IMPROVED CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS AND
DUAL-PURPOSE IMPROVED CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS
IMPROVED CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS AND
DUAL-PURPOSE IMPROVED CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS
6-1. CHARACTERISTICS OF ICM AND DPICM
Improved conventional munitions are base-ejection projectiles that consist of a mechanical time fuze and a body assembly containing a number of submunitions. There are two types of ICM rounds: the antipersonnel (AP) round and the dual-purpose (DP) round.
a. The AP round is most effective against unwarned, exposed personnel. When the fuze functions, a black powder expelling charge forces the grenades out through the base of the projectile. Small vanes on the grenade flip upward, arming the grenade and stabilizing it in flight. When the striker plate (on the base of the grenade) contacts the ground, the grenade is hurled upward 4 to 6 feet and then detonates.
b. The DP round is most effective against lightly armored vehicles and other materiel. However, it is also effective against personnel. After the grenade is ejected, a ribbon streamer arms and stabilizes it. Upon impact, a shaped charge that can pierce light armor is detonated. Also, fragments which are effective against personnel are expelled.
c. Table 6-1 shows the number of grenades in the various ICM rounds.
6-2. CALL FOR FIRE AND ADJUSTMENT
The call for fire for ICM is the same as any call for fire. The observer identifies which type of ICM he wants to be fired in effect by referring to antipersonnel ICM as APICM and to DPICM as ICM. Procedures for the adjustment of ICM are similar to those for a normal HE adjustment. Exceptions are discussed below.
a. Range and Deviation. Because of the size of the effects pattern, deviation shifts of less than 50 meters and range corrections of less than 100 meters should not be made. Normal range and deviation corrections are used when adjusting DPICM in the self-registering (SR) mode.
Table 6-1. NUMBER OF GRENADES IN EACH ICM ROUND
Figure 6-1. 105-MM APICM GRENADE
Figure 6-2. 155-MM OR 203-MM APICM GRENADE
Figure 6-3. 155-MM OR 203-MM DPICM GRENADE
b. Height of Burst. Because of the reliability of the round, no adjustment for HOB is required before firing for effect. If a repeat of FFE is required, HOB may then be adjusted. Height of burst is adjusted in increments of 50 meters.
(1) If a large number of duds are observed or if the
effects pattern is too small, the observer should give an UP
correction. This correction should not exceed 100 meters.
(2) An HOB that is too high is not critical. Normally, attempts to adjust the HOB should not be made.
c. Danger Close. When adjusting close-in fires with ICM, the observer must start the adjustment at least 600 meters from friendly troops, depending on the relative locations of weapons, target, and friendly troops. Special consideration must be given to the direction and speed of the wind in the target area. The adjustment should be made with the entire battery. Corrections should be made from the near edge of the effects pattern.
6-3. SAMPLE ICM MISSIONS
The following are samples of missions firing various munitions.
FIRE FOR EFFECT WITH DPICM
P51 THIS IS P87, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER.
HE ADJUSTMENT APICM IN EFFECT
P51 THIS IS P87, ADJUST FIRE, OVER.
DPICM ADJUSTMENT DPICM IN EFFECT
P51 THIS IS P87, ADJUST FIRE, OVER.
6-4. IMPROVED CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS CONSIDERATIONS
a. Anytime ICM or DPICM rounds are fired, between 2 and 3 percent of the submunitions (bomblets) fail to detonate. About 50 percent of these duds will be armed and may become a hazard to friendly personnel and equipment. This hazard must be considered in planning and firing missions with ICM or DPICM.
b. The ICM or DPICM should not be fired into forests; mountainous areas (slope greater than 60 percent); or rocky, uneven terrain. This type of terrain may increase the dud rate and reduce the effectiveness of the rounds.
c. Also, the effectiveness of ICM and DPICM rounds may decrease if the target area is marshy or covered with deep snow or water.
6-5. CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCAM
The FASCAM consists of antiarmor mines, RAAMS, and antipersonnel mines, ADAM.
6-6. RAAMS PROJECTILES M718 AND M741
a. The following are characteristics of the M718 and M741:
- Each projectile contains nine antiarmor mines.
- The M718 projectile has a long factory-set self destruct (SD) time.
- The M741 projectile has a short factory-set SD time.
- The mines are magnetically fuzed.
- The antiarmor mines are base-ejected.
- Random mines are equipped with antidisturbance features.
b. The RAAMS round is fired by a 155-mm howitzer, and nine antiarmor mines (Figure 6-4) are base-ejected over the target area. After a short delay to allow for mine free-fall, impact, and roll, the magnetically fuzed mines arm themselves. A number of the mines have antidisturbance features. These cause the mines to detonate if they are moved or picked up. If the RAAMS mines are not engaged by a target, they will self-destruct after the factory-set SD time elapses.
Figure 6-4. RAAMS MINE
6-7. ADAM PROJECTILES M692 AND M731
a. The following are characteristics of the M692 and M731:
- Each projectile contains 36 antipersonnel mines.
- The M692 projectile has a long factory-set SD time.
- The M731. projectile has a short factory-set SD time.
- The antipersonnel mines are base-ejected.
- Each mine deploys antidisturbance trip-wire sensors.
b. The ADAM round is fired by a 155-mm howitzer, and 36 antipersonnel mines (Figure 6-5) are base-ejected over the target area. When an ADAM mine comes to rest on the ground, seven trip-wire sensors are deployed out to a maximum distance of 20 feet from the mine. When a sensor is disturbed or tripped, a small ball-like munition is propelled upward 2 to 8 feet. The ball detonates, projecting approximately 600 1.5-grain steel fragments in all directions. If the mine trip-wire sensors are not disturbed, the mine will self-destruct after a factory-set time has elapsed.
Figure 6-5. ADAM MINE
6-8. TYPES OF MINEFIELDS
Three types of RAAMS and ADAM minefields are used to ensure conformance with the commander's scheme of maneuver and to provide maximum troop safety.
a. Planned minefields--
- Are started as a result of a target list.
- Support barrier or obstacle plans.
- Normally are less than 600 meters wide.
- Are emplaced as scheduled or on-call targets.
- Require extensive coordination between maneuver, engineer, and fire support coordinators.
- Use primarily long SD mines.
- Allow safety zones to be computed before firing.
b. Target of opportunity minefields--
- Are started as a result of a call for fire.
