MARINE TERMINAL UNITS
Marine terminal units work closely with marine transport units. The US Army currently has three major types of marine transport units. These are the transportation medium watercraft company (TOE 55-828L), the transportation heavy watercraft company (TOE 55-829L), and the medium lighter company (ACV) (TOE 55-833 L). There are also 18 separate TOE teams designed to perform specific marine CSS functions where units of less than company size are appropriate. Amphibians and boat companies move cargo and personnel from ship to shore. The amphibians can move cargo directly to inland transfer points, thus reducing beach and cargo handling. Cellular teams identified in TOE 55-530 provide harborcraft. Haborcraft include tugs; barges; and floating cranes; and command and control boats which are essential to the command and control, of marine terminal operations in fixed ports or LOTS operations. See FM 55-50 for more information on Army marine transport operations.
The marine terminal organization (see Figure 2-1) consists of terminal service, harborcraft, lighterage companies, and the command units needed to supervise and coordinate their operations. The size and composition of the marine terminal organization depends on variables such as the number of ports and beaches to be used, the quantity of cargo and number of personnel to be moved through the terminals, and the capabilities and availability of local resources and facilities. As the basic operating HQ in the theater terminal structure, the terminal battalion provides direct command and control over the terminal service companies. It also provides operational supervision over the terminal service companies and the amphibian and boat units that deliver cargo to and through the beach.
The transportation terminal service company (container/break-bulk) (TOE 55-827L) is designed to discharge, back-load, and transship break-bulk and containerized cargo at marine terminals located at fixed ports, inland barge terminals, or in LOTS operations. This unit is designed to simultaneously work break-bulk and container vessels at fixed terminals or in a LOTS operation.
The container/break-bulk terminal service company can operate independently or its operations may be integrated with those of other marine terminal units supervised by the same battalion. Centralization of equipment, maintenance, and documentation at the battalion level is also feasible within the obvious constraints imposed by container-peculiar equipment and equipment operators.
The container/break-bulk terminal service company requires external support services identical to those provided to the break-bulk terminal service company. Responsibilities for cargo discharge operations parallel those of break-bulk terminal service units as they pertain to discharging, back-loading, transshipping, and related functions. The essential difference between the two organizations is the size and weight of the individual package being moved. For a break-bulk company, a container is a special lift (oversize/overweight). For a container/break-bulk unit, the container is a normal lift; the unit has trained personnel and the equipment necessary to routinely handle container.
Mission and Assignment
The mission of the transportation terminal service company (container/break-bulk) is to discharge, backload, and transship break-bulk and containerized cargo at marine terminals located at fixed ports or in LOTS operations.
The terminal service company (container/break-bulk) can be assigned to a TRANSCOM or to a transportation terminal group. When supporting an independent force, it is normally assigned to a COSCOM, support brigade, or transportation composite group. A terminal battalion normally commands and controls this attached unit.
At Level 1, on a two-shift basis with 75 percent operational availability of all mission equipment, this unit can perform numerous missions. In a LOTS operation, this unit can simultaneously do the following:
- Discharge or back-load 300 containers or discharge and back-load 100 containers when supported by a heavy crane platoon, TOE 55-560LE.
- Discharge or back-load 1,600 STONs of breakbulk cargo or discharge 800 STONs of break-bulk cargo and back-load 800 STONs.
- Sort break-bulk and containers by designation, load break-bulk cargo and containers from the marshaling yards on land transportation, and perform limited stuffing and unstuffing of containers.
- Receive and process containers for retrograde.
- Provide limited in-transit storage.
In fixed-port operations, this unit can simultaneously do the following:
- Discharge or back-load 600 containers or discharge and back-load 200 containers, when supported by a heavy crane platoon, TOE 55-560LE.
- Discharge or back-load 2,500 STONs of break-bulk cargo or discharge 1,250 STONs of break-bulk cargo and back-load 1,250 STONs.
This unit can sort break-bulk and containers by designation, load break-bulk cargo and containers from the marshalling yards on land transportation, and perform limited stuffing and unstuffing of containers for retrograde. It can also provide limited in-transit storage.
