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APPENDIX A

ORGANIZATIONS AND DUTIES

This appendix presents organizations and duties as follows:

  • Corps and division organizations.

  • Fire support cell organizations.

  • Duties of fire support personnel.


Section I. CORPS AND DIVISION ORGANIZATIONS

Organizations of the following corps and divisions are shown in illustrations in this section:


















Section II. FIRE SUPPORT CELL ORGANIZATIONS

Fire Support Cell

Division command posts are divided into a tactical CP, a main CP, and a rear CP. Like the command cell, current operations cell, and all-source intelligence center (ASIC), the FS cell operates at the main CP. The field artillery representatives, who comprise the fire support element, form the nucleus of the FS cell. Other personnel who may either work in the FS cell habitually or actively coordinate with it as needed are the G2, G3 air, assistant division engineer, chemical officer, EW officer, and representatives from the TACP, AD, division aviation, and ANGLICO. The FSCOORD, or AFSCOORD in his absence, supervises FS cell activities. These include planning, coordinating, and integrating fire support operations, to include TACAIR and EW support.

Detailed breakdowns of the CP organizations are in FM 71-100. The table below shows the FSE personnel authorized for different types of divisions.


Division Tactical Command Post Fire Support Element

The tactical CP FSE is responsible for fire support coordination for the current battle. It is an austere organization. It coordinates and implements the fire support from the subordinate brigade FS cells and identifies fire support requirements for the immediate and near-immediate tactical situations. Representatives from all fire support resources responsive to the division collocate with the FSE. The FSE is as mobile as the supported maneuver force tactical CP.

Organization

There is no standard organization for the tactical CP FSE. The table, Type Division Fire Support Element, shows a possible division of FA personnel between the tactical CP and the main FS cell in a heavy division, The figures below show type layouts of tactical CP FSEs in heavy and light divisions. The heavy division FSE is in an M577 command post carrier. The light division FSE is in an HMMWV. Each vehicle should be located near the G3's vehicle for easy coordination and flow of information.

Communications

Normally, the tactical CP FSE operates in the following TACFIRE and non-TACFIRE nets:

  • Div arty command/intelligence net (FM-voice) or division command net (FM-voice).

  • Div arty fire direction net (FM-voice) or div arty operations net 1, 2, or 3 (FM-digital).

  • Div arty command/fire direction net 2 (SSB-RATT).

  • Command multichannel link to the main CP FS cell and div arty CP when available.





Division Main Command Post Fire Support Cell

The main FS cell is collocated with the division main CP. It is responsible for production of the fire support portions of the division operation plans and orders. It augments the capabilities of the tactical FSE, when required. It is the focal point for planning the fire support portion of the operation plan (OPLAN) for extended operations.

Organization

There is no standard organization for the main CP FS cell. The table, Type Division Fire Support Element, shows a notional division of personnel between the tactical CP and main CP FS cells in the heavy division. The figures below show type layouts of a heavy division main CP FS cell in an expansible van and a light division main CP FS cell in a HMMWV.





In addition to the operations and plans cells, the FS cell works closely with the A2C2 element. The A2C2 element manages airspace over the division sector with emphasis on the area between the brigade rear boundaries and the division rear boundary. It helps the tactical FS cell coordinate those activities associated with current combat operations but beyond the capabilities of the tactical CP FSE. The FS cell must keep the A2C2 element informed and must coordinate fire support use of airspace for planned operations.

Battle Coordination Functions

Both the division and corps commanders synchronize close, deep, and rear operations through a coordinated effort at the main CP. To help them in this function, specific staff elements are tasked to gather and provide information to the commander as required.

Battle coordination functions may include the following:

  • Acquire and identify high-payoff targets.

  • Assess attacks.

  • Adjust assets.

  • Change battle plans.

  • React quickly to high-priority targets.

Specific requirements for FS cell representatives may include the following functions:

  • Recommend targets.

  • Use target value analysis to identify target priorities.

  • Determine fire support needs.

  • Expedite fire support.

  • Assess fire support effects.

  • Coordinate timing of fire support attacks (to include EW).

  • Recommend use of TACAIR assets.