- Support the maneuver commander with an immediate minefield.
- Are standard minefields (400- by 400-meter module).
- Are emplaced in response to the maneuver commander's guidance.
- Consist of a combination of 24 RAAMS and 6 ADAM projectiles (these numbers may change depending on the threat and the commander's guidance).
- Use only short SD mines (carried as part of the basic load).
|NOTE: The safety zone is based on a single aimpoint and is computed immediately after the minefield is fired.|
c. Minefields established in conjunction with attack by other munitions--
- Are started as a result of a target list or a call for fire.
- Support operations by harassing enemy targets within constraints set by the supported maneuver commander.
- Are sized according to the method of attack.
- Have RAAMS, ADAM, or a combination fired in the last volley.
- Use only short sD mines (carried as part of basic load).
|NOTE: The safety zone is computed immediately after the minefield is fired.|
6-9. SELECTION OF MINES
The type of projectile used is determined by the observer or other requester. The type is based on the nature of the target.
a. A RAAMS minefield is used against enemy armored vehicles. When intelligence sources indicate that the enemy has a dismounted breaching capability, ADAM mines should be delivered directly on top of the RAAMS minefield. Always deliver ADAM as the last rounds fired when used in conjunction with RAAMS or other munitions.
b. The ADAM mines are used without antitank mines when the primary target is dismounted personnel. The ADAM mines can also be delivered onto existing antitank obstacles to hinder dismounted breaching.
c. If the type of unit is self-propelled or is undetermined, a mix of ADAM and RAAMS should be used to attack a counterfire target.
6-10. SELECTION OF MINE DENSITY
Selection of mine density is based on the purpose of the minefield. Table 6-2 shows the density selections available for RAAMS and ADAM.
6-11. SELECTION OF SELF-DESTRUCT TIME
a. The selection of the SD time is based on several considerations:
- Scheme of maneuver (current as well as future operations).
- Type of minefield (planned or standard target of opportunity).
- Minefield location.
- Tactical situation (offense or defense).
- Nature of enemy forces.
- Availability of projectile (RAAMS or ADAM).
- Time frame involved.
- Command authority to emplace FASCAM.
b. Normally, RAAMS and ADAM minefields planned to support a barrier or obstacle plan use long SD mines. This allows for longer minefield effectiveness. Projectiles should be stockpiled before emplacement to ensure responsiveness.
Table 6-2. MINEFIELD DENSITY FOR RAAMS AND ADAM
6-12. TARGET LOCATION
a. Moving Targets. The aimpoint for a moving target is placed directly in front of the enemy axis of advance 1,000 meters (m) in front of the enemy target for e very 10 kilometers per hour (kmph) of speed as shown in Figure 6-6. This allows enough time for mine delivery and arming before enemy encounter.
Figure 6-6. AIMPOINT LOCATION FOR MOVING TARGETS
b. Stationary Targets. The aimpoint for a stationary target is placed directly over the target center as shown in Figure 6-7. Aimpoints are located to an accuracy of 100 meters (adjust fire) and 10 meters (fire for effect). If adjustment is necessary, it will be conducted with shell M483A1, DPICM, in the SR mode.
Figure 6-7. AIMPOINT LOCATION FOR STATIONARY TARGETS
6-13. CALL FOR FIRE AND ADJUSTMENT
a. Generally, the call for fire is transmitted and processed the same as other requests for target-of-opportunity fire missions. Unless the observer requests ammunition for adjustment, he will receive DPICM (self-registering) in adjustment and the standard minefield in effect (24 RAAMS and 6 ADAM).
b. Targets of opportunity are either fire-for-effect or adjust-fire missions. Fire-for-effect missions will not be requested if the center of the minefield is less than 700 meters from the nearest friendly position. Adjust-fire missions will not be requested if the center of the minefield is less than 425 meters from the nearest friendly position.
c. Adjustment procedures for FASCAM are identical to those described in paragraph 6-2.
6-14. SAMPLE FASCAM MISSIONS
|This section implements STANAG 2088 and QSTAG 182.|
6-15. CHARACTERISTICS OF ILLUMINATION
Battlefield illumination gives friendly forces enough light to aid them in ground operations at night. It facilitates operations for both the forward observer and the maneuver unit. The illumination shell is used to--
- Illuminate areas of suspected enemy activity.
- Provide illumination for night adjustment.
- Harass enemy positions.
- Furnish direction to friendly troops for attacks or patrol activities.
- Mark targets (by air and ground bursts) for attack by close air support.
- "Wash out" enemy passive night-sight systems when used at ground level.
6-16. EMPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS
The amount of illumination required for a particular mission depends on the OT distance; the conditions of visibility; and the size, width, and depth of the area to be lit. By selecting the proper illuminating pattern and by controlling the rate of fire, the observer can light an area effectively with a minimum expenditure of ammunition. The different illuminating patterns are discussed in the subparagraphs below. The rates of fire for continuous illumination and other information pertinent to the use of illuminating shells are given in Table 6-3. The optimum HOB for the older M118 projectile is 750 meters. However, because of the longer burning time and slower rate of descent, the optimum HOB for the M485 projectile is 600 meters.
Table 6-3. EMPLOYMENT FACTORS FOR ILLUMINATING SHELLS
a. The one-gun illumination pattern is used when effective illumination can be accomplished by firing one round at a time. To obtain this pattern, the observer calls for ILLUMINATION as the type of adjustment and type of projectile.
b. The two-gun illumination pattern is used when an area requires more illumination than can be furnished by one-gun illumination. In this pattern, two rounds are caused to burst simultaneously in the target area. To obtain this pattern, the observer calls for ILLUMINATION TWO GUNS.
c. The two-gun illumination range spread pattern (Figure 6-8) is used when the area to be lit has greater depth than width as seen along the GT line. Spread illumination causes less shadows than illumination that is concentrated in one place. To obtain this pattern, the observer calls for ILLUMINATION RANGE SPREAD. The FDC centers the spread over the point indicated by the observer. See Table 6-3 for distances between bursts.
d. The two-gun illumination lateral spread pattern (Figure 6-9) is used when the area to be lit has greater width than depth. To obtain this pattern, the observer calls for ILLUMINATION LATERAL SPREAD. The FDC centers the spread over the point indicated by the observer and orients the spread perpendicular to the GT line. Distances between bursts are the same as those for range spread (Table 6-3).
e. The four-gun illumination pattern is used to light a large area (Figure 6-10). Four rounds are caused to burst simultaneously in a diamond pattern This pattern lights an area with practically no shadows or dark spots. To obtain this pattern, the observer calls for ILLUMINATION RANGE AND LATERAL SPREAD. The pattern of the bursts is the combination of a range spread and a lateral spread.