Type B and Level 1 organizations have the same capabilities. The Type B column adapts this TOE to the lesser requirements for US military personnel. Vacancies existing in the Type B column indicate the types of positions that can be filled by non-US personnel. The number of non-US personnel, determined by the major commander, depends on the capacity of available personnel to produce, the number of shifts, and other local conditions.
Appropriate teams available to the theater commander provide interpreters and translators required when organized under the Type B column. The columns designated by Levels 1 through 3 are designed to relate to the categories established in AR 220-1. Individuals of this organization can help coordinate the defense of the unit's area or installation. This unit performs unit maintenance on organic equipment except C-E equipment. This unit depends on the following:
- The appropriate elements in the COMMZ and/or independent corps for health services, legal, finance, and personnel and administrative services.
- HHC, transportation terminal battalion (TOE 55-816L) or other appropriate HQ to which attached for unit maintenance of organic C-E equipment and religious services.
- Appropriate engineer units to provide port, LOTS, and POL facilities.
- The automated cargo documentation (TOE 55-560J2JI) for cargo accounting and documentation.
- The heavy crane platoon (TOE 55-560LE) for container discharge support.
Basis of allocation is as required based on the stated capabilities. This unit is designated as a Category III unit. (For unit categories, see AR 310-25.)
Organization and Functions
The transportation terminal service company (container/break-bulk) consists of a company HQ, an equipment maintenance section, two ship platoons with five hatch sections each, and two shore platoons with a clearance and yard section each.
The ship platoons are designed so that each platoon works a shift. The five hatch sections in each platoon are designed to work break-bulk or container cargo. The ship platoons can work break-bulk and container cargo operations simultaneously. These hatch sections are designed to work break-bulk container vessels. They can also work with the TACS to load or discharge container vessels having no onboard crane capability at piers or in LOTS operations. This unit has the organic equipment to sustain normal operations. It is normally augmented with a heavy crane platoon (TOE 55-560LE) to assist the shore platoon in clearance and marshaling yard operations. This augmentation is essential to increase productivity and discharge lighters in LOTS operations.
The two shore platoons work in shifts. Each platoon works a shift and each has a clearance section and a yard section. The shore platoon receives the break-bulk cargo or containers at water's edge, pierside, or on the beach. The cargo is then cleared to a marshaling or storage area or loaded directly on conveyances that will transport it to the next terminal or destination. The shore platoons also receive break-bulk cargo or containers for water shipment and must unload it on the pier or beach to be loaded aboard vessels or lighters. Shore platoons also consolidate cargo and stuff or unstuff containers. The shore platoons must also receive and process containers for retrograde shipments. They usually have a limited capability for in-transit storage.
There is no documentation platoon or section in this unit. The automated cargo documentation detachment (TOE 55-560LD) augments the unit for cargo accounting and documentation.
The equipment maintenance section stores, accounts for, and performs organizational maintenance on cargo-handling equipment, gear, MHE, and other TOE authorized hardware. It also performs limited emergency repair of containers. This repair is limited to the capability of assigned maintenance personnel. It is usually restricted to the repair of such items as sheet metal panels, door assemblies, and landing gear when the damage prevents transport of the container. Although not specifically designed for two-shift operation, this section is normally required to work around the clock.
Found primarily in the RC, the transportation terminal service company (break-bulk) (TOE 55-818L) works in theater marine terminal operations to handle break-bulk cargo. It is organized to work a single ship on a two-shift, around-the-clock basis.
The transportation terminal service company (break-bulk) may operate separately, or its operations maybe integrated with those of one or more other terminal service and lighterage units supervised by the same battalion. When time, space, and tactical conditions permit, it is generally more economical for a terminal battalion to operate centralized equipment pools, maintenance shops, and documentation centers. Under these circumstances, the battalion controls the equipment, the maintenance personnel, and the documentation clerks of the companies. This relieves the company commander of the responsibility for all functions except handling cargo. This includes discharging from ship to pier or lighter and loading cargo aboard clearance transport or moving it to a temporary holding or marshaling area. However, when operating separately, the company must analyze proposed operations against available equipment and notify the terminal battalion or group of any additional support needed. It must also prepare all documentation needed to forward the cargo to its initial destination (depot or user).