Communications

Normally, the main CP FSE operates in the following TACFIRE and non-TACFIRE nets:

  • Div arty command/intelligence net (FM-voice) or div arty command net (FM).

  • Div arty fire direction net (FM-voice) or the designated div arty operations net 1, 2, or 3 (FM-digital). The radio identified for this use may be used to operate in the division command/operations net.

  • Div arty command/fire direction net 2 (SSB-RATT).

  • Multichannel link to the tactical CP FSE and div arty CP when available.

The FSE uses the VFMED to access the div arty TACFIRE computer to process data for the FSE program. This is done on a time-shared basis with other div arty programs and users.

The FS cell operates within the guidance and policies established by the division commander to direct the use of the fire support resources available to the division.

Division Rear Command Post Fire Support Element

The division rear CP coordinates sustainment of current operations, plans for future operations, terrain management of all units currently residing or moving into the division rear, and base cluster security plans and rear operations. The rear CP FSE, one fire support officer and two fire support sergeants, operates in the rear operations cell. These individuals are reflected on the division rear tactical operations center (TOC) TOE (standard requirement code [SRC] 87103L000). Rear CP manning will come from the US Army Reserve Component.

Corps Fire Support Cell

The corps commander, like the division commander, organizes tactical, main, and rear CPs. The table below shows a possible distribution of field artillery personnel in the corps fire support element.


Corps Tactical Command Post Fire Support Element

Because of the organization of the corps FS cell, the manning of the tactical CP FSE must be minimal. The figure below shows a type layout of a corps tactical CP FSE. The M577 shown must be provided by the corps head-quarters and headquarters company (HHC), or it may be organic to the corps artillery headquarters battery. The VFMED authorized for the tactical CP FSE may be mounted either in the M881 1 l/2-ton vehicle organic to the fire support element or in the M577.

The tactical CP FSE can communicate with the corps artillery CP over an FM net. They use the RATT (SSB) capability deployed with the corps CP for communication with the main FS cell, when necessary. They also use multichannel communication, to include multiple subscriber equipment, if available, to communicate with the main CP FS cell.


Corps Main Command Post Fire Support Cell

The main FS cell is collocated with the corps main CP and must be close to the G2 and G3 elements to be effective in fire support planning. The main FS cell is concerned primarily with planning future operations and with fighting deep operations. The figure below shows a type layout for the corps main CP FS cell.

Battle Coordination Functions

The FS cell members serve with the corps staff in targeting efforts similar to those described earlier for the division level. The Lance liaison element is usually located at the main FS cell.

Communications

The primary means of communication for the main FS cell is the corps common-user multichannel system. This provides secure access to all coordinating elements. Also, the main FS cell has an AN/VRC-46 radio set. This radio is used for FM communication with the corps artillery commander and the tactical CP when it is within radio range. The available communications means are discussed below.

Corps Artillery Command/Fire Direction Net (SSB-RATT). The main FS cell communicates over the corps artillery CF net (SSB-RATT) to coordinate nuclear fire support and to link the FS cell with field artillery retained under corps control.

Corps Artillery Command/Operations Net (SSB-Voice). The Lance battalion commander and operations element operate in this net with the corps artillery HHB operations/ intelligence section. The net is used for tactical and administrative control; for coordinating and requesting fire support; and for collecting, exchanging, and disseminating intelligence information.


Corps Artillery Fire Direction Net (SSB-RATT). This net provides radioteletype communication between the corps artillery and corps main CP FS cell, the ACR, separate maneuver brigades, and each div arty within the corps. It is used for requesting additional fire support and for coordinating artillery fire support, both nuclear and nonnuclear.

Corps Mobile Subscriber Equipment System. The main FS cell has common-user access to the entire corps MSE communications system. The corps MSE system is interconnected with automatic switching equipment, which has converted the MSE system into a virtually 100 percent common-user system. Sole-user circuits are provided only as an exception. They require close coordination with the corps signal brigade. TACFIRE is not compatible with the automatic switches as designed. However, TACFIRE can work through the automatic switching system if it is given a priority high enough to prevent preemption and if it is allowed to seize a circuit in the switches. Because of limited multichannel assets and the corps artillery HHB requirements for common-user and sole-user circuits, close coordination must take place between the corps artillery signal officer and the corps signal brigade to ensure that adequate MSE assets are provided. This is also true for the division MSE system to a lesser extent, since the division is not as dependent on MSE communications. Detailed coordination with the division signal officer (DSO) is still a must.

