The support battalion helps keep weapon systems manned and fully operable on the battlefield. It supports each weapon system by resupplying the classes of supply that apply to that particular system. In the separate brigades, the support battalion S&T company provides most classes of supplies. It is the same with the regimental support squadron in the ACR. These companies are organized as shown in Figures 8-1 , 8-2, and 8-3.
The S&T company supports the arming system through its Class IV and V operations and the fueling system through Class III operations. It supports the fixing system through Class VII operations and the sustaining the soldier task through provision of rations, clothing and individual equipment. It also supports the moving task through transporting supplies and brigade units. Specifically, the company provides receipt, storage, and issue of Class I, II, III, IV, and VII items. It also provides water and unclassified maps. It conducts Class V transloading operations at its ammunition transfer point. It also provides transportation for elements of the brigade and for the brigade ASL. The company consists of a company headquarters, maintenance section, supply platoon, petroleum platoon, and TMT platoon.
The company performs the following functions:
- Receives, stores, and
issues Class I, II, packaged III, IV (limited), and VII items
as well as unclassified maps. The company does not receive, store, or issue classified maps, aircraft, airdrop equipment, COMSEC, or construction materiel.
- Purifies, stores, and
issues water to the brigade. The company provides up to two water
supply points in the BSA. The company also provides limited potable water distribution to assigned and attached units.
- Receives, stores, transports,
and distributes bulk petroleum using organic fuel transporters.
- Transloads Class V supplies
from corps transportation assets to unit vehicles. The company
also provides limited transportation of Class V to brigade units.
- Provides transportation
for the brigade ASL and supplemental transportation for elements
of the brigade.
- Maintains the brigade
- Provides unit maintenance
for all organic vehicles.
- Provides salvage service for materiel and supplies of all types (less toxic gasses, ammunition, explosives, motor vehicles, and COMSEC equipment).
The support battalion is 100 percent mobile with organic equipment. To enhance mobility, the quantity and variety of supplies the S&T company has on hand at any given time are limited. As a result, the S&T company and its supporting supply activities put a number of supply principles to work. These supply principles cut down on the response time between initial request and subsequent issue to the brigade.
If the brigade is operating with a division, it is usually OPCON to the division. Therefore, the DISCOM does not provide support to the brigade. The brigade maintains its direct link to the COSCOM. However, the division commander needs to know the status of all the units he controls. Therefore, the support battalion coordinates with the DISCOM support operations section to work out procedures for the separate brigade to report the status of its supplies and other CSS assets.
A push system is the initial go-to-war supply system in an undeveloped theater. Suppliers send forward preplanned packages of selected supplies. These packages replenish expended supplies in anticipation of requirements of supported units. Initial quantities are based on strength data and historical demand. When the theater stabilizes, the supply system becomes a push system to the BSA for critical supplies based on personnel strengths and forecasted requirements. The distribution system provides other supplies through a pull system based on actual demand. Supply personnel may still push supplies at the battalion and brigade level. This may occur especially during high intensity combat operations to heavily engaged units. Such units may be unable to ask for supplies because of gaps in the chain of command or intensive jamming on a fluid battlefield. Supplies are also pushed to support a deep operation.
Throughput distribution bypasses one or more intermediate supply organizations in the supply system. This minimizes handling and speeds delivery forward. COSCOM makes throughput of supplies to the unit, whenever possible. Class IV barrier materials and some Class VII items are throughput directly to the user in the forward area. When most of the load is for a specific unit, the transporter delivers directly to the requesting unit.
In the separate brigade, supply point distribution is the normal method of distributing supplies to users. Unit distribution provides the most responsive method. Yet, it is beyond the capability of the support battalion on a continuous basis. Therefore, the battalion normally uses a combination of supply point and unit distribution. For example, units which do not have a fuel-carrying capability have Class III (bulk) delivered to them.
When the support battalion uses supply point distribution, unit representatives come to the supply points in the BSA to pick up their supplies. Maneuver battalion task forces with field trains in the BSA have their organic unit supply, fuel, and ammunition trucks assemble in the field trains. The field trains personnel also pick up repaired equipment, personnel replacements, and other assets. They form a LOGPAC which goes forward to provide support to forward deployed elements. (LOGPAC operations are detailed in FM 71-2.) The S&T company tries to cut down on the distances the forward units travel. It does this by positioning supplies as far forward as possible. In order to provide a quick turnaround for forward units, the S&T company also staggers the unit pickup times. The S&T company sets up to provide a smooth traffic flow through the supply areas.
There is a limited capability for unit distribution within the brigade. Corps assets use unit distribution to deliver barrier materials to emplacement sites. The support battalion delivers other classes of supply using unit distribution when the tactical situation permits and transportation assets are available. The support battalion via motor or air transport uses unit distribution for emergency resupply. This chapter discusses aerial resupply later on.
Two types of materiel fall into this category. The first is US materiel or equipment that has been found and turned in. The second is enemy equipment or materiel captured or found on the battlefield. The main thrust of personnel handling captured or found materiel is to get serviceable materiel back into the supply system and to dispose of unserviceable materiel. The following are some ways in which materiel captured or found on the battlefield may be put to use:
- Once cleared by medical personnel, units use captured subsistence to feed EPWs and the local population. They consume found US subsistence once it has been tested by veterinary personnel.
- Units use captured fuels once they have been analyzed and determined suitable for use by the lab specialists in the petroleum platoon. Units also use the captured fuel test kit (a go/no go test). The kit provides a quick method of determining whether captured fuels can be used.
- Units use captured materiel for barrier and fortifications construction.
- Units use captured medical supplies to treat EPW casualties, preferably by EPW medical personnel who are familiar with their materiel.
- Units notify the S2/S3 of captured or found materiel. The BMMC provides disposition instructions. The BMMC may direct the unit to turn in the items to maintenance collection points. It may also direct units to turn in equipment to the salvage point where it is identified, classified, and reported through the BMMC.
