Modern battles are fought and won by a combination of
air, land, and naval forces working together. As the
complexity of the battlefield increases, we, as a nation, have
turned to developing technology to help us meet the
challenges we face. One of the most promising of the new
technologies is the development of laser systems to
increase our capability. (Laser stands for light amplification
by stimulated emission of radiation.)
a. Laser Use on the Battlefield. The use of laser
technology on the battlefield has developed in three
primary areas: laser target ranging and designation systems,
laser acquisition systems, and laser-guided munitions
(1) Laser target ranging and designation systems
provide accurate directional distance and vertical angle
information for use in locating enemy targets. These
systems may vary from hand-held to aircraft-mounted
devices, but they all perform the same basic function.
Once a target has been selected and accurately
located, the laser designation capability is used to
identify the specific target for laser-guided munitions.
(2) Laser acquisition devices are used to acquire
reflected laser energy. These devices are used in
conjunction with laser designation systems to pinpoint
targets or other specific items. Normally, laser acquisition
devices are mounted on fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters.
(3) Laser-guided munitions home in on reflected laser
energy during the terminal portion of the attack to
accurately hit the specific target. Such munitions are part
of the precision guided munition (PGM) family.
b. Requirements. Three basic requirements for using
laser designators with laser acquisition devices or
laserguided munitions are discussed below.
(1) The PRF code of the laser designator and the laser
acquisition device or LGM must be the same.
(2) An agreed-upon direction of attack is necessary.
The laser acquisition device or LGM must be able to
"sense" the reflected energy from the laser designation
(3) The laser designator must be lasing or designating
the target at the correct time.
c. Value. The value of laser devices and LGMs has been
recognized by all branches of the armed services. Each
service has developed laser systems to meet its own
particular needs. The proliferation of laser devices has
already resulted in the development of service-specific
procedures and international standardization agreements
(STANAGs and/or QSTAGs). To achieve our goal of
fighting together efficiently, we must use procedures to
which all services have agreed. These procedures are still
being developed. This appendix gives information on the
use of the Army's primary laser systems and a brief
description of those of other services.
a. Description. The G/VLLD is the Army's long-range
designator for precision guided semiactive laser weapons. It is
two-man portable for short distances and can be mounted on
the M981 FIST vehicle. The G/VLLD gives the observer
accurate OT distance, vertical angle, and azimuth data.
Accurate azimuth information depends on initial orientation
of the G/VLLD. All three items of information are shown in
the eyepiece display.
(1) The laser designator places coded laser energy on
stationary or moving targets. Reflected coded laser energy
provides guidance information for terminal homing
munitions such as Hellfire and Copperhead. The code
transmitted by the designator is manually set on the
G/VLLD PRF code switches by the observer. This same
code is also set on the laser-guided projectiles to be fired
for that observer. Coded laser energy allows for multiple
designators to operate in the same target area without
mutual interference. The G/VLLD is equipped with an
AN/TAS-4 night sight (Figure A-1). This night sight
significantly increases the observer's ability to detect and
engage targets during periods of reduced visibility caused
by darkness or battlefield obscuration.
(2) Detailed procedures for the technical operation of
the G/VLLD are in TM 9-1260-477-12. This manual
discusses those operational aspects of using the G/VLLD
not covered in the TM.
NOTE: The division FSE is the overall manager of PRF
codes for the division area Blocks of codes are
assigned to division artillery, to maneuver brigades or
battalions, and to the division. The lowest level for
management of PRF codes is the brigade FSE, which
controls fire support for the brigade. The brigade FSE
provides positive coordination of the codes for both the
designator and the artillery FDC as a part of fire mission
processing. For information on Air Force PRF codes,
see Chapter 8 Section I.
Figure A-1. G/VLLD WITH NIGHT SIGHT
b. Boresighting the G/VLLD. The manufacturer's
tolerance on the G/VLLD laser designator/range finder
(LD/R) is enough to ensure that the laser line of sight and
the day optics remain in boresight under normal
conditions. However, unusually rough handling of the
G/VLLD may cause a boresighting problem. If the
observer suspects the laser and optical alignment, he
should turn in the G/VLLD to DS maintenance. The night
sight of the G/VLLD also requires boresighting. The
observer should be familiar with these procedures. The
night-vision sight is boresighted at the time of mounting. A
field boresight check is performed on the G/VLLD.
c. Initial Orientation of the G/VLLD. Since target
locations are determined by the polar plot technique,
target location accuracy depends on the accuracy of the
observer's location as reported to the FDC and of his
initial orienting azimuth. The G/VLLD gives accurate
distance, direction, and vertical angle data. However, the
accuracy of the azimuth information depends on the initial
orientation of the G/VLLD. Upon occupation of a
position, the observer should ensure that accurate orienting
information is placed on the G/VLLD and that his
accurate location is encoded and sent to the FDC. As a
minimum, he should do the following as soon as possible
after occupying an observation post:
- Using an M2 compass, measure the grid azimuth to a
reference point that is easily identifiable on the ground.
- Orient the G/VLLD on the reference point, and set the
grid azimuth reading in the azimuth display of the
- With the G/VLLD thus oriented for direction,
determine the azimuth, distance, and vertical angle to
any point that he can observe with the G/VLLD and
can identify on his map.
- Determine his location through resection and terrain
analysis and report his grid coordinates to the FDC.
The observer should refine his location and the orientation of
the G/VLLD as soon as possible. If possible, his location
should be determined by survey. Lacking survey control,
however, he can use the G/VLLD to locate himself through a
procedure called self-location. In this procedure, the observer
sends to the FDC the direction, distance, and vertical angle to
two known points separated by at least 300 mils. He must also
specify which known point is on his left. The FDC determines
the G/VLLD location. Then the FDC determines the correct
orienting azimuth to one of the known points. This
information is sent through secure means to the observer. The
observer then plots his location on the map and reorients his
G/VLLD on the known point with the corrected azimuth.
Self-location can be done by using two known points, one
known point and one burst, or two bursts.
NOTE: The observer's location can also be determined
by using only one point. However, the accuracy of the
observer's location depends on the accuracy of the
initial azimuth orientation of the G/VLLD.
a. Self-Location by Use of Two Known Points.