Figure 6-8. ILLUMINATION RANGE SPREAD
Figure 6-9. ILLUMINATION LATERAL SPREAD
Figure 6-10. ILLUMINATION RANGE AND LATERAL SPREAD
6-17. CALL FOR FIRE AND ADJUSTMENT OF ILLUMINATION
In the call for fire, ILLUMINATION is given as the type projectile and the appropriate range or lateral spread is given as the distribution. Procedures for adjusting illumination are discussed below.
a. Range and Deviation. Range and deviation are adjusted by use of standard observed fire procedures. The adjustment of the illumination to within 200 meters of the adjusting point is considered adequate because of the size of the area lit by the flare. Range and deviation corrections of less than 200 meters should not be made.
b. Position of Flare. The correct position of the flare in relation to the area to be lit depends on the terrain and wind. Generally, the flare should be to one flank of the area and at about the same range. In a strong wind, the point of burst must be some distance upwind from the area to be lit, because the flare will drift. If the area is on a forward slope, the flare should be on the flank and at a slightly shorter range. For illuminating a very prominent object, better visibility can be obtained if the flare is placed beyond the object so that the object is silhouetted.
c. Height of Burst. The proper HOB allows the flare to strike the ground just as it stops burning. The HOB corrections are made in multiples of 50 meters. Variations in time of burning between individual flares make any finer adjustment of the height of burst pointless.
|NOTE: When using a night observation device (NOD), the observer should ensure that the flare burns out appreciably (100 mils) above his adjusting point so as not to cause the device to wash out.|
(1) When burnout occurs during descent, the HOB
correction is estimated from the height of the flare when it
burned out. When visibility permits, the spotting (height
above the ground of the burnout) may be measured with
binoculars. The HOB spotting (in mils) is multiplied by the
OT factor to determine the height of burnout (in meters).
This height is expressed to the nearest 50 meters and is
sent as a DOWN correction.
The flare burns out 20 mils above the ground. The OT factor is 3; 20 mils x 3 = 60 meters approximately 50 meters. The correction is DOWN 50.
(2) When the flare continues to burn after it strikes the
ground, a correction is required to raise the HOB. The
length of time, in seconds, that the flare burns on the
ground is counted and multiplied by the rate of descent
(see Table 6-3). The product is expressed to the nearest 50
meters and sent as an UP correction.
The flare burned 23 seconds on the ground; 23 x 5 (rate of descent for M485A2) = 115 The correction is UP 100 (correction expressed to the nearest 50 meters).
6-18. CALL FOR FIRE AND ADJUSTMENT UNDER ILLUMINATION
a. When the observer has located a target suitable for HE or other fire, he initiates a call for fire in the normal manner. If no better means of designating the location of the target is possible, the burst center of the illumination can be used as a reference point.
b. If the observer decides to adjust the illuminating fire and the HE fire concurrently, he prefaces corrections pertaining to illumination with the word ILLUMINATION and those pertaining to HE with the letters HE; for example, ILLUMINATION, ADD 200; HE, RIGHT 60, ADD 200.
c. Once the observer has adjusted the illuminating shell to the desired location, he should control the rate of fire and number of pieces firing. This reduces ammunition expended to the minimum necessary for the required observation.
(1) The observer may allow the FDC to control the
firing of both illumination and HE by announcing
COORDINATED ILLUMINATION in his call for fire.
When the illumination has been adjusted to yield the best
light on the target, the observer announces
ILLUMINATION MARK to tell the FDC the exact time
the target is best illuminated. The FDC times the interval
between the actual firing of the illuminating round and the
receipt of the observer's ILLUMINATION MARK. By
comparing this time interval with the time of flight of the
HE, the FDC can control the firing of the HE rounds so
that they arrive at the target during maximum illumination.
(2) As an alternate method, the observer may request COORDINATED ILLUMINATION and announce the method of control as BY SHELL, AT MY COMMAND. This indicates that both HE and illumination will be fired only at the observer's command. As soon as the FDC reports that the illuminating and HE fires are ready, the observer commands the firing of illumination. Then he gives the command to fire the HE so that it impacts during the period of maximum illumination of the target. The observer can request the HE time of flight to better coordinate the firing of each round. The observer may want to change the method of control to let the FDC fire illumination when ready while he controls the firing of the HE shell. If so, he announces ILLUMINATION, CANCEL AT MY COMMAND. An experienced observer may be able to adjust more than one HE round under each round of illumination.
(3) Because of the amount of ammunition expended, the least desirable method is for the observer to request CONTINUOUS ILLUMINATION. In this technique, the FDC fires illumination continuously (intervals between firing depend on the type of projectile) while the observer adjusts HE.
6-19. SAMPLE ILLUMINATION MISSIONS
The example below portrays various illumination missions.
The observer hears a number of heavy vehicles at an azimuth estimated at 5800. He cannot detect any lights, and the entire area is in complete darkness. Judging From the sounds and a study of his map, the observer estimates the source of the noises as grid NB616376. This location is about 2,000 meters from his observation post. He sends the following call for fire to a 155-mm battery using M485A2:
P53 THIS IS P67, ADJUST FIRE, OVER.
GRID NB616376, OVER.
VEHICLE NOISES, SUSPECTED TANKS, ILLUMINATION, OVER.
The first illuminating round bursts about 100 mils left of the suspected area and burns out 40 mils too high (measured with binoculars) (Figure 6-11). Using an OT factor of 2, the observer transmits the following:
DIRECTION 5800, RIGHT 200, DOWN 100, OVER.
(Deviation = 100 mils x 2 = 200 meters.
HOB = 40 mils x 2 = 80 meters, approximately 100 meters.)
The second round bursts short near the OT line but is too low. It burns 6 seconds on the ground. The observer requests ADD 400, UP 50, OVER (6 x 5 = 30, approximately 50).