- Units follow the same procedures for turning in allied forces equipment. Units turn in found materiel to maintenance collection points. The brigade materiel manager contacts the materiel manager of allied nations for disposition instructions.
- Report all enemy materiel through intelligence channels.
- Report toxic agents to the NBC element in the S2/S3 section.
- Report medical materiel through medical channels.
- Require examination of explosives by EOD personnel.
The transportation system ensures that all required personnel and supplies are delivered to the point of need on time. To achieve this goal, several principles are employed.
One principle involves the consolidation of transportation assets. Units are allocated only the assets that are mission-essential. Other transportation resources are consolidated so that movement control elements can most effectively use the limited resources available.
This concept depends on centralized control of assets. There is one focal point. This person or section maintains constant awareness of transportation requirements and capabilities. The transportation officer is the focal point for the brigade.
The brigade transportation officer works for the brigade S4. He also coordinates with the brigade S3, the BMMO, and the support battalion commander through the transportation officer in the support battalion S2/S3 section. The brigade transportation officer plans and implements highway regulation for road network within the brigade area of responsibility.
The brigade transportation officer represents the brigade S4 on transportation matters. The BTO assists the support battalion commander in controlling the transport resources assigned or attached to the brigade for logistics. He serves as the communications link between the brigade and the COSCOM MCC/MCT when resources beyond the brigade's capabilities are required. He also provides broad guidance, policy, staff supervision, assistance to the support battalion in transportation matters.
The transportation system requires flexibility and efficiency. The system provides an uninterrupted flow of traffic and adjusts to changing situations. This principle ties into the centralized control concept since the focal point (transportation officer), who is aware of the changing battlefield, is able to divert assets to the most critical mission.
The company headquarters maintains command and control over the S&T company. Headquarters personnel provide unit-level administrative and supply support. They also provide NBC operations training and assistance to the company and communications. The mortuary affairs NCO in the headquartersis the brigade point of contact for mortuary affairs activities. He plans, organizes, supervises, and conducts mortuary affairs training for nonmortuary affairs personnel. Unit-level mortuary affairs information is provided in FM 10-63-1.
The unit supply element supports the company with certain supplies and TOE equipment. The supply sergeant directs and supervises internal supply operations. The armorer and supply specialists assist the supply sergeant in the receipt, storage, security, and issue of unit supplies. The truckmaster dispatches vehicles in support of the unit's transportation operations. He assists the TMT platoon sergeant in planning and organizing cargo loading and driver training. He also monitors preparation of vehicle operational records. The unit supply update and FM 10-14 describe unit supply operations.
The maintenance section performs unit maintenance for organic equipment of the S&T company. This includes maintenance for organic wheeled vehicles, trailers, generators, and MHE. This also includes maintenance for water purification equipment, fuel storage and handling equipment, and related support equipment.
The maintenance section is set up in a sheltered place. The site is located near the MSR. It has a good road network into and out of the area. The site provides good cover and concealment. It has an area large enough for some dispersion. As personnel get the maintenance area set up, the maintenance supervisor plans personnel shift assignments so that operations and repair of wheeled vehicles can begin.
Maintenance management involves making sure that equipment is in constant readiness. It is the responsibility of each equipment operator to perform preventive maintenance on his equipment each day it is operated. PM is the systematic care, inspection, and servicing of equipment. PM maintains equipment in a serviceable condition and prevents breakdown. It ensures maximum operational readiness.
Unit mechanics perform quarterly maintenance services on the unit's organic equipment. When they cannot make the repairs, they send the items to the maintenance company of the support battalion.
The supply platoons of the HSB, SIB/TDB, and ACR include a platoon headquarters and an ammunition transfer point. The HSB and SIB/TDB also have a Class I and water section and a receipt, storage and issue section. The ACR supply platoon has a Class I, II, III, IV, and VII section and a water section.
The supply platoon provides Class I, II, III (packaged), IV and VII supplies, unclassified maps, and water. The platoon operates an ATP for Class V transloading. It maintains the brigade reserves of supplies in the classes for which it is responsible.
The platoon headquarters supervises, directs, and manages the activities of the platoon's sections. The headquarters coordinates with supported units on the hours of operation, the schedule of issues, turn-in procedures, and salvage operations. Personnel keep track of daily demands and conduct the inventory.
This section (HSB and SIB/TDB only) receives and stores Class I. It issues Class I supplies to supported brigade units. The section chief supervises supply activities and water operations. He directs personnel to select stock for issue. Personnel inspect Class I rations to ensure proper content, quantity, and quality prior to distribution. The section chief supervises the receipt, inspection, storage, breakdown, and issue of Class I and VI supplies.
The section also operates up to two water supply points in the brigade AO. It provides purification and issue of potable water. The section prepares supplies for limited air or ground distribution of potable water to brigade units or BMMC-directed locations. It uses FAWPSS or tractor and trailer equipment for water distribution. The water section performs this mission in the ACR supply platoon.
This section (HSB and SIB/TDB only) receives and stores Class II, III (packaged), IV, and VII supplies. It issues these supplies to supported brigade units. It performs salvage collection point operations for designated supply items. It also maintains the reserve of supplies it handles.
This section (ACR only) receives, stores, and issues Class I, II, III (packaged), IV and VII supplies on a daily basis to supported units of the regiment. It maintains the required reserve of supplies it handles. This section has a mission similar to that of the receipt, storage, and issue section in the HSB and SIB/TDB. It also has a Class I mission like that of the Class I and water section of the HSB and SIB/TDB.
The ATP transloads ammunition from corps transportation to supported brigade units' organic ammunition vehicles.
The petroleum platoon operates the Class III supply point where supported brigade units are issued bulk fuel. It receives, stores, and issues bulk fuel. It provides quality surveillance, delivery, and dispensing of bulk fuel in support of the brigade mission.