Fire Support Cell Automation. The capabilities of the corps artillery TACFIRE are similar to those of the TACFIRE at division level. The corps FS cell is the focal point for preparation of the nuclear package. The VFMED in the main FS cell is an excellent tool for preparing interdiction attack options to support interdiction planning. Targets may be developed in the corps main CP or submitted by subordinate units as requests for additional fire support. The main FS cell uses the preliminary target analysis program to identify appropriate attack resources to engage these targets.

Corps Rear Command Post Fire Support Element

The rear CP conducts rear operations. This function entails command and control of rear security operations, terrain management within the corps rear area, sustainment, control of administrative moves, and other associated functions. The rear CP FSE - one FA captain, a fire support sergeant, and a driver - operates from the rear operations cell. These individuals are reflected on the corps rear TOC TOE (SRC 52403 L000). Rear CP manning will come from the US Army Reserve Component.

Section III. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF FIRE SUPPORT PERSONNEL

Fire Support Coordinator

The field artillery commander at corps or division is designated the FSCOORD. He is the force commander's primary advisor on fire support matters. He maintains a good working relationship with the commander, operations officer (G3), and ALO throughout the planning and execution phases of the operation. The FSCOORD must be thoroughly familiar with the battle plan so that he can anticipate missions, situations, and changes and then advise the force commander on the best use of fire support. The FSCOORD's primary responsibilities (at corps or division level) are as follows:

  • Establish and supervise the activities of the FS cell.

  • Plan and synchronize fire support.

  • prepare the fire support portion of the corps or division operation plans and orders.

  • Advise and inform on all fire support missions.

The FSCOORD cannot always be physically present in the supported unit CP because of his responsibility to command the organic field artillery. Still, he must approach his fire support responsibilities with the same intensity that he approaches his field artillery responsibilities. Therefore, the FSCOORD has a full-time representative in the FS cell. This individual is the deputy FSCOORD (DFSCOORD). The DFSCOORD is the permanent supervisor of FS cell activities in the FSCOORD's absence.

Corps Deputy Fire Support Coordinator

The corps FSE is organized with the deputy corps artillery commander serving as the DFSCOORD and enough assistant FSCOORDs (AFSCOORDs) to work in the tactical and main CPs on a shift basis. Each division is organized with the DFSCOORD (05) and enough AFSCOORDs to work two shifts in the main and tactical CPs.

The duties of the corps DFSCOORD are as follows:

  • Supervise the operation of either the main FS cell or the tactical CP fire support element.

  • Recommend fire support coordinating measures to the corps commander or his representative as the battle progresses.

  • Keep close contact with the main FS cell or tactical CP fire support element to keep them informed of current operations and the immediate fire support needs of the forces.

  • Recommend changes to the field artillery organization for combat as necessary to support current and future operations.

Fire Support Officer, Corps Tactical Command Post

The duties of the FSO at the tactical CP are as follows:

  • Maintain the current status and capabilities of available fire support resources.

  • Supervise the FSE Operation in the absence of the AFSCOORD.

  • Maintain the fire support situation map.

Assistant Fire Support Coordinator, Corps Main Command Post

The duties of the AFSCOORD in the FS cell in the corps main CP are as follows:

  • Supervise the operations of the main CP FS cell.

  • Control and supervise toxic chemical and nuclear weapons package planning and employment within the corps.

  • Refine nuclear aimpoints in the corps package.

  • Recommend the use of fire support coordinating measures after coordination with the air liaison officer.

  • Supervise preparation of the fire support plan for future operations.

  • Resolve conflicts and duplications among the various fire support systems.

  • Advise fire support liaison representatives present.

  • Coordinate fire support for deep operations.

Fire Support Officer, Corps Main Command Post

The AFSCOORD is assisted by the FSO in the corps main CP FS cell. The duties of the FSO are as follows:

  • Maintain the current status and capabilities of all fire support resources available to the corps.

  • Maintain the fire support situation map.

  • Develop the fire support plan for future operations.