The third round bursts at the appropriate height over the suspected area; but haze, along with the distance of the area from the observer, causes poor visibility with only one round of illuminating shell. The observer believes that two rounds will be adequate but desires a lateral spread along a section of road that he is observing in order to extend the visible area and reduce shadows. The observer requests LATERAL SPREAD, OVER.
Two rounds burst in a spread over the suspected area. The observer notices two tanks and a number of infantrymen moving over to the right at the extreme edge of the lighted area. He then prepares and sends a separate call for fire and moves his illumination over to the adjusting point. His call is as follows:
RIGHT 400, COORDINATED ILLUMINATION, OVER.
ADJUST FIRE, OVER.
GRID NB621382, OVER.
2 TANKS AND PLATOON OF INFANTRY, ICM IN EFFECT, OVER.
The observer may also have sent his target location by polar plot (ADJUST FIRE, POLAR, OVER) or by shifting from the center of the illumination (ADJUST FIRE, SHIFT, ILLUMINATION, OVER).
With the next rounds of illumination, the observer transmits ILLUMINATION MARK when the illumination has best lit the target. He then adjusts the HE and fires for effect as in a normal mission.
|NOTE: For any illuminating round that in the observer's judgment provides maximum or enough illumination for the mission, the observer may transmit ILLUMINATION MARK. A separate marking round is a waste of ammunition.|
Figure 6-11. INITIAL ILLUMINATING ROUND
6-20. CHARACTERISTICS OF SMOKE
When used correctly, smoke (smk) can significantly reduce the enemy's effectiveness both in the daytime and at night. Combined with other suppressive fires, it gives more opportunities for maneuver forces to deploy and aircraft to attack frontline targets. This enhances the chances of mission accomplishment without catastrophic losses. Smoke reduces the effectiveness of laser beams and inhibits the use of optically-guided missiles, such as the Sagger. Smoke may be used to reduce the ability of the enemy to deliver effective fires, to hamper hostile operations, and to deny the enemy information on friendly positions and maneuvers. The effective delivery of smoke by the field artillery at the critical time and place helps the combined arms team accomplish its mission. (See Table 6-4 for smoke capabilities and effects.) Smoke is used for obscuration, screening, deception, and signaling.
- Obscuring smoke-Use and effects of a smoke screen placed directly on or near the enemy with the primary purpose of suppressing observers and minimizing their vision (Figure 6-12).
- Screening smoke--A smoke curtain used on the battlefield between enemy observation points and friendly units to mask maneuvers (Figure 6-13).
- Deception smoke--A smoke curtain used to deceive and confuse the enemy as to the nature of friendly operations.
- Signaling smoke--Smoke used to establish a reference for friendly forces.
Figure 6-12. OBSCURING SMOKE
Figure 6-13. SCREENING SMOKE
Do not neglect the use of smoke at night. Enemy direct fire weapons, such as the Sagger, are equipped with night vision devices. Darkness can bring on a false sense of security which can be fatal to the maneuver elements.
|NOTE: Whether used in offensive or defensive operations, smoke can decrease vulnerability and increase effectiveness.|
a. Obscuring smoke is used as follows:
- To defeat flash ranging and restrict the enemy's counterfire program.
- To obscure artillery OPs and reduce the accuracy of enemy observed fires.
- To obscure enemy direct fire weapons, including wire-guided missiles, to reduce their effectiveness up to 90 percent.
- To obscure enemy lasers to reduce their effectiveness.
- To instill apprehension and increase enemy patrolling.
- To slow enemy vehicles to blackout speeds.
- To increase command and control problems by preventing effective visual signals and increasing radio traffic.
- To defeat night observation devices and reduce the capability of most infrared (IR) devices.
- To increase effectiveness of obstacles.
b. Screening smoke is used as discussed below.
(1) Deceptive Screens. Smoke draws fire. Deceptive
screens cause the enemy to disperse his fires and expend
(2) Flank Screens. Smoke may be used to screen exposed flanks.
(3) Areas Forward of the Objective. Smoke helps the maneuver units consolidate on the objective unhindered by enemy ground observers.
(4) River-Crossing Operations. Screening the primary crossing site denies the enemy information. Deceptive screens deceive the enemy as to the exact location of the main crossing.
(5) Obstacle Breaching. The enemy is denied the ability to observe the breaching unit and is prevented from placing accurate fires on that unit.
c. Non-field-artillery smoke ammunition and delivery means are described below.
(1) Mortars. Mortars can provide good initial smoke
coverage with WP ammunition because of their high rates
of fire. Mortar smoke information is shown in Table 6-4.
(2) Tanks. Tanks firing from overwatch positions can suppress antitank guided missile gunners at 1,500 to 3,000 meters with WP ammunition.
6-21. SMOKE DELIVERY TECHNIQUES
Using different amounts of smoke on the battlefield against targets of various sizes requires different gunnery techniques. The use of the two delivery techniques (immediate and quick) does not preclude the use of smoke on other occasions or for different objectives. The objective of the two prescribed techniques is to obscure the enemy's vision or screen the maneuver element. The two delivery techniques are outlined in Table 6-5 and are discussed in detail in paragraphs 6-23 and 6-24.
Table 6-4. FIELD ARTILLERY AND MORTAR SMOKE CAPABILITIES AND EFFECTS
Table 6-5. SMOKE DELIVERY TECHNIQUES
6-22. EMPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS
a. Weather. The observer is the normal source of wind data for the target area. He determines the data (head wind, tail wind, or crosswind) on the basis of what he sees and feels. Atmospheric stability, wind direction, and wind speed are the major factors influencing the effectiveness of smoke. (See Figure 6-14.)
(1) Atmospheric Stability. The weather conditions, the
time of day, and the wind speed all affect atmospheric
stability. Although they are determined by the FDC, the
observer must be aware of the effects of three temperature
gradients, which are discussed in Table 6-6.
Figure 6-14. WEATHER FACTORS WHICH AFFECT SMOKE EMPLOYMENT
Table 6-6. GENERAL ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS AND THE EFFECTS ON SMOKE
(2) Wind Speed. The movement of smoke depends on
the speed and direction of the wind. Wind speeds ranging
from 4 to 14 knots are best for the production of smoke
screens. Optimum speeds vary with the type of smoke
used. (See Figure 6-15.) To determine an approximate
wind speed, the observer can use either the equivalent
wind scale table (Table 6-7) or the grass-drop (expedient)
method. With the grass-drop method, extend your arm
downwind and drop grass from your hand. Point your
extended arm at the dropped grass on the ground. Divide
the angle (in degrees) between your arm and your body by
4 to determine the approximate wind velocity in knots.