The platoon headquarters plans, directs, and supervises the operations of the petroleum supply and petroleum distribution sections. Headquarters personnel provide status report input to the BMMC for all on-hand and issued bulk fuel. They provide reconnaissance and approval of site locations for fuel point operations. The headquarters is normally staffed with a platoon leader, platoon sergeant, and petroleum lab sergeant. The petroleum lab sergeant supervises fuel inspections and analyses on petroleum products. These inspections and limited analyses determine whether petroleum products meet prescribed specifications. FM 10-72 gives the specific tests used for petroleum products.
The petroleum supply section (HSB only) operates bulk fuel storage and issue equipment at designated petroleum supply locations. This section can set up and operate two sets of FSSP equipment. Corps tankers deliver bulk fuels. The corps tankers off-load into collapsible fabric tanks for temporary storage. Customer unit vehicles receive bulk fuels from the FSSP. The section sets up remote filling station sites by employing the FARE systems and associated 500-gallon drums.
The distribution section (HSB and ACR) provides limited fuel delivery and dispensing to brigade units without organic fuel-carrying assets. The section also directly dispenses Class III to supported units' organic fuel dispensing vehicles. The section establishes and operates two mobile roadside filling stations. The section uses bulk fuel haulers to accomplish the assigned mission. For delivery of bulk fuel see FM 10-69.
This section (SIB/TDB only) operates bulk Class III storage and issue equipment at designated petroleum supply locations. The section uses FSSP equipment for primary brigade bulk Class III storage and issue. It also uses FARE for forward deployed fixed filling station operations.
TMT assets provide the brigade the ability to relocate itself and distribute supplies. The TMT platoon provides vehicle and drivers to support directed unit distribution of supplies. TMT assets also provide capabilities to transport water. The platoon transports other cargo (including personnel) as mission assignments designated by the support battalion transportation officer. It also evacuates disabled tanks and similar heavy, outsized vehicles. The platoon provides emergency unit distribution of Class V supplies. The TMT platoon vehicles and driver assets may be task assigned to brigade 8-8 units for supplemental transportation. A selected number of the platoon assets normally assist the S&T company to displace.
The TMT truck squads vary within the separate brigade TMT platoons. For example, the HSB and ACR have two light cargo truck squads, a medium cargo truck squad, and a HET truck squad. The SIB/TDB has a platoon that consists of three light/medium cargo trucks squads.
The headquarters plans, directs, and supervises operations of the truck squads. It maintains operational control of platoon assets.
The light cargo truck squads (HSB and ACR) provide the 5-ton cargo trucks for delivery of supplies. Each squad provides truck transportation for movement of general cargo and personnel by light truck. The trucks are used for local and line haul of troops and cargo. The squad performs daily operator maintenance services and prepares operator dispatch records.
This squad (HSB and ACR) provides 5-ton tractors with 22 l/2-ton stake and platform semitrailers. It provides for movement of containerized cargo and palletized load packages. It also provides for movement of medium sized and weight equipment, supplies, or vehicles.
The SIB/TDB has three light/medium cargo truck squads. The light trucks provide light vehicle support for delivery of supplies, light cargo, or personnel. The medium vehicles provide movement of containerized cargo, palletized load packages, medium sized and weight equipment, supplies, or vehicles.
HETs move heavy or outsized cargo and vehicles such as tanks, howitzers, and personnel carriers. The HSB and ACR use HET assets in support of operational and tactical mobility. HETs move heavy armored forces with slice elements from corps to brigade areas as far forward as METT-T factors permit. HETs also reduce maintenance work load due to fewer systems breakdown en route. Weapon systems are functional and crews are rested and prepared to fight.
The support battalion users HETs to support evacuation and replacement of heavy weapon systems (tanks, artillery pieces, personnel carriers). Evacuation normally starts at the UMCP and terminates at the maintenance facility with the capacity to repair the vehicle. Two personnel, one driver and one assistant driver, constitute a HET vehicle operating team.
Supply operating procedures are generally the same in all separate brigades and are normally contained in SOPs. In mobile situations, the separate brigade maintains only those supply levels needed to support operations until additional supplies are delivered. These include small stocks of reserve supplies used during interruptions in supply schedules. In static situations, sufficient supplies for several days' consumption are stocked in the brigade area to free transportation for other purposes. In all situations, suppliers exercise caution to ensure that on-hand stocks do not reach the level that would impede brigade mobility. The corps prescribes the levels of supply carried by the separate brigades.
The S&T company commander, working with the S2/S3 section in the support battalion (support operations in the ACR), focuses his attention on the supply requirements of units in the brigade AO. In addition to following the priorities established by the commander, the following are factors that affect requirements:
- Tactical plans.
- Environment and terrain.
- Demand data and previous experience.
- Troop strength.
- Equipment densities.
- Distance factors.
- Chemical filters.
- Human remains pouches and other mortuary affairs supplies.
- Cargo sling sets.
- MOPP gear.
- Class VI.
- Fog oil.
- Chemical decontaminants.
The support battalion issues rations according to the theater command policy. The Army field feeding standard is three quality meals per day. Initially, units in the brigade area eat MREs and T Rations which are replenished as soon as supply lines are established. Theater commanders introduce A and B Rations when the tactical situation permits.
At the outset of hostilities, the COSCOM automatically pushes rations to the brigade. COSCOM MMC bases the quantity on strength figures provided by the brigade S1.Transition to a pull system takes place as soon as tactically feasible. As the situation stabilizes the BMMC prepares Class I requisitions from personnel data. The flow of personnel strength data as it pertains to scheduled supply and flow of Class I supplies is shown in Figure 8-4.
As the situation stabilizes even further and A and B Rations are available, units of the brigade submit rations request. Usually, the S&T company Class I and water section consolidates these requests. This section passes the request to the BMMC. The BMMC converts the request to line item requisitions and sends them to the COSCOM MMC. This generates regular ration delivery by COSCOM units to the BSA.
