary affairs collection platoons.
- Airdrop supply company or teams.
- MP company, for area security to advance party units.
A CSB headquarters element deploys with early increments to provide effective C2 of these units, platoons, or teams.
CONUS DEPARTURE AIRFIELD
A logistics officer thoroughly familiar with the contingency plan needs to remain at the CONUS departure airfield. He determines which items cause the lease impact if removed from loads to meet USAF weight limitations. He ensures that the owning unit is notified about the items removed from loads. This officer also prioritizes 01 air resupply shipments.
The Army and Air Force need to develop joint procedures for reporting frustrated cargo. For COSCOM units, the disposition of mission loads either not dropped within the drop zone or air landed at an air base needs to be reported to the COSCOM support operations officer.
The heavy materiel supply company, GS supply company, repair parts supply company, and field services companies are not normally required in the early stages of deployment. The need for these units depends upon the nature of the contingency and its environment. The CMMC deploys prior to these follow-on units to manage their GS stocks.
ESTABLISHING A LOGISTICS BASE
If the situation permits, logistics elements deploy ahead of tactical elements to prepare for their reception and support. In any event, logistics elements deploy into the area as soon as combat forces secure a lodgment area.
PREPLANNED/PACKAGED SUPPORT STOCKS
Theater war reserves, project stocks, and safety level stocks to support contingencies in specific areas of the world have been consolidated in container-size packages. The CMMC maintains a listing of container contents. These packages possess a project code or other means that identifies their intended purpose.
Documentation required to cause issue and movement of stocks from storage may have been prepared at the time of contingency planning. Upon receipt of directions to support an initial deployment, stocks are withdrawn from storage, palletized or packed in container inserts, and loaded in containers.
Units need to provide ASL and PLL tapes to the CMMC. Tapes should include weight and cube data for contingency shipping computation. The CMMC monitors the ASLs and PLLs to ensure that they contain only those items essential for the anticipated contingency. It ensures that the ASLs, PLLs, and essential repair parts and quantities to replace those consumed through combat, are available upon deployment.
The CMMC also initiates action to acquire critical items. For example, portable piers, off-loading barges, cranes, construction materiels, and security equipment might need to be available during the early stages of the contingency operation.
MINIMUM STOCKAGE LEVELS
The CMMC develops combat ASLs that closely reflect contingency requirements. Since approximately 20 percent of all stocks is required 80 percent of the time, performing an analysis of DS unit ASLs helps indicate what to stock. However, weight and cube constrain stockage policy. Units need to limit ASLs to combat-essential items.
The CMMC transmits requirements for NSL items to CONUS for supply support. The COSCOM support operations officer helps reduce the ASL by enforcing compliance with the list of authorized noncombat-essential items.
Shipping practices that emphasize daily shipment of cargo for ALOC designated units help to minimize stockage levels. They also help to ensure that large stockpiles do not accumulate in the contingency area.
The CMMC maintains close coordination with NICPs to ensure that the push system does not take control. Both the CMMC and CMCC maintain strict controls to ensure that the most essential items receive priority shipping.
SUPPORT OF CIVILIAN POPULATIONS
The primary sources of support of civilian populations include the --
- Local economy.
- Captured enemy supplies.
- Contributions from national and international welfare and charitable organizations.
- Supplies from allied or US military stocks.
Military support of civilian populations is often limited to supplies required to prevent disease, starvation, or unrest that might interfere with military operations. COSCOM units might issue --
- Food and water.
- Clothing, bedding, and tents.
- Medical supplies.
- Fuel and lubricants.
- Engineer equipment.
CA units attached to the COSCOM's special troops battalion determine humanitarian support requirements for refugees or civilian populations in distress. CA units have surveys on file on the health of civilian populations. Files include dietary factors and the caloric requirements of population categories, such as the elderly and children. CA units estimate requirements based on population size, geographic location, and the technological base of the country. CA teams/units coordinate with volunteer agencies and refugee control personnel in planning relief supplies and the use of local medical personnel.
CA personnel assist purchasing and contracting officers with the local purchase of supplies for civilian relief or economic aid. They recommend the type of supplies to be made available from military stocks. They requisition emergency civilian supplies not locally available through normal supply channels.
The corps service support order and COSCOM OPORD prescribe requisition and issue procedures for humanitarian civilian support. Class X issues are regulated. Supplies intended for authorized civilian agencies or groups require command approval prior to issue.
The COSCOM support operations officer needs to establish procedures to ensure that civilian supplies do not disappear into black market channels. CA teams/units plan and control food rationing. As necessary, they also coordinate with the area RAOC for security for movement of civilian supplies.
CA teams/units also coordinate with the CMCC on the use of civilian and military vehicles to distribute civilian supplies. They submit requirements for military transportation vehicles to the area MCT.
Refugees can be formed into companies to perform their own housekeeping functions. US forces provide supervision. The COSCOM OPLAN identifies a refugee site. It specifies the activities responsible for operating and supporting the site and the supplies required.
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