(1) With this method, the observer uses two known
points (Figure A-2). A known point may be established
through survey, firing, or measuring from a map. If
measured from a map, the point must be easily identifiable
on the ground; for example, a church steeple, a water
tower, or a prominent road junction. The observer must be
sure that he can associate the known point on the ground
with the same point on the map. This method of
self-location is the most accurate and, therefore, the
preferred technique. When using a voice call for fire, the
observer will announce trilateration in the method of fire.
A24 THIS IS A58, TRILATERATION, OVER.
KNOWN POINT CADDO, DIRECTION 1743 (encoded),
DISTANCE 1230 (encoded), VERTICAL ANGLE PLUS
10 (encoded), KNOWN POINT FLATTOP (encoded),
DIRECTION 2338 (encoded), DISTANCE 3180
(encoded), VERTICAL ANGLE MINUS 10 (encoded)
KNOWN POINT CADDO ON LEFT, OVER.
A58 THIS IS A24, LOCATION NK47253824 (encoded),
DIRECTION TO CADDO 1723 (encoded), OVER.
(2) If the observer has a DMD, the DMD FR LASER
message is used for this function as follows. Select
TRILAT to determine the grid coordinates of the
G/VLLD location. Tell the FDC in a FREETEXT
message which known points will be lased and which
known point is on the observer's left. The leftmost known
point must be lased first and identified as point 1. The
rightmost known point must be lased second and identified
as point 2.
b. Self-Location by Use of One Known Point and
One Burst. If only one known point is available, the
second point may be established by a planned burst of an
HE or a WP round (Figure A-3). The observer should
plan the location of the burst so that it is separated from
the known point by at least 300 mils. Graze bursts should
be used. Using the G/VLLD, the observer ranges the
known point and the burst of the round to determine the
direction, distance, and vertical angle (VA) for each of the
two points. He reports these to the FDC. The FDC
computes the G/VLLD location and corrected azimuth to
the known point and sends the information to the observer.
NOTE: The accuracy of the computed G/VLLD location
and the reference azimuth is affected by the accuracy of
the firing data used to fire the round. The FDC should
use the most accurate data available.
Figure A-2. SELF-LOCATION BY USE OF TWO KNOWN POINTS
Figure A-3. SELF-LOCATION BY USE OF ONE KNOWN POINT AND ONE BURST
A24 THIS IS A58, SELF-LOCATION,1 ROUND, OVER.
KNOWN POINT CADDO, DIRECTION 1743 (encoded),
DISTANCE 3180 (encoded), VERTICAL ANGLE PLUS
10 (encoded), OVER.
1 ROUND, GRID NK598376, OVER.
(Round is fired and observed)
DIRECTION 2105 (encoded), DISTANCE 3420
(encoded), VERTICAL ANGLE MINUS 12 (encoded),
KNOWN POINT CADDO ON LEFT, OVER.
A58 THIS IS A24, LOCATION NK47253824 (encoded),
DIRECTION TO CADDO 1723 (encoded), OVER.
c. Self-Location by Use of One Known Point.
(1) This method is used by a DMD-equipped observer
communicating with a BCS-equipped FDC. The FR
LASER message format is used for this method as follows:
- Select RESEC in the MSN field of the farmat.
- Tell the FDC in a FREETEXT message that RESEC is
being used and on which known point.
NOTE: If no known point has been established, one can
be established by using an FR GRID message with EOM
RAT in the control field An MTO will then be sent from
the FDC to notify the G/VLLD-equipped observer of the
known point number assigned to that grid location.
(2) The one known point method also may be used
with a burst as follows:
- Compose and transmit FR GRID with ADJ FIRE
entered in the control field (active mission buffer 1).
- Compose an FR LASER message in achve mission buffer
2 with RESEC entered in the MSN field of the format and
DIR, DIST, VA, and KN PT # entries blank.
- After the round is fired, lase or range the burst. (Laser
polar data are "dumped" into the FR LASER format.)
- Select active mission buffer 1, and compose an EOM
SURV message with EOM RAT in the CONTROL field
- From the FDC receive the MTO assgning a known point
- Compose and transmit a FREETEXT message telling the
FDC that a RESEC follows the known point number
received in the previous MTO.
- Select active mission buffer 2.
- Enter the known point number from the previous MTO,
and transmit it to the FDC.
NOTE The FDC determines and transmits a location
back to the G/VLLD-equipped observer.
d. Self-Location by Use of Two Bursts. If no known points
are available, the bursts of two rounds may be used as the
prearranged points. The observer selects the locahons at which
he wants the rounds to burst, ensuring that they are separated by
at least 300 mils (Figure A-4). Also, the direction to a reference
point is determined. When the rounds are fired, the observer
ranges the bursts to determine the direction, distance, and
vertical argle of each burst point. He reports these to the FDC
and records the direction to the second burst point. The FDC
computes the G/VLLD location and corrected azimuth to the
second burst point and sends the information to the observer.
The observer determines the difference between his measured
azimuth to the second burst point and the azimuth that the FDC
reported to the second burst point. The angular diflerence, in
mils, is plus if the reported azimuth from the FDC is greater
than the azimuth the observer measured. It is minus if the
reported azimuth from the FDC is less than the azimuth
measured by the observer. The difference is applied to the initial
reference point azimuth by either adding or subtracting, as the
sign indicates. The observer places the resulting azimuth on the
G/VLLD while sighting on his initial reference point.
Figure A-4. SELF-LOCATION BY USE OF TWO BURSTS
The observer occupies a position and initially orients
the G/VLLD by using an M2 compass. He selects a
reference point (BARN) and measures the azimuth to
BARN as 5,796 mils. No known points are available,
so he requests self-location using two bursting
A24 THIS IS A58, SELF-LOCATION, 2 ROUNDS,
1 ROUND, GRID NK603368, OVER.
(Round is fired and observed.)
DIRECTION 6398, DISTANCE 4110, VERTICAL
ANGLE MINUS 9, 1 ROUND, GRID NK564381,
(Round is fired and observed.)
DIRECTION 5927, DISTANCE 3840, VERTICAL
ANGLE MINUS 11, FIRST ROUND ON LEFT,
The FDC determines and sends to the observer his
G/VLLD location and orienting azimuth to the second
A58 THIS IS A24, LOCATION NK58723423
(encoded), DIRECTION TO SECOND ROUND 5918
Having recorded the G/VLLD-measured azimuth to
the second burst point, the observer records the
FDC-reported information and makes the following
G/VLLD-measured azimuth 5927
FDC-reported azimuth 5918
Angular difference -9
Observer azimuth to reference point
(M2 compass) 5769
Angular difference -9
Corrected azimuth to reference
point (BARN) 5760
The observer places this resulting azimuth on the
G/VLLD while sighting on reference point BARN.