Personnel at the BSA Class I point unload the shipment. They inspect it for type, number, and condition before signing for it. At the same time, personnel break down the shipment for issue to supported units. Class I personnel prepare copies of the unit issue document.
When supply point distribution is used, supported units use organic transportation to pickup Class I supplies. The brigade S4 and the supply company commander coordinate a schedule for pickup of issues. When units arrive to pickup their rations, they check in at a control point. Class I personnel ensure that the unit is an authorized customer. Class I personnel also ensure the unit representatives are authorized to draw rations. Units pick up rations according to one of the following methods:
- Truck to truck. Personnel transfer supplies directly from the corps vehicle to the supported unit vehicle. This is the preferred method because it saves time, labor, and handling. This method also keeps supplies under cover and increases mobility. However, it ties up the vehicle from the corps. Also, unless the arrival of supported unit vehicles is timed perfectly, it could cause traffic congestion.
- Item pile. This method requires that all stocks be unloaded and separated on the ground, on dunnage, according to like items. Customer units pass each of the different piles and load the quantity they are authorized. The supply point uses the item pile method when Class I personnel are limited on time or short personnel.
- Unit pile. This method is similar to the item pile. The only difference is that the customer only has to stop once. Class I personnel off-load all stocks from carriers and break them down according to unit issue slips. Units enter the Class I point, find their designated area, and pick up their rations.
The S&T company operates up to two water purification and supply points. When water sources permit, water points are set up in the BSA. Using units normally pick up water using their organic water containers. FM 10-52 has more information on field water supply.
COSCOM transportation delivers water to designated brigade water distribution points. This is done when a water source is not available to the brigade. This is also done when the mission necessitates supplementation of organic S&T company water capabilities. The Class I and water section with transportation assistance provides limited water distribution to brigade unit locations. Transportation assistance includes both air and ground water delivery/dispensing assets. The S&T company, using TMT vehicles, distributes water on a limited basis using the 500-gallon drums of the FAWPSS.
The support battalion supply platoon provides Class II, III (packaged), IV, and VII supplies, with the exception of COMSEC materiel. Corps signal channels provide COMSEC materiel. Supply platoon facilities for these classes of supply include small holding areas in the BSA.
The supply platoon provides selected Class II supplies automatically to brigade units. The unit requests and the BMMC requisitions other Class II items. COSCOM units deliver Class II supplies to the BSA supply point. The COSCOM units may also deliver directly to the requesting unit. Direct distribution occurs when most of the transportation carrier capacity is for a specific unit. The TMT platoon uses its own assets to assist in unit distribution of fast-moving items. The demand for each of these supplies is unpredictable and highly variable. The S&T company maintains a limited Class II ASL. The Class II ASL consists only of items necessary for combat operations. These items include MOPP gear, individual equipment, and limited special tools.
Personnel issue Class II items individually or in lots to speed up receipt and issue time. Personnel in the GS supply company configure these lots to support a specific number of troops. Intense combat operations in an NBC environment increase the demand for Class II items. Supply personnel arrange for scheduled resupply of protective overgarments and other NBC-related items and equipment.
The support battalion personnel requisition, receive, and issue packaged Class III supplies like Class II and IV items. They include packaged products such as lubricants, greases, and hydraulic fluids. They also include solvents in containers of 55 gallons or less and cylinders of liquid and compressed gases. FM 10-69 describes the receipt, storage, and issue of packaged petroleum products. AR 710-2 has guidance on preparing paperwork.
Class IV supplies consist of construction and barrier materials. Because of the bulk of these materials, the S&T company handles limited quantities. COSCOM units store and maintain the majority of Class IV supplies. Whenever possible, COSCOM units throughput engineer construction material and intensively managed barrier material to the engineer unit, the construction site, or the maneuver battalion combat trains.
The S&T company has the capability to handle limited quantities of survivability items - Class IV (A). These are items that are emplaced by any unit. These items include such common items as sandbags, concertina wire, and fence posts. Supply personnel process the requests for survivability items the same as for Class II items. Supported units obtain Class IV (A) items from the Class II, III (packaged), IV, and VII supply point. The receipt, storage, and issue section of the S&T company prepares limited Class IV (A) supplies for transport and delivery to forward brigade units.
The BMMC intensively manages command controlled Class VII items. Class VII replacements initiate with combat losses reported through command channels to the brigade S3 and S4. The battalion S4 also sends a summary report of Class VII status periodically to the support battalion S2/S3 section. The support battalion S2/S3 coordinates with the BMMC. The BMMC submits requests to the COSCOM MMC. The brigade commander remains apprised of the operational status of subordinate commands and directs the distribution of items to those units having the most critical need.
Corps transportation delivers rolling stock Class VII items to the S&T company or supported units in a ready-for-issue condition. A ready-for-issue item is one that has been removed from its previous condition of preservation for shipment or storage and made mechanically operable. Corps personnel install all ancillary equipment. The vehicle is fueled and basic issue items are aboard. There is no ammunition and no crew provided. The corps delivers all other Class VII items to the S&T company. Units pick the item up at the S&T company location.
If the Class VII item is a critical weapon system such as a tank, the brigade intensively manages the replacement. The brigade commander designates critical systems. For these systems, Class VII supply and personnel replacement operations are integrated to issue ready-to-fight systems to units. A ready-to-fight system is a ready-for-issue weapon system to which a crew and ammunition are added, and the weapon is foresighted. Managing weapon systems is the most efficient way to accomplish allocation of limited amounts of replacement combat vehicles and personnel.
The support battalion commander designates a weapon system manager within the BMMC for each weapon system designated by the brigade commander. The appropriate sections within the BMMC and a personnel manager from the S1/AG element of the brigade keep the WSM advised of the status of weapon system assets. They also execute instructions from the WSM.
