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* Appendix B

Support Squadron 2d Armored Cavalry Regiment

GENERAL

This appendix contains information pertinent to the support squadron, 2d ACR. The appendix addresses information that differs from the information on the Support Squadron of the Armored Cavalry Regiment, found in the text of FM 63-1.

BACKGROUND

Changes in the Soviet Union and Europe have reduced the possibility of direct confrontation. The reduction of this direct threat in Europe has shifted emphasis to power projection in support of contingency missions throughout the world. As the potential for regional threats increases, contingency force operations across the range of military operations become the first response. This contingency force requires alight, rapidly deployable force with organic CSS for reconnaissance and/or security. The light armored cavalry regiment meets that need.

MISSION

The 2d ACR mission, in support of the contingency. force, is to --

  • Provide reconnaissance and security.

  • Confirm or deny intelligence.

  • Direct or control deep fires.

  • Conduct counter-reconnaissance.

  • Conduct combat operations in an economy of force role.

The 2d ACR is organized as shown in Figure B-1.

SUPPORT SQUADRON

The 2d ACR is supported by a support squadron that is its primary source of logistics. The leadership of the support squadron must anticipate support requirements and provide real-time support. The COSCOM or support element of a Joint Task Force provides GS supply support, HSS, field services and transportation support to the ACR. When an ACR is the forerunner of a corps size force, elements of a forward CSG may deploy to provide support.

The 2d ACR commander organizes the combat elements in his force to best provide reconnaissance and provide security in close operations. These primary tasks are shown in Table B-1. The support squadron commander must plan and be prepared to support these type of operations.

The support squadron ensures the 2d ACR has sufficient CSS support, permitting it to operate independently for limited periods of time. Readiness support of the maneuver force across the nonlinear battlefield requires the CSS system to man, arm, fuel, fix, move, and sustain perform soldiers and their systems. This support is provided across the range of military operations. The support squadron provides this support by adhering to the logistics characteristics of continuity, responsiveness, improvisation, integration, and anticipation.

The support squadron is the primary supply, transportation, maintenance, and health services managing element in the 2d ACR. The squadron commander plans, directs, and supervises direct-support level supply, maintenance, transportation, and HSS for the regiment commander. The support squadron provides centralized and integrated materiel management for Class I, II, III, I, V, VII, VIII, and IX supplies and water. It serves as the single, responsive, multifunctional CSS organization to support the regiment. The squadron is capable of supporting a variety of light and heavy attachments and task organizations. It is capable of detaching a single squadron support slice without degrading support to the regiment. This capability allows units to be tailored, augmented, or reinforced where the need is most critical. To ensure mobility equals that of the supported units, the support squadron is C-141 transportable. The support squadron requires 100 percent mobility in order to keep pace with the supported units in the regiment.

Figure B-2 depicts the organization of the support squadron. The support squadron consists of the following four troops:

  • Headquarters and headquarters.

  • Supply and transportation.

  • Maintenance.

  • Medical.

Each has a specific role in providing designated logistics assets in the squadron.

HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS TROOP

The HHT consists of the support squadron head-quarters and the headquarters troop as shown in Figure B-3. The squadron headquarters is responsible for the effective command and control of organic and attached units. It is also responsible for materiel management for the entire regiment. The headquarters troop provides the internal administrative, disciplinary, training, and security support functions for the squadron headquarters.

S&T TROOP

Figure B-4 depicts the S&T troop organization. The S&T troop supports as follows:

  • The arming function through its Class IV (barrier material) and V resupply operations.

  • The fueling function through Class III operations.

  • The fixing function with Class IX in the RSA.

  • The moving function by transporting personnel, supplies, and equipment with organic transportation assets.

It also sustains the soldier by providing rations and water, clothing, and individual equipment.

