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CHAPTER 2

FIELD ARTILLERY
TARGET ACQUISITION
ORGANIZATIONS

Figure 2-1.



Target acquisition units consist of sections with specific capabilities. 
The current TA organizations are designed around the expected demands of
the battlefield. The future AirLand Battle may require a commander to
adjust his available assets to meet the threat. Consideration must be given
to unit integrity and to the technical and logistical needs of these units
for them to function successfully on either battlefield.

Field artillery TA units are composed of WLR sections, MTLR sections, survey sections, and target-processing sections. These are controlled by headquarters (HQ) sections or by section leaders performing dual roles. Weapons-locating radar sections are organized by mission and equipment differences. WLR sections are equipped with either AN/TPQ-36 radars or AN/TPQ-37 radars. Target acquisition sections can be organized into TABs, TA platoons, TA detachments, and separate sections under a staff organization.


TARGET ACQUISITION
BATTERY

Mission

The TAB mission is to detect, identify, and locate enemy forces in the division area of operations or area of interest with sufficient accuracy for attack by friendly units.

Capabilities

The TAB can acquire indirect fire targets by using its organic weapons locating radars. It can acquire enemy moving targets and provide surveillance with its organic moving-target-locating radar. A counterfire officer and a target processing section are provided to the div arty TOC to help the div arty counterfire officer. To enable TA assets to accurately locate targets, TAB survey sections provide prescribed survey to TAB elements. TAB survey aids the div arty survey section as required.

Organizations

With the implementation of the L-series tables of organization and equipment (TOEs), TABs are organic to heavy and motorized divisions only. The TAB has the organizational structure and key personnel described.

Headquarters Platoon. The HQ platoon consists of a battery HQ, a maintenance (maint) section, and a communications (comm) section. The platoon, led by the TAB commander, coordinates maintenance, supply, administration, and communications support. The TAB commander--

  • Commands the battery (btry).

  • Acting as a special staff officer, provides TA expertise and advice to the div arty commander during the planning and execution of the battle.

  • Ensures the battery is deployed and functioning in accordance with the FA support plan.

  • Ensures the battery elements receive proper administrative, logistic, and maintenance support.

Survey Platoon. The survey platoon consists of a three-man HQ section, one position and azimuth determining system (PADS) team, and a six-man conventional survey party. The survey platoon can provide fourth-order conventional survey or PADS survey using 5-minute zero-velocity updates. (See FM 6-2, for detailed procedures.) The survey platoon leader--

  • Supervises the activities of the survey platoon.

  • Advises the commander on providing survey to the support unit.

  • Provides survey control to TAB elements, in particular the AN/TPQ-37 weapons-locating radars.

  • Provides survey control to intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) assets and battalion survey control points (SCPs) as tasked by the div arty survey officer. The div arty survey officer is located in the survey planning and coordination element (SPCE).

  • Ensures that survey missions throughout the division area are performed as tasked by the div arty survey officer.

  • Coordinates all survey operations with the div arty SPCE to avoid duplication of effort.

  • Performs the duties of div arty survey officer when required.

Processing Section. The TAB processing section (which becomes the div arty target production section) and the div arty HQ order-of battle (OB) section compose the div arty targeting element. (The OB section is discussed in detail in FM 6-20-2.) The target production section focuses on target information from field artillery TA assets of the div arty. However, it is not restricted to target information from these assets. The section is concerned with the planning, direction, coordination, and control of all field artillery TA assets under div arty control. Specific functions of the target production section are as follows:

  • Coordinating the coverage of field artillery TA resources within the division area as required.

  • Monitoring the operation of organic and attached field artillery TA sources.

  • Correlating target information received from the targeting team of the maneuver command post (CP).

  • Developing targets and target indicators.

  • Processing target information and passing targets to the fire control element of the FA headquarters controlling counterfire.

  • Maintaining the target production map and target cards in a nonautomated targeting systems.

  • Requesting target damage assessment.

  • Acting as the net control station on the div arty target acquisition/ intelligence radio net.

Figure 2-2. Target Acquisition Battery

The processing section consists of targeting personnel shown in the table below. The section is led by the TAB counterfire officer. The TAB counterfire officer--

  • Acts as the counterfire officer when the div arty counterfire officer is absent.

  • Supervises the targeting element of the div arty tactical operations center.