  • In conjunction with the G2 air, the G3 air, and the air liaison officer, formulate the SEAD plan for the corps.

  • Perform the duties of the AFSCOORD in his absence.

Field Artillery Plans Officer and Fire Support Sergeant, Operations Cell, Corps Rear Command Post

The FA plans officer and fire support sergeant represent the FSCOORD at the corps rear CP. Their duties are as follows:

  • Collate base, base cluster, and response force fire support plans received from subordinate rear area operations centers into a composite rear operations fire support plan.

  • Integrate fire support provided by territorial forces into the rear operations fire support plan.

  • Coordinate the rear operations fire support plan with the corps FSCOORD and the TCF.

  • Coordinate with the FS cell at the main CP for fire support for response forces.

  • Coordinate fires in support of response forces and the TCF.

  • Review requests for CAS from response forces or the TCF, and forward the request to the FS cell at the main CP.

Division Deputy FSCOORD, Division Fire Support Cell

The duties of the division deputy FSCOORD are as follows:

  • Serve as the full-time representative of the FSCOORD to the force commander and his staff.

  • Position himself where he can provide the greatest assistance (in either the tactical or main CP).

  • Help integrate fire support into the battle plan.

  • Supervise the tactical FSE and the main FS cell.

  • Recommend allocation of fire support and field artillery organization for combat.

  • Recommend fire support coordinating measures.

  • Advise the division commander and his staff on fire support matters.

Division AFSCOORD

The duties of the division AFSCOORD follows:

  • Serve as the full-time representative of the FSCOORD in the main FS cell or the tactical CP fire support element.

  • Supervise the operation of the main FS cell.

  • Plan and coordinate all means of fire support.

  • Advise the maneuver commander and his staff on all fire support matters.

  • Supervise preparation of the interdiction plan for fire support.

  • Assign target numbers to by the main CP or FS cell.

  • Maintain the fire support targets developed status, and report to the supported maneuver commander and his staff as necessary.

  • Receive, coordinate, and forward fire support requests from subordinate units.

  • Ensure organic or attached nuclear-capable units are correctly positioned.

  • Recommend the prescribed nuclear load (PNL) and prescribed chemical load (PCL) for division units.

  • Supervise preparation of the division nuclear subpackage recommendation.

  • Recommend fire support coordinating measures.

  • Coordinate with the A2C2 element to provide the corps main FS cell data for establishment of minimum risk routes (MRRs) for aircraft. Coordinate the division fire support plan with adjacent divisions and corps FS cells.

  • Advise other fire support representatives, and resolve conflicts and duplication among fire support asset systems.

  • Coordinate the field artillery portion of fire support plans with the div arty CP.

  • Send fire orders to the div arty CP when necessary.

  • Pass the maneuver commander's guidance on target attack priorities and allocation of fires to other fire support representatives and to the div arty CP.

Fire Support Officer, Operations Cell, Division Rear Command Post

The FSO represents the FSCOORD at the division rear CP. The duties of the FSO are as follows:

  • Collate base, base cluster, and response force fire support plans into a composite rear operations fire support plan.

  • Coordinate the rear operations fire support plan with the division FSCOORD and the TCF.

  • Coordinate with the FS cell at the main CP for fire support for bases or base clusters and/or response forces.

  • Review requests for CAS from response forces or the TCF, and forward the request to the FS cell at the main CP.

NOTE: The following paragraphs outline the general duties and responsibilities of the key fire support personnel at corps and division. In most cases, the duties are similar at both echelons.

Field Artillery Intelligence Officer

The duties of the FAIO are as follows:

  • Serve as FS cell representative in the all-source production center.

  • Inform the ASPC of fire support intelligence requirements; for example, high-payoff targets and indicators.

  • Screen and segregate combat information, weather, and intelligence in the ASPC for use in fire support targeting.

  • Pass targets developed by the ASPC to the FS cell.

  • Coordinate cueing of target acquisition resources under ASPC control with the FS cell.

  • Advise the ASPC on fire support and target acquisition matters.

Target Analyst

The duties of the target analyst are as follows:

  • Analyze targets for possible engagement by nuclear and toxic chemical weapons, as directed by the AFSCOORD.