MAINTENANCE TROOP

The maintenance troop, as shown in Figure B-5, supports the fix function with a DS maintenance and Class IX supply capability. DS maintenance support (less AVIM) is provided to all units assigned or attached to the 2d ACR. It provides on-shop and in-shop repair. In addition, each forward support platoon supports a cavalry squadron through a habitual relationship. The forward support platoons provide essential maintenance support to the combat critical equipment of the supported squadron. When combined with a forward supply section from the technical supply platoon (Class IX), the platoon can provide semi-independent support for an extended period. Work load, parts requirements, and production are passed to the maintenance control section using automated means. Reinforcing support may be provided by task organization. Those support assets are found within the automotive/ground support platoon or armament/missile/electronics platoon. The technical supply platoon receives, stores, and issues repair parts and reparable exchange to the units assigned or attached to the regiment. The main supply section operates the central support facility. The forwardsupport sections maintain detachable, mobile facilities tailored to meet the requirements of the supported cavalry squadron.

MEDICAL TROOP

HSS for the 2d ACR is delivered at unit-level (Echelon I) and regimental-level (Echelon II). Unit-level HSS consists of --

  • Disease prevention.

  • Medical treatment or advanced trauma management.

  • Patient collection.

  • Patient evacuation.

It is provided by the medical platoons that operate squadron aid stations and are organic to maneuver squadrons. Combat medics of a maneuver squadron's medical platoon are routinely attached to maneuver troops for direct support. The squadron medical platoon also positions ambulances with maneuver troops for DS. Unit-level HSS is enhanced by first aid in the form of self-aid and buddy-aid. Regimental-level HSS includes Echelon I and Echelon II capabilities and is provided by the medical troop. The regimental-level expands services by adding the following capabilities:

  • Surgical.

  • Dental.

  • Limited x-ray, laboratory, preventive medicine.

  • Patient-holding capabilities.

Figure B-6 depicts the organization of the medical troop.

The medical troop headquarters provides command, control, administrative, and logistics functions necessary to perform the troop's medical mission. At this level, the troop commander advises the regimental commander on all medical matters affecting the regiment to include --

  • Preventive medicine.

  • Medical supply.

  • Medical effects of NBC agents on personnel, rations, and water.

The troop deploys with a 5-day resupply stock for medical elements in the regiment. Advice is also provided on the status of organic vehicles, signal, and medical equipment. The medical troop commander also serves as the regimental surgeon.

The RMSS manages and distributes Class VIII supplies and provides unit-level medical maintenance for all medical elements of the regiment. It also procures and maintains a blood supply (group O packed red blood cells) for the regimental clearing station.

The treatment platoon operates the regimental clearing station that is located in the RSA. It receives, triages, and performs resuscitation for nontransportable patients. It treats and determines the disposition of all categories of patients based upon their condition. This platoon provides professional services in the area of resuscitative surgery, internal medicine, general medicine, and general dentistry. In addition, it provides basic diagnostic laboratory and radiological services and patient-holding support. The treatment platoon is composed of a platoon headquarters, two forward supporting treatment squads, and an area support section.

The two forward supporting treatment squads provide sick call services, emergency medical treatment, and advanced trauma management support. The primary missions of these squads are to--

  • Reinforce maneuver squadron medical platoons.

  • Provide direct support for regimental task force operations.

  • Provide support for area damage control operations.

Each squad has the capability to split and operate as separate treatment teams (Teams A and B) for limited periods of time. They deploy with a 3-day supply capability estimated for the supported unit.

The area support section of the treatment platoon is composed of an area support squad, an area treatment squad two surgical squads, and a patient-holding squad. These squads form the regimental clearing station. Elements of this section are not used to reinforce other medical elements.

The area support squad comprises the dental and diagnostic support element of the regimental clearing station. The dental element provides emergency dental care (to include treatment of minor maxillofacial injuries), sustaining dental care (designed to prevent potential dental emergencies), and limited preventive dentistry and consultation services. The diagnostic element is composed of a medical laboratory and a field x-ray capability. It provides for basic services commensurate with Echelon II medical treatment.

The area treatment squad is the base treatment element of the regimental clearing station. It provides sick call services, initial resuscitation (advanced trauma management), and emergency medical treatment for supported units.