A G/VLLD-equipped observer who has been accurately
located and oriented through survey or through
self-location can help other G/VLLD-equipped observers
locate themselves. The second observer can establish
known points for another G/VLLD-equipped observer to
use in self-location, or he can perform a simultaneous
observation with the other observer on two illuminating
rounds. The FDCs can refer G/VLLD-eqllipped observers
requiring self-location to G/VLLD-equipped observers
accurately located to coordinate assistance.
a. Establishment of Known Points for other Observers.
An observer emplacing a G/VLLD may have no
preestablished known points and no readily identifiable
terrain feature that can be measured from a map. A second
observer with an accurately located and oriented G/VLLD
can use his G/VLLD to establish known points for the other
observer. To do this, both observers musl: be able to see a
common area well enough to clearly identify and locate two
objects to serve as known points for self-locations; for
example, a prominent lone tree and an abandoned tank.
These points should be separated by at least 300 mils as
observed from the G/VLLD position boing located. This
requires very careful and thorough coordination between the
two observers. Once mutually agreeable points have been
identified, they can be established as known points as outlined
in the example below.
A G/VLLD-equipped observer, A23, has no known
points in his area. The FDC, A16, instructs him to
contact A47, a nearby observer with a G/VLLD that is
accurately located and oriented, for assistance in
establishing known points in his area. Mutually
agreeable points have been identified.
A16 THIS IS A47, KNOWN POINTS FOR A23,
KNOWN POINT TREE, DIRECTION 0832
(encoded), DISTANCE 5740 (encoded), VERTICAL
ANGLE MINUS 9 (encoded), KNOWN POINT
TANK BODY, DIRECTION 0947 (encoded)
DISTANCE 6370 (encoded), VERTICAL ANGLE
MINUS 11 (encoded), OVER.
With two known points established, the observer
operating the G/VLLD being located can now locate
himself through self-location by using two known
A16 THIS IS A23, SELF-LOCATION, OVER.
KNOWN POINT TREE, DIRECTION 5823
(encoded), DISTANCE 6240 (encoded), VERTICAL
ANGLE MINUS 10 (encoded), KNOWN POINT
TANK BODY, DIRECTION 6207 (encoded),
DISTANCE 5970, VERTICAL ANGLE MINUS 14
(encoded), KNOWN POINT TREE ON LEFT, OVER.
A23 THIS IS A16, LOCATION NK38374512
(encoded), DIRECTION TO TREE 5815 (encoded),
b. Location by Simultaneous Observation. An
observer with an accurately located and oriented G/VLLD
can help deterrnine the location of another G/VLLD. He
does this by perforrning a sirnultaneous observation on two
illuminating (illum) rounds with the other G/VLLD
observer (Figure A-5). This technique is especially useful
during periods of limited visibility. Both observers must be
able to see and lase the illuminating rounds. Also, these
illuminating rounds must be separated by at least 300 mils
as observed from the G/VLLD position being located.
Thorough prior coordination between the two observers
must take place for this technique to be effective. The
observer with the G/VLLD being located records the
direction to a reference point and prepares to observe. The
observer with the accurately located G/VLLD acts as the
controlling station and initiates the illumination call for fire
as outlined in the example on the next page.
NOTE: Ranging an illuminating canister may be diflicult for
some observers. A variation of this technique is to adjust
the illumination so that it burns on the ground. Both
observers then range the flare.
Lasing or ranging above the skyline reauires specific
authorization from range control during peacetime
Figure A-5. LOCATING SECOND OBSERVATION POST BY SIMULTANEOUS
A47 is the observer with the accurately located G/VLLD. A23 is
the observer with the G/VLLD being located. A16 is the battery
FDC. Coordination between M7 and A23 has already taken
A16 THIS IS A47, SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATION WITH
1 ROUND, GRID NK374522, 1 ROUND, GRID NK391516,
ILLUMINATION, BY ROUND AT MY COMMAND, OVER.
A47 THIS IS A23, READY TO OBSERVE, OVER.
A47 THIS IS A16, READY, OVER.
(M7 commands the first round to be fired.)
As the illuminating round descends, the observer with the
accurately located G/VLLD coordinates simultaneous lasing
on the flare. He begins tracking the descending flare and has
his RATELO transmit TRACKING, TRACKING, TRACKING,
Once the command LASE is given, both observers lase or
range the flare simultaneously.
A16 THIS IS A47, DIRECTION 0437 (encoded), DISTANCE
3780 (encoded), VERTICAL ANGLE PLUS 21 (encoded).
A16 THIS IS A23, DIRECTION 6377 (encoded), DISTANCE
4120 (encoded), VERTICAL ANGLE PLUS 23 (encoded).
The observers must use their judgment to determine if they
have received an accurate return from the flare. If one of the
observers believes that he has an inaccurate return, the
tracking phase should be repeated before any data are sent to
the FDC. Once the observation data have been completed for
both rounds, the FDC determines the location and orienting
A23 THIS IS A16, LOCATION NK49163842 (encoded),
DIRECTION TO SECOND ROUND 0317 (encoded), OVER.
The observer with the G/VLLD being located records his
G/VLLD location on the map and adjusts the azimuth to his
reference point as described in the procedures for self-location
using two bursts.
a. As soon as the observer knows his accurate
location, he should determine polar plot data to
several prominent points around his position. The FDC
can determine the grids of these points for the
observer, making them known points (Figure A-6).
Then the observer can refer to these known points
when he moves. He can use them in self-location by
using the two known points technique to locate his new
Figure A-6. USING A LASER TO DETERMINE KNOWN POINTS AND NEW
b. When the G/VLLD location has been accurately
determined and is known by the FDC, the observer uses
the G/VLLD to measure distance, direction, and vertical
angle to targets from his location (Figure A-7).
