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Military

Glossary

The glossary lists acronyms and terms with Army, multiservice, or joint definitions, and other selected terms. Where Army and joint definitions are different, (Army) follows the term. Terms for which FM 6-0 is the proponent manual (the authority) are marked with an asterisk (*). The proponent manual for other terms is listed in parentheses after the definition. Terms for which the Army and Marine Corps have agreed on a common definition are followed by (Army-Marine Corps).

1SG

first sergeant

1st IOC(L)

1st Information Operations Command (Land)

A2C2

Army airspace command and control

AADC

area air defense commander

AAR

after-action review

ABCS

Army Battle Command System

ACA

airspace control authority

ACM

airspace control measures

ACO

airspace control order

AD

armored division

ADA

air defense artillery

*adjustment decision

during preparation and execution, the selection of a course of action that modifies the order to respond to unanticipated opportunities or threats

AFATDS

Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System

ALO

air liaison officer

AMD

air and missile defense

AMDCOORD

air and missile defense coordinator

AMDPCS

Air and Missile Defense Planning and Control System

ANZAC

Australia and New Zealand Army Corps

AO

area of operations

app.

appendix

AR

Army regulation

ARFOR

the senior Army headquarters and all Army forces assigned or attached to a combatant command, subordinate joint force command, joint functional command, or multinational command (FM 3-0)

ARSST

Army space support team

*art of command

the conscious and skillful exercise of the authority to fulfill command responsibilities through visualizing, deciding, directing, and leading. Art, as opposed to science, requires expert performance of a specific skill using intuitive faculties that cannot be solely learned by study or education.

ASAS

All Source Analysis System

*ASCOPE

a memory aid for the characteristics considered under civil considerations: areas, structures, capabilities, organizations, people, events

assessment

(Army) continuous monitoring-throughout planning, preparation, and execution-of the current situation and progress of an operation, and the evaluation of it against criteria of success to make decisions and adjustments (FM 3-0)

ATO

air tasking order

*authority

the delegated power to judge, act, or command

AUTL

Army Universal Task List

AVCOORD

aviation coordinator

avenue of approach

(joint) an air or ground route of an attacking force of a given size leading to its objective or to key terrain in its path (JP 1-02)

AWOL

absent/absence without leave

backbrief

a briefing by subordinates to the commander to review how subordinates intend to accomplish their mission (FM 5-0)

battle command

the exercise of command in operations against a hostile, thinking enemy (FM 3-0)

battlespace

(joint) the environment, factors, and conditions that must be understood to successfully apply combat power, protect the force, or complete the mission. This includes the air, land, sea, space, and the included enemy and friendly forces; facilities; weather; terrain; the electromagnetic spectrum; and the information environment within the operational areas and areas of interest. (JP 1-02)

BOS

battlefield operating system

branch

a contingency plan or course of action (an option built into the basic plan or course of action) for changing the mission, disposition, orientation, or direction of movement of the force to aid success of the current operation, based on anticipated events, opportunities, or disruptions caused by enemy actions. Army forces prepare branches to exploit success and opportunities, or to counter disruptions caused by enemy actions (FM 3-0)

C2

command and control

C4OPS

command, control, communications, and computer operations

*calculated risk

an exposure to chance of injury or loss when the commander can visualize the outcome in terms of mission accomplishment or damage to the force, and judges the outcome as worth the cost

CAS

close air support

CCIR

commander's critical information requirements

cdr.

commander

chap.

chapter

CHEMO

chemical officer

CIMP

command information management plan

*civil considerations

the influence of manmade infrastructure, civilian institutions, and attitudes and activities of the civilian leaders, populations, and organizations within an area of operations on the conduct of military operations

close combat

combat carried out with direct fire weapons, supported by indirect fire, air-delivered fires, and nonlethal engagement means. Close combat defeats or destroys enemy forces, or seizes and retains ground. (FM 3-0)

CMO

civil-military operations

CNR

combat net radio

COA

course of action

cognition

the act of learning, of integrating from various pieces of information

*collect

an information management activity: to continuously acquire relevant information by any means, including direct observation, other organic resources, or other official, unofficial, or public sources from the information environment

combat information

(joint) unevaluated data, gathered by or provided directly to the tactical commander which, due to its highly perishable nature or the criticality of the situation, cannot be processed into tactical intelligence in time to satisfy the user's tactical intelligence requirements (JP 1-02)

command

(joint) the authority that a commander in the armed forces lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment. Command includes the authority and responsibility for effectively using available resources and for planning the employment of, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling military forces for the accomplishment of assigned missions. It also includes responsibility for health, welfare, morale, and discipline of assigned personnel. (JP 0-2)

*command and control

(Army) the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of a mission. Commanders perform command and control functions through a command and control system.