The two surgical squads provide resuscitative surgery. They treat only those patients whose physical conditions could deteriorate significantly if they were moved any substantial distance without the immediate intervention of surgically stabilizing procedures. These conditions include --

  • Continuing hemorrhage.

  • Severe shock.

  • Severe thigh wound.

  • Cardiac wounds.

  • Wounds causing airway compromise or respiratory distress.

  • Deteriorating closed head wounds.

Generated post-surgical patients are held by the patient-holding squad with intensive nursing care provided by surgical squads' nursing staff. The patient-holding squad operates the holding ward facility of the regimental clearing station. The holding ward is staffed and equipped to provide care for up to 40 patients. It provides care for those patients awaiting immediate evacuation and those who entered with minor injuries and illnesses and are expected to be returned to duty within 72 hours. It also serves as the intensive nursing care area for the surgical squads.

Medical evacuation within the regimental operational area is provided by ground ambulances organic to maneuver squadron medical platoons and ground ambulances of the medical troop's ambulance platoon. Medical evacuation of patients out of the regimental operational area is provided by corps or joint task force direct support air and ground ambulances.

Maneuver squadron medical platoons normally position ambulance teams with supported maneuver troops to evacuate patients to the squadron aid station. From this point, patients are evacuated out of the squadron area either by ground ambulances from the supporting medical troop or supporting corps air ambulances. The squadron medical platoon does not evacuate patients beyond its squadron aid station.

The ambulance platoon of the medical troop performs ground evacuation and en route care for supported units. The ambulance platoon consists of a platoon headquarters and 6 ambulance squads (or 12 ambulance teams). To ensure contact is maintained with supported maneuver squadrons, the platoon collocates ambulance teams with squadron aid stations. Based on the METT-T, the platoon may establish an air/ground AXP midway between the supported maneuver squadrons and the regimental clearing station to ensure timely and uninterrupted evacuation and patient care. The platoon also provides medical evacuation support for all units located in the RSA (inclusive of regimental artillery, aviation, engineer, and CSS forces).

Corps or joint task force air and ground ambulance elements are normally collocated with the medical troop to provide for the evacuation of patients to supporting hospitals.

SUPPORT CONCEPTS

The support squadron of the 2d ACR provides support for all elements of the regiment as far forward as possible. This support forward doctrine is critical to port maximize combat time by minimizing resupply, repair, and evacuation times. This support covers the CSS functions outlined below.

ARM THE FORCE

The ammunition support structure provides the ammunition needed by the units under the 2d ACR commander and those units assigned or attached to the 2d ACR. Units begin operations with only a basic load. Follow-on supply consists of specific amounts of all types of ammunition to support continuity of combat operations. The amounts and types of ammunition needed depend on the type of operation and strength of the enemy. However, whenever possible, preplanned packages are designated. Arming relates to ammunition, barrier material, mines, and demolition munitions.

In the regimental support area, the S&T troop operates an ATP. The 2d ACR units draw all their Class V supplies from this rearm site. The 2d ACR depends upon a nondivisional ASP and CSA for resupply of Class V. The ground and air cavalry squadrons and howitzer batteries need to have their Class V as far forward as tactically possible. Class V operations are MHE intensive, requiring that the rearm site or customer vehicles have materials-handling capability. As much a responsible, transloaded ammunition is made up as combat configured loads. Combat-configured loads are predetermined ammunition packs based upon mission requirements. The combat-configured loads are usually configured at the corps storage area and shipped to the support squadron.

Units carry a limited amount of Class IV on combat vehicles. Use of airdrop and airlanding can minimize the need to carry a significant amount of Class IV into battle. The 2d ACR commander determines the Class IV stockage in the 2d ACR and the support squadron manages that stockage. Class IV supplies are limited and supply points stock them only when required to support a specific operation. The largest user of unique Class IV (wire, lumber, or nails) and Class V (demolition or mines) will probably be the regiment engineer troop to install and/or breach obstacles in both the offense and defense. Units use local resources whenever possible.