Higher HQ provides or arranges for external support services such as utilities, finance, legal, supply, medical, and maintenance support. The terminal service company (break-bulk) loads or discharges cargo, prepares cargo documentation, and places cargo aboard the clearance mode. Depending on the operational situation, cargo may be placed into in-transit storage areas before loading on clearance modes. Their respective battalion HQ arranges rail and motor transport clearance on a mission basis through movement control channels.
Organization and Functions
This transportation terminal service company consists of a company HQ, two ship platoons, two shore platoons, a documentation platoon, and a stevedore gear and equipment maintenance section. The company HQ consists of a commander and administrative and supply personnel.
Each ship platoon is designed to work one standard five-hatch ship. Each platoon consists of five 14-man hatch sections. In a normal 24-hour day, each platoon works one shift. In discharge operations, the ship platoon breaks the cargo out of the hold, lifts it over the side, and lands it on the wharf or into lighters. During loading, the ship platoon receives cargo at shipside, lifts it into the ship, and stows it in the hold. Each hatch section includes a hatch foreman, an assistant hatch foreman, a signalman, two winch operators, a forklift operator, and eight cargo handling specialists.
The hatch foreman oversees the loading and/or unloading of his assigned hatch. He is usually stationed on deck where he can observe the entire operation. He selects and obtains the proper type of cargo-handling gear and equipment and assigns tasks to section personnel during each operation. He supervises the positioning and rigging of booms, save-all, and cargo nets. He also observes and enforces safety regulations.
The assistant hatch foreman personally directs and supervises the cargo handling specialists working in the hold. He directs the stowing, bracing, and lashing or the breakout of cargo and enforces safety regulations. Depending on the type of cargo and operational requirements, the eight terminal operation specialists work in the hold, in teams, or divided between the hold and the pier or lighters being loaded or discharged. The assistant hatch foreman supervises their work.
On most ships, while operating the winches, the winch operators cannot see the cargo hook after it passes into the hold or over the side of the ship. A signalman is positioned so that he can see the draft of cargo at all times. He ensures that the winch operators can clearly see his signals. Standard signals for winch operators are in FM 55-17. Modern cargo-handling methods use winches, cranes, and side-or stern-loading ports, or any combination of these methods to load or discharge cargo.
The shore platoons provide the MHE and personnel to load and unload cargo on the wharf or at the beach. Each platoon consists of a HQ and a cargo-handling section. Each platoon is manned for a one-shift operation. A section chief who supervises the cargo handling specialists heads each cargo-handling section. MHE operators and truck drivers are assigned to both sections. The equipment of each section is pooled and operated around the clock. The unit is authorized rough terrain cranes and forklift trucks to handle cargo on the wharf or at the beach. The cargo handling specialists move cargo to and from the ship's gear and into and from clearance and incoming transportation. They also help in handling cargo moved within the terminal and temporary holding areas.
The documentation detachment accounts for all cargo the company handles and prepares all transportation documentation required to move cargo within the terminal. The detachment consists of a HQ, a documentation section, and a cargo-checking section. Each section is manned for two-shift operations. The cargo-checking section documents all cargo at shipside. This section tallies each item as it is loaded or unloaded and ensures that it is properly marked and documented. Documentation personnel may use automated devices to perform cargo accounting. These consist of hand-held data input devices, CRTs tied into a mainframe, or stand-alone computers that require courier service to transfer information discs or tapes to the battalion or group. Two checkers are assigned to check cargo into or out of each hatch: one in the hold and one on the pier at the point of discharge. The 14 clerks in the documentation section are normally pooled with clerks of other terminal service companies in a battalion-operated documentation center. When the terminal service company is operating separately, the documentation section works directly with its parent unit in two shifts of seven personnel each.