(3) Wind Direction. Wind direction influences the desired location of smoke in the target area. To determine wind direction in the target area, observe drifting of smoke or dust, bending of grass or trees, and ripples on water.
Figure 6-15. OPTIMUM WIND SPEED CHART
Table 6-7. EQUIVALENT WIND SCALE
(4) Maneuver-Target Line. Determine the wind
direction in relation to the maneuver-target line. The wind
direction only in terms of crosswind, tail wind, or head
wind needs to be determined (Figure 6-16). The
maneuver-target line is an imaginary line from the
maneuver unit to the target. Smoke is generally required
when the maneuver unit is at its most vulnerable point
along the route of march. Therefore, in planning smoke,
draw the maneuver-target line from the most vulnerable
point along the route of march to the target.
(5) Temperature. A rise in temperature may increase the rate of evaporation. This causes the smoke screen to dissipate more rapidly.
(6) Humidity and Precipitation. High humidity and precipitation may enhance the effectiveness of smoke
b. Ammunition. The amount of smoke ammunition in basic loads is limited. Expenditures of smoke ammunition vary considerably with each specific mission. All observers must know the amount of ammunition available and how much smoke it will provide. Large requirements for smoke may require redistribution of the basic loads of several units or an issue of additional smoke ammunition for a specific operation. Combat experience has shown that smoke ammunition will not be available to support all smoke requests.
c. Available Means. Before firing a smoke mission, the observer, FDO, and FSO must consider the means available. The company FSO recommends to the maneuver commander whether mortars or artillery should be used. The battalion FDO decides which battery will fire or whether to have a reinforcing unit, if available, support the mission. The FSO provides tactical information that could affect the fire support available. All assets are limited, and for each mission the decision must be made as to who can best fulfill the requirements.
d. Terrain. The terrain affects the employment of smoke. The following rules apply:
- If smoke is placed on tanks in defilade, they lose their sense of direction.
- Smoke seeks low spots.
- Firing smoke on dry vegetation may start fires.
- Smoke should not be fired on deep mud, water, or snow. The smoke canisters normally will not function properly.
- Smoke should not be fired on steep slopes. The canisters roll downhill.
Figure 6-16 MANEUVER-TARGET LINE
e. Enemy. Know and anticipate the enemy. Some rules are as follows:
- Fire smoke on enemy artillery OPs and gunners to greatly reduce their effectiveness.
- Fire smoke and HE on the enemy when he deploys from column to line formation. The HE will keep him buttoned up. The smoke will cause maximum confusion.
- Fire smoke and HE on minefields to cause maximum confusion. (Avoid concealing enemy breaching operations.)
- Understand the effects of smoke on friendly positions. Smoke used without enough thought and planning reduces the user's effectiveness more than that of the enemy.
f. Command and Control. The maneuver commander for whom the smoke is planned must approve its use. When he issues his plans and concept for an operation, he should state the guidelines on the amount of smoke that can be used and any restriction on its use. To ensure that smoke is responsive, the company FSO, battalion FSO, and/or FSCOORD must request this smoke planning guidance if it has not been stated. The maneuver commander responsible for the operation must coordinate smoke operations with all units participating in or potentially affected by the operation. The operations officer (S3 or G3) is responsible for integrating smoke into the plan of maneuver. The FSO and FSCOORD must keep the maneuver commander advised on the availability of munitions and delivery systems. Combat arms troops must be well trained in smoke operations, and comprehensive SOPs must be available to and known by all. This shortens reaction time.
6-23. IMMEDIATE SMOKE
a. Description. The objective of immediate smoke is to obscure the enemy's vision. Suppression of a small location can be achieved by use of immediate smoke to reduce the enemy's ability to observe. Immediate smoke can be planned, as other planned suppressive fires, or it can be used after immediate suppressive fire. When immediate smoke is planned, the immediate smoke target is sent to the FDC as part of the target list. Weather conditions must be considered in planning immediate smoke, since a change in wind direction could make the planned smoke ineffective. If immediate suppressive fire is ineffective because of inaccurate target location, the observer has the option of giving a bold shift and requesting that the smoke be fired.
H18 THIS IS H24, IMMEDIATE SUPPRESSION, GRID
b. Employment Considerations.
(1) Before firing immediate smoke, the observer must
realize that suppression by smoke will not be as immediate
as suppression by HE, since it takes time for the smoke to
build up. Inaccurately placed smoke may still provide
obscuration, whereas inaccurately placed HE may not give
the desired results. Although immediate smoke will
provide suppression (by obscuration) for a longer period of
time than will HE, it is effective only against a pinpoint
target or a small area target less than 150 meters in
(2) The type of ammunition to be fired should be dictated by SOP. A suggested mix is firing WP (for initial quick buildup) and firing smoke (for duration). Once the smoke has built up, all subsequent volleys should be shell smoke.
(3) Immediate smoke normally is used on a planned suppressive target or when shifting after immediate suppression with HE has been found to be ineffective because of positioning. Therefore, corrections for deviation, range, and height of burst must be made. The minimum corrections are 50 meters for deviation and 100 meters for range. The height of burst of shell smoke (M116A1) can be adjusted as follows:
- Ground burst: UP 100.
- Canisters bouncing excessively: UP 50.
- Canisters too spread out: DOWN 50.
(4) When a mixture of smoke and WP is fired, it
can be expected that the smoke will be effective 30
seconds after the shells impact and that it will last
about 4 to 5 minutes. If the smoke is required for a
longer period, additional volleys of smoke should be
(5) The adjusting point on which the smoke is placed depends on weather conditions (Figure 6-17). Under normal circumstances, the point at which it is directed should be about 100 meters short on the maneuver-target line and 100 meters upwind of the enemy location. If the wind is a crosswind (blowing across the maneuver-target line), the smoke is placed upwind so that it obscures the enemy's vision along the maneuver-target line. If the wind is a head wind (blowing away from the target), the smoke is placed 100 meters short on the maneuver-target line.
Care must be used with head winds, since the smoke may blow onto the maneuver element.