FUEL THE FORCE

Class III supplies include bulk fuels (motor gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, and JP-8) and packaged products (greases, oils, and lubricants). Early in any operation, fuel and lubricant resupply arrive as a prepackaged delivery. As the operation matures, fuel is delivered in bulk. Every effort will be made to use JP-8 as the single fuel on the bulkfield. This eliminates storage and distribution problems for all the other fuels. Fuel requirements will increase significantly if operating under NBC conditions.

Corps or joint task force delivers Class III bulk products to the 2d ACR Class III supply point based on forecasted requirements. Because of limited on-the-ground storage in the RSA, resupplying tank semitrailers either transfer bulk products directly to support squadron vehicles or drop off bulk semitrailers in exchange for empty ones. (This second method is time saving, but requires additional record keeping.) Normally units pick up fuel at the refuel site in the RSA. If that is not possible, organic TPUs and 500-gallon drums maybe trailer mounted or sling loaded by helicopter to provide emergency resupply.

FIX THE FORCE

This area includes maintenance and Class VII and IX supplies.

Maintenance

DS maintenance from the maintenance troop includes base shop repair capability, forward support, battle damage assessment and repair, controlled ex-change, cannibalization, and evacuation. See Chapter 9 of FM 63-1 for additional information. Maintenance assets in the corps or joint task force provide reinforcing support to the maintenance troop.

Forward Support. The maintenance troop of thesupport squadron works as far forward as possible. This reduces repair time, thereby maximizing combat power. Forward support platoons working at unit maintenance collection points become the key operational element for maintenance. The forward support platoons have the mobility to move with the supported unit, working to return the maximum number of weapon systems to combat. They must also be able to communicate with the maintenance control section so it can control maintenance operations across the regimental area.

Other Principles. The maintenance troop's role in combat is one of making repairs as far forward as possible. However, repairs cannot always be made on site. Troop maintainers make battle damage assessments, performmission-essential maintenance, and determine recovery and evacuation priorities. The maintenance troop may use other procedures to return equipment to combat, such as controlled exchange or cannibalization.

Class VII

The corps or designated higher headquarters delivers Class VII items (such as weapon systems, vehicles and generators) to a Class VII supply point operated in the RSA or directly to the receiving unit. These items should be ready-for-issue whenever possible. The S&T troop maintains a temporary storage area for those items not throughput directly to a unit. Class VII items are intensively managed at the RMMC, using combat loss reports and coordination with the corps or designated higher headquarters G3, G4, and MMC. Close management permits the 2d ACR commander to know the operation-al status of subordinate units and to direct items to tactical units most critical to success of the mission.

Class IX

The maintenance troop maintains a combined ASL to receive and distribute common repair parts required by its maintenance personnel. It receives, stores, maintains, and manages reparable. It issues all Class IX items to supported units. The combat elements of the 2d ACR carry selected parts on their vehicles. These are parts that can be changed quickly, making the vehicle combat ready. The forward support sections may be attached to the forward support platoons to provide limited on-site repair parts support in the squadron UMCP. Requirements for additional parts will be passed by the section to the main supply platoon using the most readily available means.

MOVE THE FORCE

Transportation covers the transport of troops, sup-plies, and equipment where they are needed when they are needed. Once on the ground, 2d ACR units have sufficient organic transportation for ground mobility of personnel and equipment. Ground transportation beyond organic unit capabilities is provided by the S&T troop. It provides -

  • Truck transportation for distribution of Class I, II, III (package), IV, VII, and IX supplies.

  • Limited transport of personnel in support of regimental operations.

  • Supplemental transportation for emergency distribution of Class V and water.

The regimental aviation squadron can provide very limited transportation for personnel, supplies, and equipment. Airdrop is also considered a function of moving supplies. The 2d ACR relies on corps or joint task force airdrop units for this support. The regimental transportation officer coordinates with the corps MCC or higher headquarters movements control agency to ensure that movement priorities and evacuation of unserviceable are set up to match CSS requirements.

