If a unit does not participate in large scale exercises often enough to train the unit adequately in deployment procedures, commanders must find alternate methods of training to ensure readiness. Training should focus on particular segments of the deployment operation or key personnel and should rehearse or exercise that one element. Deployment training usually requires a great deal of simulation and challenges commanders to provide realism. Training exercises may range from a brigade S/EDRE to testing the load plan of any given vehicle in the unit.
The unit commander must ensure that all personnel are trained and prepared for deployment. He must also ensure that certain key individuals or elements in the unit are properly trained to carry out their special deployment duties. This appendix lists those who require special training and some of the key skills that they must learn.
UNIT MOVEMENT OFFICER
B-1. In each company size unit, a unit movement officer (E6 and above) and an alternate should be appointed on orders. They must be trained by the unit or a service school and be thoroughly familiar with the following:
- The contents of this manual.
- Air Force/Army airlift operations.
- The roles and duties of the UMO and UMC.
- The transportability of the unit's organic equipment.
- The characteristics and capabilities of the types of vessels, aircraft or railcars the unit may use to deploy.
- Highway, rail, and port operations.
B-2. Formal training for unit commanders, UMOs, and NCOs in unit deployment is available through the JSDTC. JSDTC offers several resident courses including the following:
- Air Deployment Planning Course (AMC certified).
- Unit Movement Officer Deployment Planning Course.
- Strategic Deployment Planning Course.
- Mobilization Deployment Planning Course.
B-3. JSDTC also conducts mobile training team activities on request. To obtain information on course offerings, mobile training teams, and related doctrine, contact JSDTC, ATTN: ATSP-TDJ, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-5363 or call DSN 927-2039 or commercial (757) 878-2039.
B-4. The Army Reserve Training Center (DSN 280-7277 or commercial (608) 388-7277) conducts the Unit Movement Officer Training and Mobilization Planning Course.
UNIT LOAD TEAMS
B-5. Each unit must have an appropriate number of personnel trained on vehicle preparation and aircraft and rail loading and unloading techniques. This training will include the following:
- Preparation of vehicle load plans.
- Preparation of vehicles for shipment by reducing operational dimensions, protecting fragile components such as windshields and mirrors, and weighing and marking procedures for air and rail modes.
- Tie-down procedures for vehicles, aircraft, and railcars.
- Operation of unit vehicles in conditions simulating loading and unloading techniques for aircraft and rail.
HAZARDOUS CARGO CERTIFYING OFFICIAL
B-6. When preparing, packing, and marking material for shipment, special certification is required to ensure personnel follow safety procedures according to AFJM 24-204 or CFR 49. Improper procedures could cause loss of life or equipment. Each unit with air transportable equipment should have at least one school-certified person to certify hazardous cargo. AR 55-355 gives information on formal certification. Hazardous cargo certification teams visit most installations annually or semiannually. (Consult the ITO for scheduling details.) Regardless of whether or not the unit has anyone who is school qualified, the movement planners should be familiar with the contents of AFJM 24-204 and CFR 49. MIL-STD-129J and DA Pamphlet 740-1 contain additional packing assistance.
EMERGENCY DEPLOYMENT READINESS EXERCISE
B-7. An EDRE is designed to exercise the movement plans of a unit or higher level to deploy to an overseas theater of operations. All deployable units normally participate in an EDRE annually. If executed realistically, an EDRE can be the most valuable evaluation process for commanders at all levels to determine their strengths and weaknesses in a deployment. An EDRE can be conducted at the company level or as high as the highest level of command. FORSCOM Directive 525-5 contains more information on conducting EDREs. To make training realistic and effective, commanders must do the following:
- Accomplish actual issue of basic loads.
- Ensure that units physically load everything needed for deployment.
- Adhere strictly to proper packing and documentation procedures so all potential problems and exact amounts and types of material may be identified. Some executing procedures may have to be simulated if the exercise is not intended to actually extend beyond the home installation.
- Use external evaluators to ensure adherence to standards.
A properly executed EDRE identifies the need for support personnel, maintenance assistance teams, mess support, security, PSA/DACG, and marshaling and staging area operations.
B-8. A successful EDRE gives each command level the opportunity to experience the challenge associated with equipment readiness and equipment transfers in deployment. Units with a short notice deployment may have to acquire equipment from sources on the installation. Units must consider the inspection criteria for receiving filler equipment, training needs, new lines of PLL (if filler equipment is issued in lieu of an authorized item), and subsequent alterations to the unit movement plans.
B-9. Commanders must develop adequate criteria for units and activities to evaluate their deployment readiness. Procedures must be devised for following up on deficiencies and corrective actions. Every attempt must be made to learn lessons of past exercises and deployments.
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