Figure A-7. TARGET LOCATION BY POLAR PLOT
c. Polar plot data (encoded) taken from the G/VLLD can
be sent directly to the FDC (preferred), or it can be
converted to a grid location and then sent to the FDC.
|This paragraph implements STANAG 2934, Chapter 6, Annex A and QSTAG 505.|
a. If the G/VLLD is accurately located and is properly
oriented, resulting target locations will be accurate enough for
first-round FFE missions. However, many times, some of the
requirements for accurate first-round FFE are lacking at the
firing battery. If the observer is not sure he can achieve
first-round FFE on the target, he should request an adjust-fire
mission. The G/VLLD then gives him a superior capability to
adjust fire for conventional munitions. Once the first
adjustment round impacts, the observer determines whether
the round impacted right or left of the target. Then he
determines angular deviation by finding the difference
between the measured direction to the target and the
measured direction to the burst of the adjusting round.
NOTE: The call for fire formats outlined in Chapter 4 are
used. Target locations are usually laser polar plots.
b. If the angle of deviation exceeds 100 mils, the mil
relation and observer adjustment techniques are not
accurate enough. In this case, the observer sends the
laser polar plot data of the burst to the FDC to
compute the shift. In a unit equipped with BCS or
BUCS, the observer always sends the laser plot to the
FDC. The computer determines the shift to place
accurate fires on the target.
BURST DIRECTION 5872, DISTANCE 4350,
VERTICAL ANGLE MINUS 11, FIRE FOR EFFECT,
c. If the angle of deviation is 100 mils or less and the
supporting FDC does not have BCS or BUCS, the
observer computes his own shift as follows: (Figure A-8
illustrates the example.)
- Compute the observer-burst (OB) distance factor by
expressing the OB distance to the nearest 1,000 meters.
Distance to burst = 3480, approximately 3 (OB factor).
- Determine the horizontal shift by multiplying the
angular deviation by the OB factor and expressing the
answer to the nearest 10 meters by using artillery
25 x 3 = 75, or L80 meters
(Angular deviation) x (OB factor) = horizontal shift, in
- Determine the range shift by finding the difference
between the OT range and the OB range and
expressing it to the nearest 10 meters.
Distance to target.........3,680 meters
Distance to burst.........-3,480 meters
.......................................+ 200 meters
(OT range) - (OB range) = range shift.
- Compute a vertical shift (required only if it exceeds 30
meters) by determining the vertical angle difference
between the burst and the target, multiplying by the
oB factor, and expressing to the nearest 5 meters.
Vertical angle to target +2 mils
Vertical angle to burst (-) -1 mil
Vertical shift +3 x 3 = 9 meters
approximately 10 meters. Less than 30 meters;
no correction is needed.
(Vertical angle) x (OB factor) = vertical shift (meters).
Correction sent to FDC: LEFT 80, ADD 200,
FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER.
Figure A-8. USE OF G/VLLD FOR DETERMINATION OF SUBSEQUENT
a. To achieve surprise on the target, an adjusting point may
be selected that is well away from the target. To ensure that
the adjusting point is far enough away, the angle of deviation
between the target and the adjusting point should be at least
100 mils. In any case, the FDC computes the shift.
An observer's position is map-spotted, and the G/VLLD
is oriented for direction by using the M2 compass.
Registration corrections are not available. The observer
ranges the target and obtains the following data (Figure
Direction .. 0220 mils
Distance.. 3,680 meters
Vertical angle.. +2 mils
b. If the observer has a DMD, he uses the following
procedures to adjust on an auxiliary adjusting point:
Select OK TGT to identify a new target location.
- Select OK BT if the adjusting round was observed and
the burst location has been ranged. The BCS will
compute the shift required. Normally, fire for effect can
be specified after one adjusting round has been
observed and ranged.
- Select DNO TGT or LOST TGT if the adjusting
round was not observed or was lost and the target
location has been ranged. This procedure can be used
to identify the original or a new target location.
- Select LOST BT if the adjusting round is lost and the
estimated burst location has been ranged. Because the
actual burst location is uncertain, another adjusting
round is requested.
- Select IGN RD if the adjusting round was erratic and
another one must be fired.
The observer then selects an adjusting point at grid
coordinates NK633374, well removed from the vicinity
of the target, and sends a call for fire for adjustment to
H24 THIS IS H58, ADJUST FIRE, SHIFT AUXILIARY
ADJUSTING POINT, OVER.
ADJUSTING POINT GRID NK633374, OVER.
TARGET DIRECTION 0220, DISTANCE 3680,
VERTICAL ANGLE PLUS 2, OVER.
BATTALION ASSEMBLY AREA, ICM IN EFFECT,
|NOTE: When the adjusting round bursts, the
observer ranges the burst and sends the data to
BURST DIRECTION 0803, DISTANCE 5010,
VERTICAL ANGLE PLUS 1, FIRE FOR EFFECT,
The FDC computes the shift and fires for effect on the
NOTE: To facilitate accurate fires on the target, the
observer should select an auxiliary adjusting point
whose range from the guns is close to the GT range and
is within 400 mils left or riaht of the GT line.
c. To digitally accomplish an adjust fire mission by using
an auxiliary adjusting point, the following procedure must
be used (see also Appendix B):
- Compose and transmit an FR LASER message with
data to the auxiliary adjusting point.
- Receive the MTO with target number assigned.
- Compose and transmit an SA LASER message with
data to the target and OK TGT entered in the OBSN
field of the message.
--Receive SHOT (round impact).
--Compose and transmit an SA LASER message with
data to the burst. Enter OK BT in the OE,SN field
and FFE in the CONTROL field.
NOTE: The following example shows the message
formats as they would appear on the DMD display.
Figure A-9. SHIFT FROM AN AUXILIARY ADJUSTING POINT
FR LASER TO AUXILIARY ADJUSTING POINT
FR LASER M1 AUTH-- D TNO DEST--
DIR-- STR-- ANGLE--
SLT DIST-- DOP-- PRI--
SA LASER TO TARGET
SA LASER M1 AUTH-- D TNO DEST--
DIR-- TGT NO--
SLT DIST-- SHELL/FZ--
OBSN--OK TGT ANGLE--
RECEIVE SHOT (FO CMD MESSAGE)
SA LASER TO BURST
SA LASER M1 AUTH-- D TNO DEST--
DIR-- TGT NO--
SLT DIST-- SHELL/FZ
OBSN OK BT ANGLE--
a. In addition to reporting his location to the battery FDC,
the observer must report observer cloud height (height of
clouds above the observer). The cloud height over the
target (target cloud height) significantly affects the
performance of the Copperhead round. Cloud ceilings that
are too low will not allow the Copperhead round enough
time to lock on and maneuver to the designated target. The
FDC uses the reported observer cloud height to compute
target cloud heights.
b. The observer must use his judgment in evaluating the
potential effects of clouds over the target area on
Copperhead performance. On cloudy and partly cloudy
days, observer cloud height must be determined. The
observer should not hesitate to report separate observer
cloud heights for target areas having significantly different
cloud coverage. The procedures below are used to
determine observer cloud heights.