The link-up point of the item with its crew maybe in the BSA at the S&T company Class VII assembly area. The WSM instructs the S1/AG element to send a specified number of combat vehicle crews to the S&T company Class VII assembly area at specific times.
The S&T company personnel direct the crew to a specific weapon system. The crew stows the basic issue items, checks external and internal communications, and fore sights, test fires, or zeroes the weapons.
The WSM closely coordinates with the maintenance management officer of the BMMC. Together, they verify the status of combat vehicles being repaired in DS maintenance. Replacement crew members could join a combat vehicle at the maintenance site and assist in expediting maintenance. COSCOM assumes the link-up responsibility in the event the tactical situation prevents linkup in the BSA. Personnel form complete weapon systems at COSCOM and travel from corps to the brigade, preferably by rail or HET
The WSM coordinates the movement of weapon systems from the BSA to the battalion trains. Personnel move the weapon systems under their own power or transport them on HETs. The S&T company sends the weapon systems forward as part of the LOGPAC or separately to the supported unit.
Supported units submit requests for Class II, III (packaged), IV and VII to the supply platoon. If the supplies are on hand, supply personnel issue them to the requestor. Once issued, the supply point notifies the DMMC of the issue. Item that are command regulated require approval before they are issued. The supply platoon consolidates and sends the BMMC requests for items that are not on hand. The BMMC requisitions the supplies from the COSCOM MMC. Figure 8-5 shows the flow of Class II, III (packaged), IV, and VII supplies. The COSCOM MMC directs a GS unit to forward supplies the BSA supply point.
When items arrive, receiving personnel verify quantities and condition. They also verify item description and marking of items received against shipping documents. Supply personnel process supplies by priority designation. They code items for a specific unit and put the items directly into the unit's vehicle. They use the truck-to-truck method whenever possible. Otherwise, they put the items in unit piles or item piles, or park them in the Class VII yard. They place other items into storage in locations assigned by the BMMC or the supply company headquarters based on the established stock locator system.
The supply point normally uses supply point distribution to issue Class II, III (packaged), IV, and VII supplies to supported units. The supply point uses unit distribution to distribute supplies when the tactical situation permits and transportation assets are available. In some cases, when the tactical situation permits and transload or emplacement sites are near the BSA, the ATP uses MHE to assist in handling Class IV supply. Supply point personnel sign all issue documents. They send them to the BMMC along with the transportation and shipping documents.
Requisitions for unclassified maps follow the same flow as those for Class II, III (packaged), and IV supplies. Supply personnel store them in the receipt, storage, and issue section. They issue maps through supply point distribution to supported units. This is done in accordance with established tables of allowances or to fill special requirements. The S2 channels handle classified maps.
The S4 of the supported brigade in coordination with the battalion S4s submits a forecast for bulk fuel requirements of all brigade units to the BMMC. The BMMC uses these forecasts and status reports to compute bulk requirements for the brigade. The BMMC forwards the requirements to the COSCOM MMC. The COSCOM MMC coordinates the delivery of bulk fuel to the Class III supply point. Corps fuel tankers, railway tank cars, barges, pipelines or flexible hose lines deliver bulk fuel. The S&T company maintains a mission supply of all bulk fuel. Most brigade units receive bulk fuel by supply point distribution to units' organic fuel-holding and issue vehicles. The supply platoon maintains accountability and provides quality surveillance. Figure 8-6 depicts the flow of bulk fuels. AR 710-2 has guidance for supply and accounting procedures for bulk fuel. For additional details on petroleum supply in theaters of operations, see FM 10-67.
FM 10-71 describes in detail fuel transfer operations. Truck tractor drivers drop off a full semitrailer at the S&T company and pick up an empty one. Such trailer transfers save time but make it harder to keep track of the trailers. Therefore, it is important that the support battalion and corps coordinate schedules to ensure empty S&T company tankers are on hand when resupply tankers arrive. Another option is to transfer the fuel from the corps tanker to the support battalion tanker. This option may actually be faster if extensive camouflage is required. In either case, supply personnel sign receipt documents for the amount and type of fuel received. They post quantities received to the stockage record and use it to update the daily status report. They also abstract receipts daily to the monthly abstract of issues.
The S&T company provides limited bulk fuel delivery. It issues to brigade units without organic fuel-carrying assets. It also provides limited refueling support to supported units to supported units organic fuel-dispensing vehicles and in some cases, to maneuver vehicles. One technique which works in the field involves the use of S&T company tankers in combination with maneuver battalion. HEMTTs or TPUs. One tanker deploys with two TPUs or HEMTTs to form a refueling module that can service four combat vehicles at a time. Up to six modules can be set up together to service a task-organized company team if sufficient tankers are available and the tactical situation permits. Such a site can service up to 24 vehicles at a time. Refuel sites may also be set up in a split-site configuration to stagger march elements and reduce traffic congestion. The maneuver battalion, which is familiar with the area, is responsible for site selection and security. The battalion S4 coordinates with the S&T company on where and when the refueling operation is and how much fuel is required. The primary benefit of this technique is speed. It takes five minutes for the S&T company tanker driver and assistant driver to deploy one section of a 50-foot hoseline to the T-valve, start the pony engine, and prepare to pump into the TPUs or HEMTTs. The other advantage of this system is that the S&T company supports it with no additional equipment authorizations.
The purpose of ROM operations is to ensure that all combat vehicle and fuel-servicing vehicle fuel tanks are topped off prior to arriving at the unit's tactical assembly area. ROM supports long distance movements by units. It provides units a "burst" of fuel in order to quickly fill vehicles prior to beginning offensive or retrograde operations. The capability to rapidly refuel combat vehicles without disrupting movement is the key to the agility of the separate brigade and battalions.
As the ROM name implies, the ROM assembly is used while units are moving or ready to move. Personnel perform ROM during the following activities:
- Road march.
- Entry to an assembly area.
- Delaying action.
- Passage of lines (forward and rearward).