  • Plan interdiction targets for attack by conventional, nuclear, and chemical fires or weapons.

  • Perform detailed nuclear target analysis and aimpoint refinement as part of the nuclear planning effort.

  • Provide technical expertise regarding limiting requirements, troop safety, collateral damage preclusion, and effects of nuclear weapons.

  • Coordinate chemical planning with the corps or division chemical officer.

Air Liaison Officer

The ALO is a member of the TACP at each appropriate echelon of command. His duties are as follows:

  • Provide expertise, help request and monitor requests for immediate CAS, and process nominations for BAI.

  • Work closely with the AFSCOORD to determine where air-delivered systems can be used to the best advantage, and provide information on the requirements for SEAD fires.

  • Keep the AFSCOORD and the G3 informed of the current status of air support assets.

  • Provide communications means to enter the air request net (USAF).

Assistant Air Defense Officer

The assistant AD operations officer comes from the corps or division Army airspace command and control element. He serves as the A2C2 representative in the FS cell.

Naval Gunfire Officer (Division)

The NGO acts as the liaison officer for the naval task force supporting the division. He coordinates all naval gunfire that is supporting the division or that may affect division operations. He advises the AFSCOORD on all matters pertaining to naval gunfire employment. These matters include capabilities, limitations, status of fire support ships, and targets suitable for NGF engagement.

Operations Sergeant

The duties of the operations sergeant at corps and division are as follows:

  • Help maintain 24-hour operations in the FS cell.

  • Supervise the installation of operations equipment and communications in the FS cell.

  • Supervise the enlisted personnel in the FS cell, and process administrative matters pertaining to the FS cell.

  • Help the AFSCOORD prepare fire support documents.

  • Supervise the posting and maintenance of all FS cell charts and records.

  • Prepare required reports in accordance with local directives.

  • Maintain classified files.

  • Assemble and disseminate the priority information requirements and information requirements.

Fire Support Sergeant

The duties of the fire support sergeant are as follows:

  • Serve as primary assistant to the AFSCOORD in coordinating fire support.

  • Help the target analyst in interdiction planning.

  • Supervise the fire support specialists.

  • Maintain and update fire support status charts and situation maps.

  • Perform the duties of the operations sergeant in his absence.

  • Maintain the staff journal.

Fire Support Specialist

The duties of the fire support specialist are as follows:

  • Work under the guidance of the fire support sergeant.

  • Help operate and maintain section equipment, to include computer equipment.

  • Help in fire support planning and coordination.

  • Operate and maintain communications equipment.

  • Prepare and maintain a situation map.

  • Prepare and post daily staff journals and reports.

  • Help establish, operate, and displace the FS cell equipment.

Target Processing Specialist (SGT)

The duties of the target processing specialist (SGT) are as follows:

  • Maintain target acquisition plan (TAP).

  • Analyze targets on TAP for possible engagement by nuclear and toxic chemical weapons, as directed by the target analyst.

  • Plan interdiction targets on TAP for attack by conventional, nuclear, and chemical fires or weapons.

  • Help provide technical expertise regarding limiting requirements, troop safety, collateral damage preclusion and effects of nuclear weapons.

  • Help perform detailed nuclear target analysis and aimpoint refinement as part of the nuclear planning effort.

  • Supervise the posting of targets on the targeting overlay.

  • Supervise and maintain the relative value matrix chart.

  • Supervise training of the section on target log, target cards, relative value matrix chart, and spread sheet.

  • Perform duties as required by the target analyst.

  • Perform duties of the fire support sergeant in his absence.

  • Be knowledgeable of the Threat force equipment and tactics.

Target Processing Specialist (SPC)

The duties of the target processing specialist (SPC) are as follows:

  • Log all targets from sources (for example, FAIO, division FS cell, brigade operations, and TACFIRE).

  • Maintain the relative value chart.

  • Help post targets on the targeting overlay.

  • Fill out and maintain target cards.

  • Help the target analyst prepare spread sheets and briefing materials.

  • Maintain necessary references.

  • Perform duties as required by the target analyst.

  • Perform duties of the target processing specialist (SGT) in his absence.

  • Be knowledgeable of the Threat force equipment and tactics.




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