The stevedore gear and equipment maintenance section stores, accounts for, and performs organizational maintenance on cargo-handling equipment, gear, MHE, and other TOE authorized hardware. Although not specifically designed for two-shift operations (duplication of skills), the platoon normally works around the clock. The engineer equipment repair technician in charge must assign his personnel to shifts according to the amount and type of maintenance to be performed.
A number of functions normally performed in marine terminal cargo operations have no TOE positions provided for them. These include the operation of a dunnage yard, warehousing functions incidental to intransit and security storage, and light engineering within the capabilities of the assigned engineer equipment. Manning for these functions must be arranged as needed from the available TOE personnel.
The terminal service company commander should be aware of the need for physical security to prevent pilferage and mishandling of government cargo. He must also be aware of the basic rules and guidance for all aspects of defense pertaining to the rear battle area.
The company commander must maintain a spill contingency plan including emergency supplies and equipment for isolating and disposing of hazardous material spills IAW federal, state, local, and HN environmental laws.
Mission and Assignment
The transportation terminal service company (breakbulk) discharges, back-loads, and transships break-bulk cargo at conventional marine terminals and in LOTS operations, The break-bulk terminal service company is normally assigned to the senior transportation command in the theater and is further attached to a transportation terminal battalion for command and control.
At full strength, this transportation terminal service company can operate on one ship, on a two-shift basis; or on two ships, on a one-shift basis at piers or over beaches with 75 percent equipment available. In a LOTS operation, this unit can do the following:
- Discharge or back-load 1,600 STONs of break-bulk cargo or simultaneously discharge 800 STONs of break-bulk cargo and back-load 800 STONs.
- Sort break-bulk by destination.
- Load break-bulk cargo from the marshaling yards on land transportation.
In LOTS operations, the weather and sea conditions on the supporting lighterage unit may reduce productivity significantly. Factors that reduce the overall tonnage potential of these units over extended periods, must be considered in planning for specific operations.
In a fixed-port operation, this unit can do the following:
- Discharge or back-load 2,500 STONs of breakbulk cargo or simultaneously discharge 1,250 STONs of break-bulk cargo and back-load 1,250 STONs.
- Sort break-bulk by destination.
- Load break-bulk cargo from the marshaling yards on land transportation.
The transportation cargo transfer company (TOE 55-817L) will transship cargo at air, rail, and motor terminals. FM 55-12 outlines these responsibilities. This company can operate up to three separate terminals on an around-the-clock basis.
The transportation cargo transfer company (TOE 55-817L100/200) can transship cargo at Army air, rail, and motor terminals. The company can perform all functions associated with transshipment including unloading, discharging, cargo segregation and/or consolidation, coopering, documentation, and loading. The unit has limited capability for temporary holding and stuffing and unstuffing containers. The cargo transfer company or its elements may also be used at Air Force air terminals to operate in-transit cargo areas to operate a small shipment consolidation point for retrograde cargo, or to function as an A/DACG.
Mission and Assignment
The transportation cargo transfer company is normally assigned to a TAACOM or to a COSCOM and attached to a transportation composite group, or as directed by the TA DCSLOG. It may be placed under the OPCON of the TAACOM on a temporary basis. It does not normally operate at distribution points. However, the company or its elements may be committed to temporarily support supply units at distribution points if excessive cargo backlog or similar conditions create a need. The Army may establish facilities and station personnel at Air Force air terminals to perform functions pertaining to Army traffic. The cargo transfer company at or near the air terminals may operate an in-transit cargo area for large air shipments. Consolidated shipments consigned to multiple consignees are turned over to the cargo transfer company for unstuffing. It is then expeditiously delivered to consignees. Similarly, overseas theater units ship retrograde cargo to the in-transit area. The cargo transfer company consolidates shipments by commodity and by the destination depot in the CONUS to the greatest extent possible. These consolidated shipments are forwarded to the intertheater air terminal as directed by the appropriate Army movement control element. The transportation cargo transfer company may also help stage units taking part in airborne operations. It may help clear cargo backlogs in marine or air terminals. It may also perform functions as an A/DACG. This unit depends on the personnel service company for personnel services and on appropriate teams from the finance service organization for finance services. Appropriate hospital or area unit medical and support teams provide unit level medical support on an area basis. The brigade or group HHC to which the unit is attached or assigned provides chaplain support.