When the wind is a tail wind (blowing toward the target),
the smoke is placed at least 200 meters short of the target
to keep the smoke from landing beyond the target.
Figure 6-17. PLACEMENT OF IMMEDIATE SMOKE
6-24. QUICK SMOKE
a. Description. The objective of quick smoke is to obscure the enemy's vision or to screen maneuver elements. The quick smoke mission equates to the normal HE adjust fire mission: Obscuring the enemy is required, but the urgency of the situation does not dictate immediate smoke procedures. The mission is begun by adjusting with HE, changing to smoke when within 200 meters of the adjusting point, and then firing for effect with smoke.
b. Employment Considerations.
(1) The quick smoke mission is used to obscure an area
up to 600 meters wide. For areas larger than 600 meters, the
observer can fire multiple quick smoke missions. Smoke may
be effective up to 1,500 meters downwind.
(2) When preparing a quick smoke mission, the observer first determines the nature of the target and the location of the adjusting point (see Figure 6-18). Then he determines the size of the area and the wind direction in relation to the maneuver-target line (Figure 6-16).
(3) To select the adjusting point, the observer determines the wind direction and whether WP or smoke is to be fired in effect.
(4) The FDC must be informed of the target length, the target attitude, the wind direction, and the length of time the smoke is required. This information is sent to the FDC as early as possible (usually in the third transmission of the call for fire as part of the method of engagement but before FIRE FOR EFFECT). The observer also has the option of extending the time of effective smoke by requesting subsequent volleys.
(5) If the smoke must be effective beginning at a specific time, the observer requests AT MY COMMAND and the time of flight. To determine when to order the smoke fired, the observer adds the time of flight to the average buildup time of 30 seconds for WP and 60 seconds for smoke.
(6) If the smoke is ineffective, the observer must decide whether to shift the smoke or to fire HE. If the decision is to shift, there may be a break in the screen while new data are being computed.
Figure 6-18. PLACEMENT OF QUICK SMOKE
(1) Shell Smoke. High explosive will be used in
adjustment until a 200-meter bracket is split. The observer will
then request shell smoke. One smoke round is fired, and any
necessary corrections are made (in accordance with [IAW]
subparagraph b(3) above). Then FFE is requested.
(2) Shell White Phosphorus. This adjustment is conducted like an adjust fire (AF) mission with WP in effect.
(3) Improved Smoke (M825). This is the predominant 155-mm smoke round. It does not need HOB adjustment. As a result, a 200-meter bracket is not split and FFE is started after a 200-meter bracket is achieved.
6-25. SAMPLE SMOKE MISSIONS
The examples below portray various types of smoke missions.
IMMEDIATE SMOKE AS A CONTINUATION OF AN
IMMEDIATE SMOKE, DIRECTION 5600, RIGHT 200, ADD 400, REPEAT, OVER.
IMMEDIATE SMOKE AS THE INITIAL CALL FOR FIRE
H18, THIS IS H24, IMMEDIATE SMOKE, GRID NK628543, OVER.
H18 THIS IS H24, ADJUST FIRE, SHIFT KNOWN POINT 1, OVER.
H18 THIS IS H24, ADJUST FIRE, OVER.
QUICK SMOKE, MULTIPLE AIMING POINTS
The observer fires a quick smoke mission, observes effects, and announces to FDC SECOND AIMING POINT, RIGHT 500, DROP 200, REPEAT, OVER.
SECOND AIMING POINT tells the FDC that the observer wants to fire on a second point at this time and that the battery should be prepared to replenish smoke on either point. By observing how long the smoke remains effective near either aiming point, the observer can determine a time interval at which to replenish his smoke should he want to do so.
Interval = effective screen time - build-up time.
He can pass this information to the FDS by sending CONTINUE SMOKE AT 3-MINUTE INTERVALS FOR 15 MINUTES, OVER.
QUICK SMOKE, MULTIPLE AIMING POINTS
H18 THIS IS H24, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER.
6-26. MORTAR PROCEDURES
Quick smoke procedures for mortars are the same as for the artillery with the exceptions discussed below.
a. If the smoke rounds do not impact on or near the selected point, the observer makes corrections as necessary. Deviation corrections for individual guns may be sent back to the FDC.
b. When using 81-mm smoke, the observer may select a second aiming point halfway between the target and the first aiming point. The second aiming point may be used to supplement firing on the first aiming point or to shift fires quickly after smoke is fired for effect and is ineffective.
|NOTE: WP is the only smoke round for mortars.|
c. Corrections for rate of fire or deviation can be made for individual mortars or for the entire section after fire for effect.
6-27. CHARACTERISTICS OF COPPERHEAD
Copperhead is a 155-mm cannon-launched guided projectile with a shaped charge warhead and a laser seeker. When fired at moving or stationary hard point targets, Copperhead homes in on laser energy reflected from the target during the final portion of its trajectory. Laser energy is provided by a remote laser designator, such as the G/VLLD or the modular universal laser equipment (MULE).
The optimum use of Copperhead is against multiple targets in large target arrays outside the range of maneuver direct fire weapon systems (approximately 3,000 meters). Single targets or very few, widely separated targets may be engaged by Copperhead if they are judged to be high-value targets; for example, the enemy commander's vehicle. Targets appearing within the range of maneuver direct fire weapon systems should be engaged by Copperhead only when the direct fire systems are unable to engage them or when the maneuver company commander directs.
a. Engagement Ranges. Fire planning for Copperhead should consider the engagement ranges of the G/VLLD. Moving targets can be engaged at 3 kilometers (km) and, depending on the skill of the observer, out to 4 kilometers (day sight only). Stationary targets can be engaged out to 5 kilometers. Targets should be planned so that engagement is within these maximum ranges.
b. Target Types. Copperhead targets can be engaged as either planned targets or targets of opportunity. Planned targets are preferred. Normally, the target-of-opportunity technique is used only during mobile operations and before planned targets are developed. Planned targets fall into two categories: priority and on-call.
(1) Priority Targets. For priority targets, data are
precomputed and set on the guns, and the Copperhead
round is laid in its loading tray.