NOTE: For manual target processing procedures,
see Appendix A. For targeting procedures using
an automated means, see FM 6-20-2 and technical
manuals on the tactical fire direction system
(TACFIRE).

  • Ensures targets generated by the targeting element are passed to the fire control and operations elements for action.

  • Ensures information from shelling reports (SHELREPs) and mortar bombing reports (MORTREPs) are integrated into the target development process. For a discussion of SHELREPs and MORTREPs and the crater analysis procedures used to develop the information contained in them, see Appendix B.

  • Recommends target selection standards for field artillery TA assets.

  • Recommends general position areas for field artillery TA resources.

  • Ensures that the targeting element reviews and purges target cards, collates the results with other intelligence information, and disseminates the results.

  • Ensures that all targeting element maps, charts, and records are kept current.

  • Performs the duties of assistant TOC team chief

  • May act as a cueing agent for radars, when required.

Radar Platoon. The radar platoon (plt) consists of two sections of AN/TPQ-37 radars, three sections of AN/TPQ-36 radars, one section of AN/TPS-25A or AN/TPS-58B moving-target-locating radar, and a three-man radar platoon HQ. Each radar section is led by a warrant officer (WO), who ensures his section is deployed tactically. He provides technical guidance on the operation and maintenance of the radars. The radar platoon is led by a platoon leader (LT) and a platoon sergeant (SFC). The radar platoon leader--

  • Supervises the activities of the radar platoon.
Figure 2-3. Target Acquisition Battery Processing Section Personnel

  • Performs necessary tactical coordination for FA radars in general support (GS) of the division. Areas requiring coordination include communications, movement, positioning, logistics, and administration.

  • Provides for the maintenance and training of six TA radar sections.

  • Monitors the employment of all TA radars within the division area.

  • Advises the TAB commander and counterfire officer on the status of field artillery TA radars.

The radar platoon sergeant--

  • Helps the radar platoon leader in the performance of his duties.

  • Provides input to the div arty counterfire officer to allow construction and updating of the TA capabilities chart.

  • Monitors the deployment of the MTLR and WLRs and helps the counterfire officer in recommending general position areas, search areas, and cueing agents.

  • Coordinates the distribution of replacement personnel, administrative actions, and mail from the TA headquarters to the organic radars.

  • Facilitates maintenance support for the TA radars.

TARGET ACQUISITION
PLATOON OF A SEPARATE
MANEUVER BRIGADE

Mission

The mission of the target acquisition platoon is to detect, identify, and locate indirect fire weapons within the separate maneuver brigade area of interest accurately enough for attack by friendly units.

Capabilities

The TA platoon can acquire indirect fire targets by radar. The platoon provides the prescribed survey for all its organic assets within the brigade area and for others as needed. Meteorological (met) requirements are satisfied by the organic met section.

Figure 2-4. Target Acquistion Platoon in a Separate Maneuver Brigade

Organization

A target acquisition platoon is assigned to the headquarters and headquarters battery (HHB) of the organic artillery battalion in each separate maneuver brigade. It is organized as described below.

Platoon Headquarters Section. The platoon headquarters section, lead by a 13D lLT, has multiple missions. The headquarters mission is to plan and coordinate survey operations in the brigade area and to direct the target processing functions for the artillery battalion. The platoon leader also acts as a special staff officer to the artillery battalion commander on matters of target acquisition, survey, and meteorology. He is assisted by the chief surveyor (82C40, SFC).

Survey Section. The survey section in a battery-based howitzer battalion consists of one PADS team and one conventional five-man survey party. In a platoon-based howitzer battalion, the survey section has two PADS teams and a three-man conventional survey team. The survey section is required to provide fifth-order survey to the firing batteries and TA assets of the battalion. The section also provides survey support for IEW assets within the brigade area.

Met Section. The met section is equipped with the AN/GMD-1 rawinsonde system or AN/TMQ-31 meteorological data system (MDS). The met section provides weather data for the brigade. Ballistic, computer, and target acquisition met messages are produced for the firing units of the brigade and the radar section.

Weapons-Locating Radar Section. The WLR section is equipped with one AN/TPQ-36 radar. The section provides counterfire targets for the artillery battalion and coordinates with the platoon headquarters for target coverage of the brigade area.

CORPS TARGET ACQUISITION
DETACHMENT

Mission

The mission of the corps target acquisition detachment is to detect, identify, and locate indirect firing weapons and moving targets within the light division area of interest.