The transportation cargo transfer company (TOE 55-817L) is documented and organized in the following two variations:
- When organized under TOE 55-817L100, with 75 percent of its mission vehicles and MHE operational, this unit can operate a single terminal on a 24-hour basis. It can transship or handle 1,000 STONs of break-bulk cargo or 150 containers daily.
- When organized under TOE 55-817L200, with 75 percent of its mission vehicles and MHE operational, this unit can operate up to three separate terminals on a 24-hour basis. Each terminal can transship 1,000 STONs of break-bulk cargo or 150 containers per day for a unit total of 3,000 STONs of break-bulk cargo or 450 containers daily, or some combination thereof.
Organization and Functions
The company is organized and equipped to transfer cargo at all types of Army inland terminals, except large inland waterway terminals serving ocean-type shipping. It consists of a company HQ, an equipment maintenance section, and one to three cargo transfer platoons, depending on the variation of TOE 55-817L under which it is organized. Each platoon contains a platoon HQ, a cargo equipment squad, and two cargo operation sections. This structure includes personnel to process and prepare documentation for all cargo handled. This unit also has personnel, tools, and equipment to perform organizational maintenance on all unit equipment.
The transportation cargo transfer company in the L100 or L200 variation is equipped with 20-ton cranes, 140-ton container-handling cranes, 4,000-and 10,000-pound rough terrain forklifts, 50,000-pound container-handling rough terrain forklifts, and tophandler attachments for 20-, 35-, and 40-foot containers. The unit also has hand trucks, roller conveyors, cargo trucks, semitrailer and tractor combinations, shuttle tractors (yard dogs), and other cargo-handling gear and equipment necessary to perform the mission.
The L100 organization has only one cargo transfer platoon and is primarily employed when one terminal operation or reduced capability is required for an extended period. The L200 organization is normally employed with each of its three cargo transfer platoons assigned to work at a separate terminal. When elements of less than platoon size are needed, this requirement can be met by detailing a cargo transfer squad or element of one of the cargo operations sections and the necessary equipment to other terminals or locations for short periods. The company HQ or platoon should be located where it can best communicate and control operations.
These detachments can be used, as required, to augment terminal service and cargo transfer units. They are normally attached to a transportation terminal battalion or, in the case of the transportation contract supervision detachment (TOE 55-560LC), to a transportation composite group or a TRANSCOM.
Detachment A (Cargo Documentation) (TOE 55-560LA)
This detachment documents cargo or containers being loaded, discharged, or transferred from one mode of transportation to another. It can complete documentation associated with loading and discharging 500 STONs of general cargo or 480 containers daily at marine terminals, railheads, truckheads, or airheads.
Detachment B (Freight Consolidation and Distribution) (TOE 55-560LB)
This detachment operates a consolidation and distribution point or terminal facility handling LCL (or truckload) lots of cargo. It can process 100 LCL shipments daily at a C&D point, fixed marine terminal, barge site, railhead, airhead, or truckhead. It can also stuff and unstuff 25 twenty-foot container equivalents daily.
Detachment C (Transportation Contract Supervision) (TOE 55-560LC)
This detachment negotiates for and administers contracts for stevedoring and inland waterway and highway transport. It contractually arranges for loading or discharging of cargo from ships or barges and clearance of discharge cargo from the terminal. It contractually arranges for movement of cargo from terminals, depots, or local procurement sources by inland waterways and highway transport. It administers contracts connected with loading, discharging, and transporting cargo and the terminal clearance of that cargo.
Detachment D (Automated Cargo Documentation) (TOE 55-560LD)
This detachment, on a two-shift basis, documents break-bulk or container cargo. It can handle up to four ships in fixed-port operations or two ships in LOTS operations.
Detachment E (Heavy Crane Platoon) (TOE 55-560LE)
This detachment, on a two-shift basis, provides personnel and equipment to handle 400 containers in fixed-port operations and 200 containers from lighters in LOTS operations.
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