(2) On-Call Targets. On-call targets are processed the same as priority targets, except the guns are not laid on firing data until after receipt of the mission.
a. Minimum Visibility Requirements. Laser designation requires an uninterrupted line of sight between the designator and the target. Anything that obstructs or weakens the laser signal will cause a significant decrease in the performance of the Copperhead round. On the battlefield, the terrain, vegetation, fog, smoke, dust, cloud height, and general battlefield turbulence all obstruct visibility of the target. The minimum visibility for effective Copperhead use is 5,000 meters. Soon after occupying a position, the observer should sight through the G/VLLD, range the farthest visible terrain feature, and determine its distance. If the distance measured by the G/VLLD is 5,000 meters or greater, the minimum visibility requirement for Copperhead is met. Minimum visibility should be rechecked periodically.
b. Laser Engagement Probabilities. On the downward leg of the Copperhead flight, the round acquires the laser energy reflected from the target and begins maneuvering toward it. However, the ground surface area in which the round can successfully engage is limited. The optimum limit of engagement of the Copperhead round is called a footprint. Footprints are roughly oval in shape and form around the target location sent in by the observer. Although a round can maneuver to the outside limits of the footprint, the greatest chance of hitting the target is when it is at or near the target location sent to the FDC. The greater the target location error, the lower the probability the round will hit the target. The outer boundary of the footprint represents a 50-percent probability of hit; the location sent to the FDC has a hit probability substantially higher than 50 percent. The size and shape of the footprint are affected by the target cloud height, the GT range, visibility, and the angle of fire (high or low).
c. Footprint Template. Trajectory templates (to 1:50,000 scale) have been developed to accurately portray the engagement area of each adjusting point. The template packet consists of two cover cards and 12 templates, labeled A through L.
(1) The cover cards give instructions for using the
templates and a cloud height table. Each template depicts
the shape of the footprint.
(2) The template cards are clear plastic graphic devices, (1:50,000 scale). Each card has the shape of the footprint (to scale based on the GT range and the cloud height) partially cut into the card. In addition, each card is marked with the footprint letter code (A through L), a centerline, a target location pinhole, and an Angle T scale (Figure 6-19).
d. Selecting the Footprint. The observer or FSO selects the template according to the visibility of the target area, the weapon system, the cloud height ceiling, and the GT range. The instructions are printed on the cover cards. The instructions for footprint selection are shown in Table 6-8.
e. Orienting the Template Card. To orient the template card, center the pinhole in the footprint over the planned target location. Align the centerline with the OT line. Using the OT line as an index, set off the Angle T by using the Angle T scale at the bottom of the template card. The centerline should now be aligned with the GT line. For the Copperhead seeker to get the best view of the laser spot, Angle T should not exceed 800 mils left or right. If the observer does not have the battery location to determine Angle Ts, he should contact the battery FDC and request one of the following:
- The battery location.
- The Angle T and guns left or right of his G/VLLD location for a target in the center of his area of responsibility.
Table 6-8. CLOUD HEIGHT
Figure 6-19. COPPERHEAD FOOTPRINT TEMPLATE CARD
The Angle T and gun orientation to be considered when actually engaging a given target and the actual footprint to be used will be reported to the observer by the FDC. As already mentioned, the observer may reorient and redraw the footprint or he may visually interpolate the change.
f. Drawing the Footprint. After the template card has been properly oriented, the footprint can be drawn by inserting a pencil or other marking device in the openings on the card. The drawing is completed by removing the card and connecting the broken lines.
g. Visualizing the Footprint. The observer uses his G/VLLD to help him visualize the footprints on the ground. Once he has drawn the footprints on his map, he selects several points around the edges of the footprints and determines the direction and distance to each of them. He then locates these points on the ground by using the G/VLLD. By visually connecting the points, he can determine the shape of the footprints on the ground. The ability of the observer to visualize Copperhead footprints on existing terrain is essential to effective Copperhead target planning. Use of the Copperhead footprint template and the ability to construct a visibility diagram for the areas of likely enemy activity greatly help the observer in fire planning.
6-30. TARGETS OF OPPORTUNITY
a. As explained in Chapter 5, Section IV, targets of opportunity are expected to be more prevalent in highly mobile situations. To request Copperhead against a moving target, the observer must determine an intercept point and a trigger point. The determination of intercept and trigger points is detailed in Chapter 5.
b. Ideally, the battery will be prepared to fire before the target reaches the trigger point. However, if the target passes the trigger point before the battery reports READY but will still be within the footprint when the round arrives, the observer should fire the round immediately. If the target passes through the footprint before the battery reports READY or will pass through by the time the round arrives, the observer should make a bold shift to a new target location with the same trigger point and intercept distances. A grid for the new location should be sent to the FDC immediately.
c. Visualization of the Copperhead footprint is as important to the successful engagement of targets of opportunity as it is for planned targets. However, good footprint visualization for targets of opportunity is more difficult. Since there will probably not be enough time to draw a footprint on the map, neither the battalion nor the battery FDC will tell the observer which footprint template card to use. Instead, the observer estimates the dimensions of the footprint on the basis of the size of the planned target footprints in the general vicinity of the target of opportunity. If planned target footprints have not been established, the observer estimates footprint dimensions. He selects an average footprint from the footprint template on the basis of the GT range or time of flight and visualizes it on the ground.
6-31. PLANNED TARGETS
a. Basically, planned moving targets are engaged the same as targets of opportunity. However, a moving target may change its direction of travel and not travel over the initially planned intercept point. In this case, the observer should select his trigger point so that the target will be as near as possible to the planned target location when the Copperhead round arrives (Figures 6-20 and 6-21).
b. The planned target location will be the intercept point. As soon as the observer sees the vehicles to be engaged, he must verify their direction and speed of travel and confirm his intercept and trigger point distances by using the procedures in Chapter 5. If the planned intercept point and trigger point do not allow enough time for total processing time plus time of flight, the observer must determine a new intercept point and a new trigger point and engage the target as a target of opportunity.
6-32. COPPERHEAD CALL FOR FIRE
When a Copperhead target is acquired, the request for fire is sent over an established fire net to a battery FDC. Often, the same battery that fires other close support FA missions for an observer will also fire Copperhead against targets of opportunity and planned targets. However, the direct support (DS) battalion commander may designate specific units to fire all Copperhead missions.
a. Planned Targets. Once the target (or target array) is identified by the observer, he estimates its speed and direction to determine which planned target location should be used for engagement. A call for fire can then be sent. The following are elements in the call for fire (voice or digital) for planned targets:
- Observer identification: THIS IS A71.