(1) The observer elevates the G/VLLD to a vertical
angle of +350 mils toward his area of responsibility, selects
RNG 1 mode, and measures the slant range to the cloud
base. Slant range is then expressed to the nearest 100
(2) If the slant range is greater than 6,300 meters, the
observer reports OBSERVER CLOUD HEIGHT
GREATER THAN 2,120 METERS.
(3) If the slant range is less than or equal to 6,300
meters, the observer enters the cloud height table (Table
A-1) and determines the cloud height. Entry values for the
table are row and column headings which total the slant
Table A-1. OBSERVER CLOUD HEIGHT
Slant range at vertical angle of +350 mils = 2,570
meters (expressed to 2,600 meters). Enter with 2500 (left
side) and 100 (top) (2500 + 100 = 2600). Read an
observer cloud height of 880 meters and report
OBSERVER CLOUD HEIGHT 880 METERS.
1. A table similar to Table A-1 is on the cover card of the
Copperhead footprint template set. The observer should
report observer cloud height as soon as possible after
occupying a position. He then reports changes only
when the change in observer cloud height exceeds 100
2. An increase or decrease of 300 meters in measured
slant range corresponds to an approximate 100-meter
increase or decrease in observer cloud height.
The G/VLLD also may be used to determine data for
computation of an HB, an MPI, or a precision
registration. If the accuracy of the observer's location
meets the standards for an HB or MPI registration, the
HB or MPI is the preferred method of conducting a
registration with the G/VLLD. If the location for the
G/VLLD is doubtful, the G/VLLD may be used to
help conduct a precision registration.
a. High-Burst or Mean-Point-of-lmpact
Registration. Orienting data are provided the
observer through a message to observer from the FDC
as currently outlined in TC 6-40 under HB and MPI
registrations. The observer uses the G/VLLD to
determine laser polar plot data for the burst of each
round fired during the registration and sends the data
to the FDC.
Safety restrictions may prevent ranging the high burst
if the burst is above the skyline.
NOTE: The G/VLLD may be used by either observer in
the HB or MPI procedure outlined in Chapter 7. Ranging
(firing the laser) is not necessary when the azimuth
adjust mode is used.
b. Precision Registration. In a precision
registration, the observer uses the G/VLLD to
determine corrections as described in the procedures
for using the G/VLLD in the adjustment of fire. When
a 50-meter bracket has been established (100 meters
when the PER is 25 meters or more), the procedures
in Chapter 5, Section III are used.
c. Abbreviated Registration. In an abbreviated
registration, the impact portion is conducted with two
rounds. The observer lases the burst of the first
adjusting round and determines corrections as outlined
for the adjustment of fire with the G/VLLD. The FDC
computes new firing data and fires a second adjusting
round. The observer lases the burst of the second
adjusting round and determines corrections. If a time
portion has also been requested, two airbursts are fired
to establish the mean height of burst. The observer
sends corrections to adjust the mean height of burst to
A23 THIS IS A16, OBSERVE ABBREVIATED
REGISTRATION, KNOWN POINT 1, QUICK AND
(Two HE or time rounds are fired.)
DOWN 25, RECORD AS TIME REGISTRATION
POINT, END OF MISSION, OVER.
A16 THIS IS A23, DIRECTION 6216 (encoded), OVER.
(First adjusting round is fired; angle of deviation is
greater than 100 mils.)
DIRECTION 6327, DISTANCE 3140, VERTICAL
ANGLE MINUS 11, OVER.
(Second adjusting round is fired; angle of deviation is
less than 100 mils.)
LEFT 30, ADD 50, RECORD AS REGISTRATION
POINT, TIME, REPEAT, OVER.
a. The night-vision sight can be used in both day and
night operations. It has an effective range of 3,000
meters. An observer can effectively detect and
ultimately bring fires on targets that would otherwise
be obscured because of smoke, dust, haze, fog, or
darkness. The night-vision sight, however, lets an
observer see a target through smoke and other
battlefield obscurants that would attenuate and weaken
laser energy. To verify that the laser energy will
penetrate these obscurants for successful designation,
he should range the target several times in the RNG 2
mode. If he is sure he is receiving consistent and
accurate ranging data, he can expect the target to be
successfully engaged with Copperhead. Any
field-expedient technique that can be used to verify
that the range readings in the G/VLLD are accurate is
b. If the target is near a known point, the observer should
compare the range read to the target with the distance to
the known point. If they are about equal, it is a good
indication that the laser energy penetrated the obscurant.
c. Another technique is to range the target several (four
to six) times. Determine if the variation of the range
readings is consistent with the target motions. If so, locate
and range to a terrain feature at a much greater distance
from (greater than 500 meters, if possible) but along or
very close to the line of sight to the intended target. If the
return remains essentially the same as was observed in
ranging the intended target, the laser energy is probably
not penetrating the obscurant. If a reasonable range is
observed, this is a good indication that laser energy is
penetrating the obscurant.
All observers must be thoroughly proficient in the use of
the AN/TAS-4 night sight with the AN TVQ-2 G/VLLD.
Procedures for training with the night sight for target
detection, identification, and tracking are as follows:
- Set the field of view control to wide field of view
- Sight through the night-sight eyepiece, and scan a
sector of your area of responsibility until you detect a
- Place the night-sight reticle on the center of the
identified target, and set the field of view to narrow
field of view (NFOV). Turn the RANGE FOCUS
knob to focus the target image. Adjust the BRT and
CTRS controls to give the best target image detail.
- Determine whether the target image is a wheeled or
tracked vehicle. Then identify it as friendly or enemy.