Capabilities

The CTAD can acquire indirect fire targets and locate moving targets. It can also provide survey to its TA assets.

Figure 2-5. Corps Target Acquistion Detachment

Organization

The CTAD is organic to corps artillery on the basis of one per each light division in the corps. It is designed to be attached to each light infantry, airborne, and air assault division artillery upon deployment. The CTAD consists of a headquarters section, a PADS team, two WLR sections, and one MTLR section. The processing (HQ) section and a counterfire officer (CTAD commander) are provided to each light infantry, airborne, or air assault div arty TOC to help process targets for the division counterfire effort.

Headquarters Section. The detachment headquarters, commanded by a 13D lLT, has multiple missions. It consists of a target processing section and maintenance, supply, administrative, and communications personnel who provide support to the detachment. The detachment commander acts as a special staff officer to advise the div arty commander on TA matters. He also serves as counterfire officer.

PADS Team. The PADS team provides additional survey support to the division artillery.

WLR Sections. Each VVLR section has one AN/TPQ-37 radar. The coverage provided by this radar is in addition to the coverage provided by the AN/TPQ-36 radar organic to each DS artillery battalion in the light division.

MTLR Section. The MTLR section has one AN/TPS-25A radar.

NOTE: Chapter 5 provides more detailed
information on target acquisition in the light division.

Figure 2-6. Corps Target Acquisition Detachment Personnel

AN/TPQ-37 WEAPONS-LOCATING
RADAR SECTION

The AN/TPQ-37 weapons-locating radar section has a crew of 12 as shown in the table below. Its primary mission is to locate enemy artillery, rocket, and mortar firing positions. This radar can also perform high-burst, datum-plane, and impact-predict registrations as a secondary mission. During combat, the secondary mission should be performed only when absolutely necessary. Radiation time should be reserved for the primary mission. In the friendly fire mode, this radar can also observe rounds. This allows the fire direction center (FDC) to conduct adjust-fire missions. The FDC must, however, compute the adjustment. Tactical and on-order missions will be assigned to the radar by the supported unit. On-order missions must facilitate future operations.

NOTE: For more information on radar-observed
registrations, see Appendix C and TC 6-40.

Figure 2-7. AN/TPQ-37 Weapons-locating Radar Section Personnel and Major Equipment

AN/TPQ-36 WEAPONS LOCATING RADAR SECTION

The AN/TPQ-36 weapons-locating radar section has a crew of eight. (See the table below.) Its primary mission is to locate enemy mortar, artillery, and rocket firing positions. This radar is optimized to detect high-angle indirect fire. It is equally capable of developing accurate grid locations of indirect fire units using low-angle fire. As a secondary mission, the friendly fire mode can be used to observe rounds and perform high-burst, datum-plane, or impact-predict registrations. The fire direction center can use the impact-predict data provided by the radar in friendly fire mode to conduct adjust-fire missions.

Use of the radar in the friendly fire mode may be required when no registration data are available, no observer is available, and the mission dictates that the target is a high-payoff target and must be destroyed. The FDC must compute the adjustments. The secondary mission is performed only when absolutely necessary. Radiation time should be reserved for the primary mission. Tactical and on-order missions will be assigned to the radar by the supported unit. On-order missions must facilitate future operations.

NOTE: For more information on radar adjustments,
see Appendix C and TC 6-40.

Figure 2-8. AN/TPQ-36 Weapons-Locating Radar Section Personnel and Major Equipment

AN/TPS-25A OR AN/TPS-58B
MOVING-TARGET LOCATING
RADAR SECTION

The AN/TPS-25A MTLR section has a crew of seven. The AN/TPS-58B radar section has a six-man crew. The mission of either section is to detect, identify, and locate moving ground targets accurately enough for attack by friendly weapons The section also can vector friendly patrols to specified areas. The technical duties of the radar personnel may differ from those of other sections, but the responsibilities are the same.

Figure 2-9. AN/TPS-25A and AN/TPS-58B Moving-Target-locating Radar Section Personnel and Major Equipment

DUTIES OF RADAR SECTION
PERSONNEL

The duties and responsibilities of personnel are essentially the same in WLR and MTLR sections. The principal duties of radar personnel are as shown below.

Figure 2-10a. Radar Section Duties

Figure 2-10b. Radar Section Duties (continued)





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