*command and control system

(Army) the arrangement of personnel, information management, procedures, and equipment and facilities essential for the commander to conduct operations

commander's critical information requirements

(Army) elements of information required by commanders that directly affect decisionmaking and dictate the successful execution of military operations (FM 3-0)

commander's intent

a clear, concise statement of what the force must do and the conditions the force must meet to succeed with respect to the enemy, terrain, and the desired end state (FM 3-0)

*commander's visualization

the mental process of achieving a clear understanding of the force's current state with relation to the enemy and environment (situational understanding), and developing a desired end state that represents mission accomplishment and the key tasks that move the force from its current state to the end state (commander's intent)

*command post

(Army) a unit headquarters where the commander and staff perform their activities

common operational picture

(Army) an operational picture tailored to the user's requirements, based on common data and information shared by more than one command (FM 3-0)

communicate

(joint) to use any means or method to convey information of any kind from one person or place to another (JP 1-02)

concealment

(joint, NATO) protection from observation and surveillance (JP 1-02)

*conduct

to perform the activities of the operations process: planning, preparing, executing, and continuously assessing

*control

(Army) within command and control, the regulation of forces and battlefield operating systems to accomplish the mission in accordance with the commander's intent. It includes collecting, processing, displaying, storing, and disseminating relevant information for creating the common operational picture, and using information, primarily by the staff, during the operations process.

control measures

Directives given graphically or orally by a commander to subordinate commands to assign responsibilities, coordinate fires and maneuver, and control combat operations. Each control measure can be portrayed graphically. In general, all control measures should be easily identifiable on the ground. (FM 5-0)

*coordination

(Army-Marine Corps) the action necessary to ensure adequately integrated relationships between separate organizations located in the same area. Coordination may include such matters as fire support, emergency defense measures, area intelligence, and other situations in which coordination is considered necessary.

COP

common operational picture

COS

chief of staff

*cover

(Army) protection from the effects of fires

CP

command post

CPO

civilian personnel officer

CPT

captain

*criteria of success

information requirements developed during the operations process that measure the degree of success in accomplishing the unit's mission. They are normally expressed as either an explicit evaluation of the present situation or forecast of the degree of mission accomplishment.

CS

combat support

CSR

controlled supply rate

CSS

combat service support

CSSCS

Combat Service Support Control System

CTC

combat training center

*data

(Army) the lowest level of information on the cognitive hierarchy. Data consist of unprocessed signals communicated between any nodes in an information system, or sensings from the environment detected by a collector of any kind (human, mechanical, or electronic)

dead space

(joint, NATO) an area within the maximum range of a weapon, radar, or observer, which cannot be covered by fire or observation from a particular position because of intervening obstacles, the nature of the ground, or the characteristics of the trajectory, or the limitations of the pointing capabilities of the weapon (JP 1-02)

*decisionmaking

selecting a course of action as the one most favorable to accomplish the mission

decisive terrain

key terrain whose seizure and retention is mandatory for successful mission accomplishment (FM 3-90)

*describe

to relate operations to time and space in terms of accomplishing the purpose of the overall operation

*direct

to communicate execution information

*directed telescope

a dedicated information collector-a trusted and like-minded subordinate-to observe selected events or units and report directly to the commander

disinformation

information disseminated primarily by intelligence organizations or other covert agencies designed to distort information, or deceive or influence US decisionmakers, US forces, coalition allies, key actors or individuals via indirect or unconventional means (FM 3-13)

*display

(Army) an information management activity: to represent relevant information in a usable, easily understood audio or visual form tailored to the needs of the user that conveys the common operational picture for decisionmaking and exercising command and control functions

*disseminate

an information management activity: to communicate relevant information of any kind from one person or place to another in a usable form by any means to improve understanding or to initiate or govern action

DOD

Department of Defense

DP

decision point

DS

direct support

DST

decision support template

EA

electronic attack

ed.

editor/edited by

EEFI

essential elements of friendly information

EMCON

emission control

ENCOORD

engineer coordinator

end state

(Army) At the operational and tactical levels, the conditions that, when achieved, accomplish the mission. At the operational level, these conditions attain the aims set for the campaign or major operation (FM 3-0)

EO

equal opportunity

EOA

equal opportunity advisor

EPW

enemy prisoner of war

essential elements of friendly information

(Army) the critical aspects of a friendly operation that, if known by the enemy, would subsequently compromise, lead to failure, or limit success of the operation and therefore must be protected from enemy detection (FM 3-13)

estimate

(Army) an analysis of a situation, development, or trend that identifies its major factors from the perspective of the decisionmaker for whom prepared, interprets their significance, assesses the future possibilities and prospective results of possible COAs, and recommends a COA. (This definition is being staffed with draft FM 5-0. If approved, it will become an Army definition.) See also running estimate.