The commander of the S&T company is the ROM site commander. He notifies the petroleum platoon of the upcoming ROM mission. The technique used by the support battalion to refuel as part of a separate brigade movement depends on several key factors:
- Number of routes.
- Proximity to the enemy and threat situation.
- Number of battalions to be refueled at one time.
- Ensures all equipment is complete, operational, and ready for movement to the ROM site.
- Provides number of vehicles, nomenclature, and model to support battalion S4 for march credits, as required.
- Ensures the ROM site is properly setup and ready to conduct daytime and nighttime refueling operations.
- Ensures the soldiers in the petroleum platoon are fully trained and briefed on the safe and efficient conduct of all aspects of ROM operations.
- Ensures the site is properly cleared after completion of the ROM mission.
- Provides bulk refuel of supported battalion tankers, if unit tankers are used to conduct the ROM mission. The bulk refuel takes place at a different location than the ROM site as designated by the brigade S4.
If the brigade is operating with a division, the DISCOM support operations officer receives additional support requirements, if any, from the support battalion conducting the ROM. The DISCOM support operations officer coordinates ROM support requirements with the DMMC. The DISCOM commander tasks the DISCOM units (FSB/MSB) to provide refuel assets to the support battalion conducting the ROM. The DISCOM support operations officer can request support from the COSCOM if required and available. If the brigade is operating independently, it may directly request COSCOM help to conduct a ROM operation.
Regimental units requiring aviation Class III support use their organic tankers for Class IIIA (air, bulk fuel) supply of their respective units. The S&T troop provides assets to assist in Class IIIA resupply. This may be done by allocating tankers to the RAS field trains or by handling aviation fuel itself.
The COSCOM provides all resupply of aviation fuel for regimental aviation assets in the regimental aviation squadron. COSCOM delivers fuel to the S&T troop or the RAS field trains. The RAS uses organic vehicles from the Class III/V platoon to receive aircraft fuel at the S&T troop supply point, the RAS trains, or a transloading site near a FARP. Those organic vehicles refuel aircraft at the FARPs. If tactically possible and air delivery systems are available, the COSCOM delivers collapsible drums direct to the using units.
The separate brigade ATP support concept works similarly to the division ATPs. The brigade does not normally maintain a reserve of Class V supply. Other than that ammunition specified for an ATP, the only ammunition maintained in the brigade is what brigade units are carrying with them. In some tactical operations, a brigade may be authorized to preposition ammunition for future use. This is done so that the brigade can begin a subsequent operation with the ammunition it requires.
The S&T company operates an ATP in the BSA. Personnel transload ammunition from corps transportation assets to supported unit vehicles. The S&T company also provides limited, emergency Class V distribution to brigade units.
The brigade ammunition officer (in the BMMC) is the approval/authenticating authority. The BAO determines the quantity of ammunition to be supplied to th brigade units. He bases this on planned operations, the current CSR, and the RSR received from the brigade S4. Each battalion S4 transmits ammunition requirements for organic and attached units through the brigade S4 to the BAO at the BMMC. The BAO ensures that requirements do not exceed the CSR. The BAO submits Class V requirements to the COSCOM MMC. Brigade units submit their Class V requirements through the SAAS-DAO system for resupply.
When Class V supplies arrive at the brigade ATP, the BAO representative inspects and inventories the shipment. If a discrepancy exists on a document, the BAO representative adjusts the document and informs the BAO.
The ATP NCOIC assigns a location in the ATP where the trailer is stationed to await the arrival of the receiving unit. Trailers should be 50 to 100 feet apart depending on the terrain. The normal sources of ATP resupply are the corps storage areas and ASPs.
Brigade units pick up their Class V materiel from the brigade ATP. The brigade S4 coordinates with the BAO representative and battalion S4s to establish a schedule for pickup. When supported units show up at the ATP, they have an approved/authenticated Class V requirements document. Personnel at the COSCOM ASP issue nonroutine items or those unavailable at the ATP directly to brigade unit vehicles.
Class V operations are MHE intensive. Personnel use both ATP MHE and MHE on board supported unit vehicles to transload ammunition from the corps transportation assets to unit vehicles. Signed receipt documents are forwarded to the BMMC. Supported units reorganize or, if necessary, reconfigure the ammunition they pickup at the ATP for further delivery forward to rearm points. The S&T troop should also have air assault trained personnel and necessary equipment for sling-loading operations of the assault helicopter troop. FM 9-6 has additional details on Class V supply. Figure 8-7 depicts the flow of Class V supplies to the brigade.
Transportation planning is
determining what must be moved, where and when it must be moved,
and the best way to move it. Proper transportation planning ensures the
timely delivery to planned destinations.
Within the separate brigade there are several officers who deal directly
with transportation. They coordinate closely to ensure that transportation
assets are put to optimum use. The brigade S3 plans the operations of the
brigade and recommends to the commander operational priorities
for transportation. The brigade S4 has staff responsibility for
transportation and plans the use of transportation for CSS. The
brigade transportation officer is the principal transportation
planner and coordinator of the brigade.
Within the separate brigade there are several officers who deal directly with transportation. They coordinate closely to ensure that transportation assets are put to optimum use. The brigade S3 plans the operations of the brigade and recommends to the commander operational priorities for transportation. The brigade S4 has staff responsibility for transportation and plans the use of transportation for CSS. The brigade transportation officer is the principal transportation planner and coordinator of the brigade.
The support battalion transportation officer works for the support battalion S2/S3. This officer plans and controls the assignment of transportation missions to the S&T company. In so doing, he maintains centralized control of the battalion's transportation assets. He coordinates priorities with the brigade transportation officer and with the BMMO in the support battalion. To the extent practicable, the support battalion transportation officer makes every transportation dispatch serve two purposes. For example, trucks transport supplies forward to supported units. On the return trip, they bring back damaged and captured equipment, salvage, prisoners of war, and human remains.