NOTE: To track and designate for precision guided
weapons, such as Copperhead, using the night sight, it
is recommended that engagements be restricted to
targets within the optimum operating range of the night
sight (0 to 3,000 meters).
- Analyze the image seen in the night sight, and place the
cross hairs at the best aiming point. Maintain smooth
tracking, and follow the target image.
a. The AN/GVS-5 (Figure A-10) is a lightweight,
hand-held, laser range finder that can accurately determine
the range to a target within 1 second after the FIRE button
has been pressed. The device emits a laser burst and
detects its return when the burst is reflected from a distant
object. The time lapse between emission of the bearn and
its return is converted to meters and displayed in the
eyepiece on the range-to-target display. The entire
AN/GVS-5 package, including battery, weighs 5 pounds.
The AN/GVS-5 provides a range to the target that is
accurate to within ~+mn~10 meters.
b. To use the AN/GVS-5, an observer simply aims the
device by superimposing the circle at the center of the
reticle pattern over the target and presses the FIRE
button. The range is displayed in the range-to-target
window and remains there as long as the FIRE button is
pressed. The observer should not automatically consider
the displayed range to be the correct range to the target.
Figure A-10. AN/GVS-5 HAND-HELD LASER RANGE FINDER
On the contrary, clutter in front of or behind the target
may, at times, produce false ranges. The observer must
continually associate the displayed range with a
terrain-map analysis and his own range estimate to decide
whether the reading is accurate. If, in the observer's
opinion, all of these figures do not correlate, he should
consider the information below.
(1) Multiple Firings. To ensure that the observer is
aiming at the correct target, he should take a series of
readings on the same target. Three consistent readings
generally indicate that the observer has aimed in the same
place each time.
(2) Minimum Range Set. Although the emitted laser
beam is relatively narrow, it is wide enouph to reflect from
more than one target or object. The AN/GVS-5 has a
multiple target warning light inside the eyepiece that lights
when more than one return signal is received. When
multiple target readings are indicated, the range displayed
is the range to the first object from which the beam is
reflected. To prevent obtaining a false reading from an
intermediate object between the observer and the target,
the AN/GVS-5 is equipped with a minimum range set
(MIN RG SET). Ranges to the nearest 10 meters and up
to 5,000 meters may be set on the MIN RG SET by using
the variable control. The MIN RANGE SET indicates the
minimum range at which the AN/GVS-5 will register a
return, thereby eliminating false readings from
intermediate objects. The observer can continue a
trial-and-error process of eliminating false ranges by
adjusting the MIN RG SET until the range read in the
display correlates with the observer's own range estimate
based on map and terrain analysis. The observer can save
time in this process by establishing on the MIN RG SET
the range beyond which he is certain the target lies before
he begins ranging a target. Upon completion of a mission,
the MIN RG SET should always be set back to zero.
(3) Self-Location. The AN/GVS-5 can help the observer
locate himself by giving him accurate distances to two known
pomts. The observer can report these distances to his FDC,
which will in turn, using graphical or computer means, give
him his location. Self-location also may be obtained by giving
the FDC distances to two burst locations of rounds that have
been fired after the unit has completed registration. A
combination of one round and one known point may also be
used for self-location. The two points or bursts should be
separated by at least 300 mils.
(4) Adjustment of Fire. Lateral and vertical shifts in the
adjustment of fire are computed by using the mil relation in
the same way as adjustment of fire by using binoculars. Range
adjustments are made by taking the difference in range
between the target and the burst and making the correction in
the appropriate direction.
(5) Target Location. The distance provided by the
AN/GVS-5 should always be used with the most accurate
direction to the target available and a quick, but thorough,
map analysis. The observer should remember that the
AN/GVS-5 is designed to help him refine distance. The
distances determined by the device should always be
correlated with known information before a target location is
Hellfire is a third-generation air-launched antiarmor
weapon. It homes in on a laser spot that can be projected
from a number of sources, including ground observers,
other aircraft, and the launch aircraft itself. The ground
observer uses lasing procedures for Hellfire which are
similar to those for Copperhead. Hellfire weighs 99
pounds, and its range is classified.
To keep the Hellfire missile from locking
onto the designator instead of the target,
Angle T between the designator-target line
and the missile-target line should be less
than 1,065 mils (60ø). The FIST must ensure
the launch platform pilot knows the location
of the observer so that the launch platform
can be repositioned if necessary for safety.
a. Designating Modes.
b. Firing Methods.
(1) Direct. Direct fire can be achieved by using
autonomous or remote designation.
(2) Indirect. Vulnerability of the launch platform can
be minimized by using the missile in the indirect method.
The missile is launched while the launch platform is
positioned behind masking terrain. A pilot-selected switch
action programs the missile autopilot to fly a
preprogrammed, elevated trajectory over the mask. The
seeker then locates and locks on the designated target.
c. Firing Techniques.
(1) Single. One missile is fired.
(2) Rapid. Two or more missiles are fired on the same
code. Once the first missile impacts, the designator slews
the laser spot to the next target in succession. An interval
between missile launches allows time for the nlissiles to
maneuver to their individual targets.
(3) Ripple. Two or more missiles are launched on
different laser codes by use of multiple designators. With
this option, the missiles are fired virtually one after the
d. Seeker Lock-On Options.
(1) Lock on after launch (LOAL) can be used in the
direct or indirect method. The missile is launched before
the target being designated, and the seeker lock-on occurs
(2) Lock on before launch (LOBL) requires direct line
of sight to the target and requires the missile to be locked
on before launch.
a. The target acquisition and designation sight (TADS)
gives the US Army AH-64 a day, night, and adverse
weather target acquisition and designating capability.
b. Target acquisition is provided by means of the multiple
fields of view TADS sensors, the direct view (DV) optics,
day television (DTV), and forward-looking infrared
c. The TADS laser can designate targets for its own or remotely
fired LGMs; it gives the AH-64 precision laser ranging.
d. The TADS laser spot tracker (LST) facilitates target
handoffs from other laser designators. Once acquired, the
targets can be manually or automatically tracked.