*evaluate

an element of assessment: to compare relevant information on the situation or operation against criteria of success to deteermine success or progress

EW

electronic warfare

EWO

electronic warfare officer

*exceptional information

information that would have answered one of the commander's critical information requirements if the requirement for it had been foreseen and stated as one of the commander's critical information requirements

*execute

to put a plan into action by applying combat power to accomplish the mission and using situational understanding to assess progress and make execution and adjustment decisions

*execution decision

the selection, during preparation and execution, of a course of action anticipated by the order

*execution information

information that communicates a decision and directs, initiates, or governs action, conduct, or procedure

*facility

(Army) in the context of the command and control system, a structure or location that provides a work environment. (The joint lexicon includes the terms facility and facility substitutes. [See JP 1-02.] For Army purposes, a C2 facility may be a facility or facility substitute in the joint sense; however, it may also be dedicated space in a vehicle, ship, or aircraft.)

FBCB2

Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below System

FFIR

friendly forces information requirements

field of fire

(joint, NATO) the area that a weapon or group of weapons may cover effectively from a given position (JP 1-02)

fig.

figure

FM

field manual

force protection

those actions taken to prevent or mitigate hostile actions against DOD personnel (to include family members), resources, facilities, and critical information. These actions conserve the force's fighting potential so it can be applied at the decisive time and place and incorporates the coordinated and synchronized offensive and defensive measures to enable the effective employment of the joint force while degrading opportunities for the enemy. Force protection does not include actions to defeat the enemy or protect against accidents, weather, or disease (FM 3-0)

FRAGO

fragmentary order

*friendly forces information requirements

information the commander and staff need about the forces available for the operation

FSCL

fire support coordination line

FSCOORD

fire support coordinator

FSO

fire support officer

G-1

assistant chief of staff, personnel

G-2

assistant chief of staff, intelligence

G-3

assistant chief of staff, operations and plans

G-4

assistant chief of staff, logistics

G-5

assistant chief of staff, civil affairs

G-6

assistant chief of staff, command, control, communications, and computer operations (C4OPS)

G-7

assistant chief of staff, information operations

GA

general of the army

GCCS

Global Command and Control System

GCCS-A

Global Command and Control System-Army

GEN

general

Global Information Grid

(joint) The globally interconnected, end-to-end set of information capabilities, associated processes and personnel for collecting, processing, storing, disseminating and managing information on demand to warfighters, policymakers, and support personnel. The Global Information Grid (GIG) includes all owned and leased communications and computing systems and services, software (including applications), data, security services and other associated services necessary to achieve information superiority. It also includes National Security Systems asdefined in section 5142 of the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996. The GIG supports all Department of Defense (DOD), National Security, and related intelligence community missions and functions (strategic, operational, tactical, and business), in war and in peace. The GIG provides capabilities from all operating locations (bases, posts, camps, stations, facilities, mobile platforms and deployed sites). The GIG provides interfaces to coalition, allied, and non-DOD users and systems. (JP 1-02)

GPO

Government Printing Office

HN

host nation/host-nation

HPT

high-payoff target

hq

headquarters

IA

information assurance

ID

infantry division

IDM

information dissemination management

IG

inspector general

IM

information management

IMCOORD

information management coordinator

information

(Army) (1) in the general sense, the meaning humans assign to data. (2) in the context of the cognitive hierarchy, data that have been processed to provide further meaning

information management

the provision of relevant information to the right person at the right time in a usable form to facilitate situational understanding and decisionmaking. It uses procedures and information systems to collect, process, store, display, and disseminate information. (FM 3-0)

*information requirements

(Army) all information elements the commander and staff require to successfully conduct operations; that is, all elements necessary to address the factors of METT-TC

information systems

(Army) the equipment and facilities that collect, process, store, display and disseminate information. These include computers-hardware and software-and communications as well as policies and procedures for their use. (FM 3-0)

INFOSYS

information systems

initiative

See operational initiative; subordinate initiative

intuitive decisionmaking

(Army-Marine Corps) the act of reaching a conclusion which emphasizes pattern recognition based on knowledge, judgment, experience, education, intelligence, boldness, perception, and character. This approach focuses on assessment of the situation vice comparison of multiple options.