The support battalion transportation officer (MCO in the support squadron) controls the use of organic transportation assets in the support battalion. The support battalion transportation officer, based on guidance and tactical priorities from the BTO, determines the appropriate mode to use for specific movement missions. The coordination between the battalion transportation officer and the BTO ensures that transport equipment needed for a given mission is in the correct location on time. This prior coordination reduces transportation delays and increases transport asset use. This also ensures that receiving and unloading capabilities of consignees are not exceeded.
The support battalion transportation officer provides committal authority. He sends a TMR to task the S&T TMT platoon to provide support to the supported unit. If the support battalion is unable to provide the required transportation support, the support battalion transportation officer forwards the requests for additional transportation support to the BTO. The BTO searches for compatible and available transport assets within the brigade to satisfy the request. If this search does not produce sufficient transport capability, the request is forwarded to the supporting MCT or COSCOM MCC. Normally, the BTO forwards only requests of an exceptional nature (for example, major buildups requiring transportation companies) to the corps MCC. Otherwise, the BTO passes the requests to the supporting MCT. See Figure 8-8.
The COSCOM gives additional help in moving heavy equipment or displacing heavy forces in either a tactical or operational mobility role. HET companies are assigned to the COSCOM and may be attached to a forward CSG. They maybe employed as companies or platoons. Although the HETs may support any mission requirements of the brigade, the companies are particularly useful in giving the COSCOM the capability of supporting requirements of the separate brigade when the brigade or elements of it have to move over a long distance. Using the HET to move heavy armored forces achieves the following advantages:
- Enhances readiness.
- Rests crew.
- Reduces fuel requirements en route.
- Reduces maintenance requirements en route.
Vehicles authorized for motor transport vary in type, design, and capabilities. The TMT platoon provides spool of cargo vehicles which are employed daily to support brigade operations. Personnel use the 5-ton cargo vehicles and the container/break-bulk transport semitrailer combinations primarily in a cargo or equipment transport role. The platoon provides truck transportation for downed aircraft evacuation (RAS in the ACR). The 5-ton cargo vehicles also provide transportation of troops. The semitrailer combinations are used in a troop transport role only in emergency situations.
The HET semitrailer, low-bed transports the main battle tank, other tracked or heavy wheeled vehicles, or heavy and outsized cargo items. The 5-ton cargo trucks with mounted tank and pump units provide POL resupply for the TMT platoon.
The drivers in each squad operate assigned vehicles in accordance with daily dispatch orders. They observe rules and regulations governing vehicle operations, safety practices and rules of the road. They complete daily operational records, perform required operator maintenance services, and assist unit personnel in performing unit maintenance on assigned vehicles.
More information on brigade transportation operations for the TMT platoon is in FM 55-30.
The motor transport mission determines the
planning process on how the convoy is to be organized and controlled.
Details on convoys appear in FM 55-30.
Movement requirements in the
brigade area place severe burden on the traffic and tonnage capabilities,
Movement control is carried out by use of convoy clearances and
the highway traffic plan. This plan is a combination of SOPs,
directives, regulations, and overlays concerning control of the
Movement requirements in the brigade area place severe burden on the traffic and tonnage capabilities, Movement control is carried out by use of convoy clearances and the highway traffic plan. This plan is a combination of SOPs, directives, regulations, and overlays concerning control of the road net.
Convoys are broken down into serials and march units. Some factors considered when planning for a convoy operation are --
- Map/route reconnaissance.
- Start and release points.
- Fire support and coordination.
- Convoy organization.
- Feeding the troops.
- Refueling vehicles.
Air transport includes all methods of transporting materiel and personnel by air. Planners integrate available Army aircraft into the support plan. The ACR has aircraft that may perform CSS missions. The separate brigades depend on external resources for their air transport needs.
Army aircraft support includes airlift support for the following functions:
- Logistics-over-the-shore operations.
- Movement of critical, high-priority Class IX items.
- Retrograde of reparable.
- Prepositioning of fuel and ammunition.
- Movement of maintenance contact teams.
- Movement of low-density/high-cost munitions.
Air transportation request procedures are responsive and flexible to provide for rapidly changing situations. Planners direct efforts toward optimal use of these scarce and vital assets. Each level of command validates transportation requests. Validation is the user's review of the feasibility of the request. Transportation requests are considered valid if forwarded to the next echelon for subsequent validation or to the mode operator for execution.
Air resupply missions are categorized as preplanned and emergency. Preplanned missions make up the routine air transport requirements. Emergency air movements are critical to the accomplishment of the tactical mission or the survival of a unit.
Requirements for air transportation normally originate as requests for transportation or resupply support. Brigade units request transportation support from the support battalion transportation officer and supplies from the battalion DS supply elements. The support battalion DS supply elements transmit supply requests they cannot fill to the BMMC. The support battalion transportation officer coordinates movement of supplies with the BMMC. If the support battalion transportation officer determines that air transportation is appropriate, he passes a request through the BTO (MCO in the ACR).
In the ACR, the assault helicopter troop provides CSS within the priorities set by the ACR commander. For example, it may deliver fuel from the S&T troop Class III point to squadron trains, troop trains, or direct to the refuel site. Air transport requests that are beyond the capability of the assault helicopter troop are sent by the MCO to the corps MCC. In the HSB and SIB/TDB, the BTO submits all air transport requests to the corps MCC. The corps MCC tasks the corps aviation units with the mission. If the mission is beyond the capability of the corps aviation unit or if airdrop or air landing of the cargo would better meet the requirement, a request for Air Force support is initiated. In this joint operation, supplies and equipment to be transported, ground transportation to move them, parachutes and air items used in rigging of loads, and ground personnel supporting the operation are Army responsibilities.