e. The AH-64 is a day, night, adverse weather aircraft that
has a maximum laser-guided munition load of 16 Hellfire
missiles. The crew can launch the missiles either singly or in
multiples by using a LOBL or a LOAL mode against
stationary or moving targets. Three launch mAethods are used:
autonomous, using the TADS designator; indirectly, in
coordination with a ground designator; or in cooperation with
another airborne designation system. In the indirect and
cooperative modes, the crew may use the Hellfire as a
f. The AH-64 can also carry conventional munitions of up to
1,200 rounds of 30-mm ammunition and/or up to 76 2.75-inch
rockets. The aircraft is equipped with secure very high
frequency (VHF), ultra high frequency (UHF), and/or FM
a. The US Army OH-58D provides battlefield
reconnaissance; aerial observation target acquisition; and
designation during day, night, and adverse weather
b. The laser locator/designator of the OH-58D is combined
with the attitude and heading reference system (AHRS)
enclosed in the mast-mounted sight (MMS). Like the G/VLLD,
the OH-58D laser can designate for Copperhead and Hellfire
missiles and Air Force and Navy smart munitions.
c. The communications system provides simultaneous
communications capability for UHF, VHF, FM, and HF SSB
radios. Automatic target handoff is provided by a digital data
link through the radios. Security is provided for each radio to
prevent the compromise of voice or data transmissions.
The laser target designator (LTD) (Figure A-11) is a
battery-operated, lightweight, hand-held laser designator. It
transmits a coded laser beam that is used to designate
point or area targets. The designated targets or areas can
be detected by aircraft, by munitions equipped with laser
trackers, and by laser-guided weapons (such as
Copperhead) set to the same code as that of the LTD. The
LTD is issued to ranger and airborne units. Procedures for
use of the LTD are the same as those for use of the
G/VLLD as a designator. However, its maximum effective
range is 1,500 meters, and it carmot interface with a DMD.
Figure A-11. AN/PAQ-1 LASER TARGET DESIGNATOR
a. The MULE is the laser designator/ralge finder used by
the US Marine Corps (Figure A-12). This system is similar
to the G/VLLD with a few notable differences.
Figure A-12. AN/PAQ-3 MODULAR UNIVERSAL LASER EQUIPMENT
- The MULE has a built-in, north-seeking capability
which allows for self-orientation for direction, easier
self-location, and readout for both grid and true
- The MULE can detect multitarget reflections and
establish a minimum range for range finding.
- The data deterrnined by the system during range
finding are displayed to three different locations:
direction on the north-finding module, distance in the
eyepiece, and VA on the tripod module.
- The MULE has a digital interface capability when used
with a digital communications terminal (DCT).
b. Otherwise, procedures for use of the MULE are the
same as those for use of the G/VLLD.
a. Pave Spike. Pave Spike is an electro-optical target
acquisition, laser designator, and weapon delivery system.
It provides precision laser designation, ranging, and
tracking of ground targets for attack with conventional
ordnance or laser-guided weapons. It uses a
cockpit-selectable four-digit code and is PRF or PIM
(pulse interval module) capable.
b. Pave Penny. Pave Penny is a passive laser tracker
which uses reflected laser energy to give the pilot precise
target location. It uses a cockpit-selectable four-digit code
and can use either a ground or airborne designator. Pave
Penny is currently used by A-10 and A-7 aircraft.
c. Pave Tack. The Pave Tack system gives high-speed
tactical aircraft the ability to acquire, recognize, and attack
tactical targets during day, night, and adverse weather
conditions. The Pave Tack pod was developed for common
usage on the F-4E, RF-4C, and F-111F aircraft. It is fully
integrated into the host aircraft digital computer avionics
system. The pod uses an imaging infrared sensor and laser
designator/ranger for navigational updates, target
acquisition and recognition, and weapon delivery. The laser
designator gives guidance for laser-guided weapons and
has four-digit cockpit-selectable PRF or PIM coding.
d. Laser-Guided Bombs. Paveway II and III are the Air
Force designations for 500- and 2,000-pound-class
laser-guided bombs (LGBs). A guidance control unit is
attached to the front of the bomb, and a wing assembly is
attached on the rear. Both generations are compatible with
current Army, Navy (Marine), and Air Force designators.
Paveway II and III have preflight selectable coding.
Paveway III is the third-generation LGB, commonly called
the low-level laser-guided bomb (LLLGB). It is designed
to be used under relatively low ceilings, from low altitude,
and at long standoff ranges.
e. Low-Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared
System. The low-altitude navigation and targeting infrared
(LANTIRN) system is designed to be used for night
attack. It has two avionics pods: a navigation pod and a
targeting pod. A laser designator and ranger are in the
targeting pod. The designator is a four-digit PRF-coded
laser that can designate for its own weapons or for other
acquisition devices or munitions. The LANTIRN system is
used by F-15E and F-16 aircraft.
f. AC-130 Spectre. This special operations aircraft can
use its infrared target acquisition system and low-light-level
TV equipment to acquire targets. It is equipped with a
laser target designator which can provide guidance for
laser-guided weapons, laser acquisition systems, or laser
The OV-10D night observation system (NOS) is the Marine
Corps version of the OV-10 Bronco aircraft. It has upgraded
engines, FLIR, and an LD/R. The pulse code generator is a
cockpit-selectable four-digit coder which allows airborne
coding of the laser pulse. The LD/R is used to determine
precise target range and can be used to designate the target
for other acquisition systems or laser-guided munitions.
Lasers have been used at a number of Army installations in
training demonstrations and tests without injury to
personnel. However, use of the G/VLLD and other lasers
requires strict safety controls. Installation range officers
and training planners should follow the safety procedures
in AR 385-63 when planning the training with laser
systems. The safety officers and noncommissioned officers
(NCOs) should be familiar with the use of the laser
systems, know the local range regulations, and know the
information in AR 385-63. All personnel involved in
training with laser systems should also comply with the
- Treat the G/VLLD as a direct fire weapon, such as a
rifle. Unless you have a backstop, it can be hazardous
as far as 80 kilometers.
- Never look into a laser; assume it is always dangerous.
- Do not aim the laser at unprotected people or animals
or at flat, reflective surfaces.
- Warn personnel before firing the laser or opera ting the
- Operate only on approved laser ranges which have
been cleared of reflective objects.
- Laser beams should terminate within the impact
area of large-caliber ranges.
- Laser targets should be emplaced below the
horizon. If this is not possible, backstops should be
built to stop the beam.
- Do not rely solely on the front window cover of the
G/VLLD to stop the laser beam.
- Allow only trained personnel to operate the G/VLLD,
unless untrained personnel are properly supervised.