- Warning order: FIRE TARGET AY4781, OVER.
- Target description: 4 TANKS.
- Method of engagement: 4 ROUNDS.
- Method of control: AT MY COMMAND, OVER.
Figure 6-20. TRIGGER POINT FOR PLANNED TARGET
Figure 6-21. TRIGGER POINTS FOR TARGET NOT IN CENTER OF FOOTPRINT
(1) Unless otherwise specified on the Copperhead
target list, the battery FDC will plan to fire two
Copperhead rounds on each planned target. The BCS
version 9 will compute and send data for one gun to fire a
Copperhead round and will tell a second gun DO NOT
LOAD. Two rounds are not automatically fired unless
requested. If more than two rounds are required at the
time of engagement, they must be requested in the call for
fire. Table 6-9 gives criteria for determining the number of
Copperhead rounds per target to be fired.
(2) When the observer requests AT MY COMMAND, the battery fires the Copperhead rounds at intervals of 30 seconds after the observer gives the command to fire. When BY ROUND AT MY COMMAND is requested, the observer controls the firing of each Copperhead round.
Table 6-9. ROUNDS PER TARGET
(3) For immediate responsiveness in engaging priority
targets, the observer can streamline his call for fire. He can
omit the target description, method of engagement, and
method of control. For example, THIS IS A71, FIRE
TARGET AY4781, OVER. The first round will impact at time
of flight plus radio transmission time. Subsequent rounds will
arrive at intervals of at least 20 seconds thereafter.
|NOTE: The streamlined planned target call for fire should be used only when more rounds than planned are required.|
b. Targets of Opportunity. When planned target locations are not available, the observer engages the target as a target of opportunity. Calls for fire for Copperhead targets of opportunity follow the same format as the standard call for fire:
- Observer identification: Y5A57 THIS IS YSA71.
- Warning order: FIRE FOR EFFECT, POLAR, OVER.
- Location of target: DIRECTION 1800, RANGE 3450, VERTICAL ANGLE +5, OVER.
- Target description: 2 TANKS.
- Method of engagement (see Table 6-8): COPPERHEAD, 2 ROUNDS.
- Method of control: BY ROUND, AT MY COMMAND, OVER.
|NOTE: Normally, the observer uses AT MY COMMAND or BY ROUND AT MY COMMAND for targets of opportunity.|
c. Message to Observer. After the call for fire is received by the FDC and the mission processing is started, an MTO is sent as soon as possible. This applies to all Copperhead targets except priority targets. The MTOs are sent before firing. The MTO for the Copperhead mission includes the following elements:
- Unit firing: Q
- Laser PRF code: CODE 241.
- Time of flight: TIME OF FLIGHT 25.
d. Laser PRF Code. The G/VLLD can emit laser pulses of different frequencies. The Copperhead projectile can sense these frequencies. These frequencies are set as a three-digit PRF code on the G/VLLD and on the Copperhead projectile. For a Copperhead mission to be successful, the observer must ensure that the PRF code on the Copperhead round matches the PRF code on the G/VLLD. The FDC has a list of all observer PRF codes matched with their call signs. On the basis of the observer's identification in the call for fire, the FDC selects the proper PRF code and sends it to the guns, where it is placed on the Copperhead round. The FDC verifies this code in the MTO. If the FDC sends the observer a different code in the MTO than the one set on the G/VLLD, the observer immediately changes the code on the G/VLLD so that it matches the code sent by the FDC. Normally, however, an observer does not change his PRF code unless directed. Battalion FSOs must ensure that their G/VLLD operators have the correct codes. One PRF code is indicated as primary for each operator to use for all his Copperhead missions. This code setting is changed only when absolutely necessary.
e. Copperhead Engagement Commands.
(1) Shot. As soon as the first Copperhead round is fired
in a mission, the observer receives SHOT from the FDC. If he
specified AT MY COMMAND or omitted the method of
control in the call for fire (battery fresh when ready), he
receives SHOT only once. The subsequent rounds are fired at
intervals of at least 20 seconds without notification. (The exact
interval is set by unit SOP.) If the observer specified BY
ROUND AT MY COMMAND, he receives SHOT for each
round fired. If an observer fails to acknowledge SHOT for a
given round, it will not be retransmitted because the
observer's timing will be affected.
(2) Designate. The next and most critical engagement command is DESIGNATE. When the observer receives the command DESIGNATE from the FDC, he begins designating the target with the G/VLLD. This command is sent 20 seconds before impact. If the time of flight is 20 seconds or less, SHOT and DESIGNATE are sent in the same transmission. DESIGNATE is used when communicating digitally. If operating in the voice mode, the command is LASER ON.
(a) It is mandatory that the observer designate the
target during the last 13 seconds of time of flight. Once the
observer has received SHOT, he should begin his own
countdown using the time of flight received in the message
to observer. If for some reason he has not received a
DESIGNATE message, he should begin designation when
13 seconds are left in his countdown.
(b) If the battery is firing the Copperhead rounds automatically at 20-second intervals, the command DESIGNATE is sent only for the first round fired. The observer continues designating for the subsequent rounds while moving the laser spot to the next target.
(c) If SHOT is given for each round or if the firing interval is greater than 20 seconds, DESIGNATE is given for each round.
(3) Designate Now. If an observer fails to acknowledge the DESIGNATE command, the command DESIGNATE NOW is sent by the FDC until the observer acknowledges or the time of flight of the round elapses. If the observer fails to acknowledge the DESIGNATE NOW command, SHOT and DESIGNATE are sent on the next round fired, regardless of the method of control.
(4) Rounds Complete. The FDC reports ROUNDS COMPLETE after the engagement commands for the last round are transmitted and acknowledged. If the observer wants to terminate firing before the last round is fired and the FDC is controlling the firing of subsequent rounds, he sends CHECK FIRING, CANCEL CHECK FIRING, END OF MISSION. If the observer is controlling the firing of subsequent rounds, he simply sends END OF MISSION to terminate the mission.
(5) Requests for Additional Rounds. If additional rounds are required to engage the target array, the observer may request them by sending (so many) ROUNDS, REPEAT, OVER after the last Copperhead round is fired. The criteria in Table 6-9 will be followed in requesting additional rounds.
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