IO

information operations

IPB

intelligence preparation of the battlefield

IR

information requirement

ISR

intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance

JFACC

joint force air component commander

JP

joint publication

*key tasks

those tasks the force as a whole must perform, or conditions the force must meet, to achieve the end state and stated purpose of the operation

key terrain

(joint, NATO) any locality, or area, the seizure or retention of which affords a marked advantage to either combatant (JP 1-02)

*knowledge

in the context of the cognitive hierarchy, information analyzed to provide meaning and value or evaluated as to implications for the operation

LAN

local-area network

LD

line of departure

leadership

influencing people-by providing purpose, direction, and motivation-while operating to accomplish the mission and improving the organization (FM 22-100)

liaison

(joint) that contact or intercommunication maintained between elements of military forces or other agencies to ensure mutual understanding and unity of purpose and action (JP 3-08)

LNO

liaison officer

LTC

lieutenant colonel

LTG

lieutenant general

MCS

Maneuver Control System

MD

military deception

MDMP

military decisionmaking process

MDO

military deception officer

METL

mission essential task list

*METT-TC

a memory aid used in two contexts: (1) in the context of information management, the major subject categories into which relevant information is grouped for military operations: mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, civil considerations (2) in the context of tactics, the major factors considered during mission analysis

MG

major general

*military gamble

a decision in which a commander risks the force without a reasonable level of information about the outcome

mission

(joint) the task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason therefor (JP 1-02)

*mission command

the conduct of military operations through decentralized execution based upon mission orders for effective mission accomplishment. Successful mission command results from subordinate leaders at all echelons exercising disciplined initiative within the commander's intent to accomplish missions. It requires an environment of trust and mutual understanding.

*mission orders

a technique for completing combat orders that allows subordinates maximum freedom of planning and action in accomplishing missions and leaves the "how" of mission accomplishment to subordinates

MLT

Marine liaison team

*monitoring

(Army) an element of assessment: continuous observation of the common operational picture to identify indicators of opportunities for success, threats to the force, and gaps in information

MOS

military occupational specialty

MSR

main supply route

MTOE

modification table of organization and equipment

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NBC

nuclear, biological, and chemical

NCO

noncommissioned officer

NETOPS

network operations

NGF

naval gunfire

NGO

nongovernmental organization

NVA

North Vietnamese Army

*OAKOC

a memory aid associated with the five military aspects of terrain: observation and fields of fire, avenues of approach, key and decisive terrain, obstacles, cover and concealment

OB

order of battle

*observation

the condition of weather and terrain that permits a force to see the friendly, enemy, and neutral personnel and systems, and key aspects of the environment

obstacle

(joint) any obstruction designed or employed to disrupt, fix, turn, or block the movement of an opposing force, and to impose additional losses in personnel, time, and equipment on the opposing force. Obstacles can be natural, manmade, or a combination of both. (JP 1-02)

OODA

observe-orient-decide-act

OPCON

operational control

operational initiative

setting and dictating the terms of action throughout the battle or operation (FM 3-0) [Note: This definition applies at all levels of war.] See also subordinates' initiative.

operational picture

a single display of relevant information within a commander's area of interest (FM 3-0)

operational tempo

the mileage allowed to be put on a vehicle or aircraft during a fiscal year based on budgetary guidance

*operations process

the activities performed during operations: plan, prepare, and execute with continuous assessment

OPLAN

operation plan

OPORD

operation order

ops

operations

OPSEC

operations security

order

(joint, NATO) a communication, written, oral, or by signal, which conveys instructions from a superior to a subordinate. In a broad sense, the terms "order" and "command" are synonymous. However, an order implies discretion as to the details of execution whereas a command does not. (JP 1-02)

p./pp.

page/pages

PAO

public affairs officer

PIR

priority intelligence requirement

plan

a design for a future or anticipated operation (FM 5-0)

planning

the means by which the commander envisions a desired outcome, lays out effective ways of achieving it, and communicates to his subordinates his vision, intent, and decisions, focusing on the results he expects to achieve (FM 3-0)