Emergency requests pass through supply or transportation channels the same as routine requests. However, requests are also passed simultaneously through command channels from the user to the corps G3. The corps G3 approves emergency requests and tasks the aviation brigade to perform the mission. At the same time, the brigade S4 and support battalion staff coordinate with the BMMC for resupply missions so the S&T company can begin to prepare the shipment. Prerigged loads of standard resupply packages stored at corps level reduce response time for emergency air resupply. More details on requests for air transport are in FM 100-27
Selection and control of pickup and landing zones are extremely important. Pickup zone selection and control are the responsibility of the supported unit, the unit which requests the mission. That unit may be the S&T company of the support battalion. The receiving unit, which is having the cargo delivered to it, is responsible for landing zone selection and control.
As a general rule, pickup and landing zones provide for 30 meters separation between utility aircraft and 40 meters between cargo aircraft. They have no obstructions such as tree stumps, bushes, or manmade objects that could damage the helicopter rotor systems, or the load itself. The number of aircraft using a zone at one time is considered along with its use after dark.
If night resupply is scheduled, a larger area is normally needed. The surface condition should be solid enough to prevent a helicopter or load from bogging down. Blowing dust, sand, gravel, or loose debris injures people and damages equipment or aircraft. If the site has a slope of 15 degrees or more, a helicopter cannot land. Also, when carrying an external load, a helicopter cannot rise straight up or come straight down. The avenue of approach and departure are over the lowest obstacle in the direction of the prevailing winds. Helicopters operate in a crosswind or tail wind of up to 15 knots.
Airdrop support units are allocated to the corps and theater. As a rule, airdrop of supplies and equipment is a joint operation of the Air Force and Army or other user, such as the Marine Corps. Airdrop resupply missions are classified as either preplanned or immediate. Preplanned missions are considered for routine type requirements. Immediate missions result from unanticipated, urgent, or priority requirements. Coordination with logistics elements is made at each echelon if time permits.
The brigade unit receiving airdrop resupply is responsible for the following:
- Selecting, marking, and securing the drop zone.
- Ensuring no unsafe conditions exist on the drop zone during the airdrop operation.
- Recovering the supplies/equipment provided by airdrop.
- Recovering and evacuating airdrop equipment used in the airdrop, if time permits.
A DS field services company provides CEB, laundry and renovation support to the separate brigade during combat operations. A corps collection company provides forward collection platoons for mortuary affairs operations.
All commanders make certain that units under their command perform unit-level mortuary affairs. Each unit searches for, recovers, identifies, and evacuates its own remains. The support battalion has one mortuary affairs trained soldier in the S&T company. He is available to train brigade personnel in unit mortuary affairs responsibilities in the handling of personal effects and remains, as well as what forms they need to complete. Unit-level MA responsibilities are detailed in FM 10-63-1.
In the initial stages of hostilities, the battalion commander pulls personnel from other duties to operate a collection point. The mortuary affairs NCO is normally given the duty of chief of the collection point until the corps MA unit sets up collection points. A corps forward collection platoon sets up collection points in the BSA. Whether the support battalion or corps collection platoon operates the collection point in the BSA, all brigade elements recover remains to that point. Each point has personnel who receive remains and inventory personal effects and make initial identification. MA personnel ensure that personnel recovering the remains have completed a DD Form 565 or a similar statement by two sources, if possible. In all cases MA personnel complete a DD Form 1380.
Then MA personnel evacuate the remains from the BSA to an intermediate MA collection point or temporary military cemetery in the corps area. Personnel use helicopters and backhaul transportation (except for Class I vehicles and medical evacuation) to evacuate remains. Personnel always cover and screen from sight the remains.
MA personnel require authorization to perform emergency burials, if the number of fatalities occurring makes evacuation of remains impossible. MA personnel notify headquarters as to the number of remains, location, and reasons evacuation cannot be accomplished. In such cases, MA personnel use authorized emergency war burial procedures.
Personnel handle all remains found in a contaminated area as if contaminated. They attach NBC tags to contaminated remains. If NBC tags are not available, personnel attach a tag with a large "C" written on it to each contaminated remains. Personnel handling contaminated remains maintain an adequate level of individual protection. They keep contaminated remains separate from uncontaminated remains.
Due to the possibility of mass fatalities in an NBC attack, normal mortuary affairs methods are not feasible. Personnel do not evacuate contaminated remains unless they can be thoroughly decontaminated and checked by NBC personnel. In extreme cases, contaminated remains may require mass burials. MA personnel make requests through command channels. Permission for mass burials comes from the joint central MA officer in the theater after approval from the theater commander.
CEB teams may establish and operate two CEB facilities at sites in the brigade. They maintain stocks of clothing to exchange with bathers. They also coordinate the delivery and laundering of soiled clothing and pick up clean clothing from the supporting laundry. (A corps field service company provides laundry and renovation services to the separate brigade.)
The CEB point provides showers from portable bath units, delousing service, and exchange of soiled clothing for laundered clothing. CEB personnel maintain records and prepare daily, weekly, or monthly reports for CEB activities. They give each supported unit a scheduled time for baths so that services are provided in an orderly manner. Supported units assign soldiers to guard valuables and assist with clothing exchange. More information on CEB operations is in FM 10-280.
The support battalions of the HSB, SIB/TDB, and ACR give limited salvage support. The corps field service company, GS, forward, reinforces support.
The S&T company establishes a salvage collection point. This normally is in or near a maintenance collection point. The salvage collection point irresponsible for items for which the maintenance company does not have maintenance responsibility. Personnel collect, classify, and dispose of salvage materials. The users or finders deliver their salvage to the salvage collection points. Salvage includes items that are discarded, captured, uneconomically reparable, condemned, abandoned, and scrap. The salvage collection point does not handle toxic agents, radioactive materiels, ammunition and explosives, and COMSEC and medical supplies.
When receiving material, the salvage point performs the following functions:
- Check the item and its condition against the information shown on the turn-in documentation.
- Classify items as serviceable or unserviceable.
- Segregate items turned in as serviceable, reparable, or scrap. Serviceable items are protected from the elements as much as possible.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|