- Always follow the laser range safety procedures of AR
385-63 and TB MED 524.
NOTE Special laser surface danger zone parameters
apply to designators used with the Hellfire missile These
zones protect laser operators from possible missile
failure and missile tracking laser backscatter.
- Approved laser goggles are required only for people
who may be exposed to the direct laser beam or its
reflection from a flat, shiny surface. Goggles should
have a density of 4.0 at 1,064 meters (5.0 density for
people using optical devices like binoculars).
- Report to your commander if you think you may have
been hit by the laser beam. You may need an eye
- Use the laser attenuator filter on the G/VLLD to
reduce emission hazards. Even when using the
attenuator filter, a potential eye hazard still exists. See
AR 385-63 for operating limitations.
NOTE The US Army Training and Doctrine Command
Safety Office should review and approve the installation
laser range safely SOP.
a. Only personnel downrange in the laser safety fan
need laser eye protection. If the range is cleared of
exposed flat, reflective surfaces, no hazardous
reflections could come back to the observer or to
anyone behind the laser site. Hence, these personnel
do not need laser eye protection.
b. At this time, no standard laser protective goggles
are available for general distribution through the
supply system. However, one pair of laser safety
goggles, NSN 4240-00-258-2054, will be supplied in
each G/VLLD test set at the direct support or higher
level laser designator maintenance facility. In general,
laser safety goggles are not necessary for routine
training involving laser designators. However,
personnel involved in two-sided tactical exercises and
personnel downrange from the laser source must be
c. The hazard of looking directly into a laser beam
(intrabeam viewing) is increased by using binoculars,
an aiming circle, or any telescopic sight. In effect, the
viewer is placed closer to the laser source by a factor
of the multiplying power of the sight. Laser light filters,
if available, can be installed in optical systems to make
them eye-safe for laser viewing, much like the laser
goggles. Operator's manuals state whether the
instrument has laser filters. The operator of the
G/VLLD is protected from the G/VLLD laser by a
built-in filter. However, he is not protected from
external laser radiation (other laser devices).
Do not use sunglasses for eye protection.
Sunglasses of any type, including polarized,
do not provide adequate protection froom the
d. Normally, observers operating the G/VLLD do not
need a laser eye examination. However, a person who may
be exposed to hazardous levels of optical radiation will be
included in an occupational vision program. The local
medical authorities will determine who should be included
in such a program.
The G/VLLD trainer set transmits no laser energy;
therefore, no laser hazard is present.
Other sources of laser hazard information include the
- The post environmental health officer.
A laser range safety card similar to a range safety card will
be issued by the local range control authority for use by
each laser OP. The laser range safety officer mustunderstand the terms buffer zone and backstop to correctly
construct a laser range danger fan (LRDF).
a. Buffer Zone. The laser buffer zone is the distalice left
or right or up or down that may be exposed to direct laser
beams. The size of this target area buffer zone is measured
in mils. The size changes according to the type of laser and
the stability of the laser mount. The horizontal and vertical
buffer zone for the G/VLLD, both on the tripod and on
the stationary FISTV, is 2 mils. This 2-mil buffer zone must
be built into the range safety card.
b. Backstop. A backstop is an opaque structure or
terrain in the controlled area--such as a dense tree line, a
windowless building, or a hill--which completely obstructs
any view beyond it and therefore completely terminates a
laser beam that might miss the target (Figure A-13).
Unless the nominal ocular hazard distance (NOHD) (see
AR 385-63) has been exceeded, the hazard distance of the
laser device is the distance to the backstop. This hazard
distance must be controlled. The terrain profile from the
laser device field of view is very important, since the laser
presents only a line-of-sight hazard. The optimal use of
natural backstops is the obvious key to minimizing laser
range control problems.
NOTE: Figure A-14 snows the laser safety fan with a
c. Maximum and Minimum Safe Vertical Angles. The
safety card should specify the left and right azimuth limits
of the laser range. Maximum and minimum vertical angles
for lasing should also be listed. If no maximum or
minimum vertical angles are given and maximum and
minimum ranges are listed, the maximum and minimum
safe vertical angles for laser firing are computed as follows:
Despite the computed minimum safe venical angle, it must
be clear that the total zone between the laser and the
minimum range line is an active laser area. Access must be
controlled and restricted.
Figure A-13 LASER BACKSTOP, TERRAIN DRAWING
- Determine the altitude of the laser OP.
Determine the altitude of the highest point on the
minimum lange line been authorized azimuth limits.
- Determine the vertical interval (VI), in meters, by
subtracting minimum range altitude from the OP
- Divide the VI by the minimum range (in thousands)
(2500 = 2.5) on the safety card to get the minimum
- Add 2 mils to the VA to get the minimum safe
G/VLLD VA. (Pay attention to signs of VA; for
example, VA -8 + 2 mils = -6; VA +8 +2 mils = +10.)
Determine the altitude of the lowest point on the
- Determine the VI by subtracting the maximum range
altitude from the OP altitude.
- Divide the VI by the maximum range in thousands
(8400 = 8.4) to get the maximum VA.
- Subtract 2 mils from the maximum VA to get the
maximum safe G/VLLD VA; for example, VA + 10 -
2 mils = + 8; VA -10 - 2 mils = -12.
NOTE: The maximum safe G/VLLD VA applies only if
there is no backstop for the laser within the laser impact
area that is higher than the maximum VA. When there is
such a backstop, the observer may lase to within 2 mils
of the top of the backstop.
Lasing above the skyline is forbidden except when
specifically authorized by the range safety card.
d. Cleared Area. For OP personnel safety, a 30-meter
area must be cleared in the direction the G/VLLD is used
(Figure A-14 and A-15). This area must be cleared of
trees, bushes, or anything that could be hit accidentally by
the laser beam. The reflection of the laser bearn from any
surface at this range could be hazardous. All personnel in
the OP area must stay behind this area. To warn them of
laser activation, the observer must call out loudly LASING.
e. Warning Signs. AR 385-63 and AR 385-30 give
detailed instructions on construction of laser-safe ranges
and the duties of the laser range safety officer.
Figure A-14. LASER BEAM TERMINATED BY BACKSTOP (SAFETY DIAGRAM)
Figure A-15. G/VLLD SAFETY DIAGRAM WITHOUT BACKSTOP
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