PM

provost marshal

*positive control

(Army) a technique of regulating forces that involves commanders and leaders actively assessing, deciding, and directing them

pos/nav

position/navigation

preparation

activities by the unit before execution to improve its ability to conduct the operation including, but not limited to, the following: plan refinement, rehearsals, reconnaissance, coordination, inspections, and movement (FM 3-0)

priority intelligence requirements

(joint) those intelligence requirements for which a commander has an anticipated and stated priority in the task of planning and decisionmaking (JP 1-02)

*procedural control

(Army) a technique of regulating forces that relies on a combination of orders, regulations, policies, doctrine, and tactics, techniques, and procedures

procedures

standard and detailed courses of action that describe how to perform a task (FM 3-90)

*process

an information management activity: to raise the meaning of information from data to knowledge

PSYOP

psychological operations

r

river

*rehearsal

a session in which a staff or unit practices expected actions to improve performance during execution

relevant information

all information of importance to the commander and staff in the exercise of command and control (FM 3-0)

responsibility

(joint) the obligation to carry forward an assigned task to a successful conclusion. With responsibility goes authority to direct and take the necessary action to ensure success. (JP 1-02)

rev. ed.

revised edition

RI

relevant information

RM

resource management/resource manager

ROE

rules of engagement

RSR

required supply rate

*running estimate

a staff estimate, continuously updated based on new information, as the operation proceeds

S-1

personnel staff officer

S-2

intelligence staff officer

S-3

operations staff officer

S-4

logistics staff officer

S-5

civil-military operations officer

S-6

command, control, communications and computer operations (C4OPS) officer

S-7

information operations officer

scalable

capable of being changed in size or configuration, that is, an INFOSYS' or display's ability to expand or contract based on need

*science of control

use of objectivity, facts, empirical methods, and analysis, with emphasis on anticipation in the form of forecasting, to regulate forces and functions to accomplish the mission in accordance with the commander's intent

sequel

an operation that follows the current operation. It is a future operation that anticipates the possible outcomes-success, failure, or stalemate— of the current operation (FM 3-0)

situational understanding

(Army) the product of applying analysis and judgment to the common operational picture to determine the relationships among the factors of METT-TC. (FM 3-0)

SJA

staff judge advocate

slice

(Army) the normal apportionment of combat support and combat service support elements allocated to support a maneuver unit

SOF

special operations forces

SOO

space operations officer

SOP

standing operating procedures

standing operating procedure

(joint, NATO) a set of instructions covering those features of operations which lend themselves to a definite or standardized procedure without loss of effectiveness. The procedure is applicable unless ordered otherwise. (JP 1-02)

*store

an information management activity: to retain relevant information in any form, usually for orderly, timely retrieval and documentation, until it is needed for exercising command and control.

*structure

an element of control: a defined organization that establishes relationships among its elements or a procedure that establishes relationships among its activities

*subordinates' initiative

the assumption of responsibility for deciding and initiating independent actions when the concept of operations no longer applies or when an unanticipated opportunity leading to achieving the commander's intent presents itself. See also operational initiative.

SWO

staff weather officer

TACON

tactical control

tactics

(Army) the employment of units in combat. It includes the ordered arrangement and maneuver of units in relation to each other, the terrain, and the enemy to translate potential combat power into victorious battles and engagements (FM 3-0)

task organizing

the process of allocating available assets to subordinate commanders and establishing their command and support relationships (FM 3-0)

TDA

table of distribution and allowances

techniques

the general and detailed methods used by troops and commanders to perform assigned missions and functions, specifically, the methods of using equipment and personnel (FM 3-90)

tempo

the rate of military action (FM 3-0)

TEWT

tactical exercise without troops

TF

task force

TLP

troop leading procedures

TOE

table of organization and equipment

trans.

translator/translated by

TTP

tactics, techniques, and procedures

UCMJ

Uniform Code of Military Justice

*understanding

in the context of the cognitive hierarchy, knowledge that has been synthesized and had judgment applied to it in a specific situation to comprehend the situation's inner relationships

*unity of effort

coordination and cooperation among all military forces and other organizations toward a commonly recognized objective, even if the forces and nonmilitary organizations are not necessarily part of the same command structure

univ.

university

US

United States

USAF

United States Air Force

*variances

differences between the actual situation during an operation and what the plan forecasted the situation would be at that time or event

*visualize

to create and think in mental images

WAN

wide-area network

WARNO

warning order

XO

executive officer



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