SUSTAIN THE SOLDIERS AND THEIR SYSTEMS

Personnel Service Support

The S1/PAC section of the HHT processes combat-essential personnel information. They provide direct military personnel support to strength managers and commanders. They perform or process the following military personnel support functions or documents:

  • Personnel data base management.

  • Personnel accounting and strength reporting.

  • Personnel information management.

  • Enlisted and officer evaluations.

  • Identification documents.

  • Casualty reports.

  • Enlisted promotions and reductions.

  • Officer promotions.

Health Service Support

HSS conserves the trained manpower of the 2d ACR, providing the combat commander with the maximum force to pursue his objectives. EMS planners make assessments of medical support required before any operation begins. Anticipated casualty rates and an analysis of disease threats shape the extent of initial and follow-on HSS required by the 2d ACR. During the planning process, the HSS planners also consider the limits on the number of tactical and strategic airframes available, the planned duration of the operation, and the nature of the operation.

Deployment of Health Service Support. Medical troop personnel and equipment are deployed into the operational area with the 2d ACR. Medical units ac-company soldiers at all times to provide prompt and efficient medical care and evacuation.

Class VIII. HSS planners have to consider that resupply of the 2d ACR can be difficult when it is operating well forward. Following deployment, resupply is made by preconfigured push packages. The air and ground ambulance backhaul system will be used in the delivery of supplies in the forward areas. Also, corps or joint task force air ambulances may be used to deliver urgently required Class VIII supplies from the supporting corps medical logistics element to the regiment.

Field Services Support

In the early stages of a contingency environment, field services are limited to those considered mission-essential. The corps or joint task force has the responsibility to augment the support squadron to provide field services or to ensure such services are available at the appropriate time and place to support the 2d ACR.

Food. Units in the 2d ACR carry MREs when initially deploying. They use follow-on supply for Class I. The Army Field Feeding System concept provides for three quality meals per day. The commander selects these meals from the family of rations, in accordance with tactical and logistics situations. The family of rations includes group rations (A, B, or T) and individual rations. Ration requests are based on feeder reports of unit daily strengths and the commander's specification of the types of rations consistent with tactical and logistics constraints.

Mortuary Affairs. Mortuary affairs services are an organic unit function. However, the corps provides support at levels above unit support. Otherwise, personnel may be pulled from other duties to perform recovery, identification, and evacuation tasks.

General Supply Support

General supply support encompasses the provision of clothing, water, arms, and major end items in support of the force. These classes of supply include all the systems that support the soldier. The quality and acceptability of rations, clothing, and sundry packages are critical in sustaining the morale of soldiers. This enhances their ability to perform effectively.

Water. Personnel in the 2d ACR carry filled canteens and enough full water containers to reach the AO and move forward from there. CSS planners determine the location of possible water points. The S&T troop water section can produce 72,000 gallons of potable water per day from a fresh water source or 48,000 gallons of potable water per day from a salt water source. The corps logistics system is responsible for providing additional water support in arid environments. Water may be provided through contracting or HNS until units with purification, storage, and issue responsibilities are operational.

Clothing. Class II supplies are limited to essential items since clothing and individual equipment are bulky and impede mobility. The S&T troop maintains a limited amount of mission-essential, expendable items required to support combat operations. Combat in an NBC environment increases demand for Class II items. If necessary, supply personnel should arrange for resupply of protective overgarments and other Class II NBC-related gear.

SECURITY

Support squadron units are normally grouped into bases and base clusters to enhance their defense. Security operations center on those active and passive measures taken to protect the support structure. The makeup and location of bases and base clusters are the responsibility of the support squadron commander. The nature of reconnaissance and security operations keeps most of the regiment far forward on the battlefield. The support squadron commander is designated as the regimental support area commander. The support squadron CP collocates with the 2d ACR rear CP, and the staffs work closely to coordinate execution of rear operations. Each base is responsible for its own local security and must be capable of protecting itself against Level I attacks and delaying a Level II threat until a reaction force arrives. If the base faces a Level III threat, it takes action to prevent critical supplies and equipment from falling into enemy hands, to defend itself as long as possible, and to avoid capture.



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