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Chapter 1

Introduction to Army Watercraft

Army watercraft are used in the following operations: harbor, coastal, interisland, and LOTS. They are also used for other operations such as ocean towing and security patrols. This chapter addresses these operations and the categories of watercraft.

WATERCRAFT OPERATIONS

 

1-1. US Army watercraft play a major role in projecting and sustaining combat forces. From established ports to LOTS operations, Army watercraft provides a flexible means of moving troops and supplies. Through prepositioning and self deployable vessels, the Army's fleet of diverse watercraft are capable of playing a dynamic part in the Army Strategic Mobility Program.

MISSION
 

1-2. The mission of Army watercraft is to support the Army's RSOI movement plan. Army watercraft provide the vital link between the offshore arrival of combat power, loaded aboard strategic sealift ships, and placing that power ashore in a ready-to-fight configuration. The Army watercraft fleet must be prepared to do this mission anywhere in the world. This is accomplished by the following means:

 

  • Transport of personnel and cargo between ship and shore and on inland waterways.
  • Floating equipment support for terminal operations within a fixed-port or unimproved port facility complex.
  • During riverine operations.
  • Lighterage for cargo and personnel from ships lying offshore to transfer-segregation areas beyond the beach lines in LOTS operations.
HARBOR OPERATIONS
 

1-3. This includes the movement of cargo and personnel within a harbor and the protected waters in the vicinity of the harbor. Tugs, barges, and floating cranes discharge and transfer cargo; small craft provide ferrying service; and picket boats conduct security patrols. Tugs are used for providing berthing service for oceangoing vessels and for fire fighting in the port area.

INTERISLAND AND COASTAL OPERATIONS
 

1-4. Large watercraft carry cargo and personnel from central ports to smaller outlying installations (such as sub-ports, radar installations, and other terminals). Where larger oceangoing freighters cannot navigate, LSVs and landing craft can safely transport cargo through shallow waters and narrow winding channels.

LOGISTICS-OVER-THE-SHORE OPERATIONS
 

1-5. This includes ship-to-shore operations moving cargo and personnel onto a prepared beachhead from larger vessels anchored offshore. This operation is the most difficult and time consuming. Planning, timing, and a skilled Weather Eye means the difference in success or failure in this type of cargo operation. Landing craft, amphibians, and causeway ferry systems are normally used for such operations. Tugs with barges, floating cranes, and LSVs may also be used where causeway piers have been installed on the beach.

WORLD WIDE MISSIONS
 

1-6. Army watercraft are capable of deployment to any theater of operation around the world. Vessels such as the LSV and the 128-foot tug are capable of self deployment. The LCU 2000, while capable of self deployment, may also be transported aboard heavy lift ships. The remainder of the smaller vessels in the fleet also uses this method of transportation.

CLASSES OF WATERCRAFT

 

1-7. There are three classes of Army watercraft. These classes include the following:

 
  • Class A vessels.
  • Class B vessels.
  • Class C vessels.
CLASS A VESSELS
 

1-8. These are the self-sustaining vessels that are self-propelled and designed for continuous operation. They are commanded by WOs licensed to serve on class A vessels according to AR 56-9. Within this class of vessels are two subclasses. They are as follows:

 
  • Class A-1 Vessels. This class of vessel normally operate in coastal waters.
  • Class A-2 Vessels. This class of vessel is fully ocean capable.
CLASS B VESSELS
 

1-9. These are nonself-sustaining vessels that are self-propelled. They are commanded by NCOs, certified to serve on class B vessels according to AR 56-9. The crews are small and generally these vessels do not have living space accommodations. To perform continuous operations, complete crew changes must be made. These vessels require significant shoreside support. Two crews, running in two 12-hour periods, can perform 24-hour operations.

CLASS C VESSELS
 

1-10. All nonpropelled floating equipment, such as cranes, dry and liquid barges, and refrigerated barges are classified as class C vessels. This class is further divided into the following two subclasses:

 
  • Class C-1 Vessels. This class of vessel are the nonpropelled floating craft having berthing facilities aboard for assigned personnel.
  • Class C-2 Vessels. This class of vessel are nonpropelled manned vessels having no berthing facilities aboard.

DESCRIPTIONS OF LOGISTICS SUPPORT VESSEL

 

1-11. The Army's mission for watercraft requires a fleet of over 20 different types of vessels. These vessels differ greatly in design and use.

DESCRIPTION OF LOGISTICS SUPPORT VESSEL
 

1-12. The LSV (Figure 1-1) is a self deployable vessel designed to transport combat vehicles and sustainment cargo worldwide. It is capable of performing cargo loading and discharge by RO/RO or crane supported LO/LO operations. The characteristics of the vessel are as follows:

 

Length overall: 273 feet
Beam: 60 feet
Displacement (weight): 4,199 long tons
Deck area: 10,500 square feet (up to 24 M1 main battle tanks or 50 double stacked 20-foot ISO containers)
Payload: 2,000 tons (equivalent to 86 C-141 payloads)
Range: Light - 8,200 nautical miles at 12.5 knots, loaded - 6,500 nautical miles at 11.5 knots
Crew Size: 8 WOs and 24 enlisted


Figure 1-1. Logistics Support Vessel

DESCRIPTION OF LCU 2000
 

1-13. The LCU 2000 (Figure 1-2) provides worldwide transport of combat vehicles and sustainment cargo. Like the LSV, it provides intratheater movement of cargo and equipment. The LCU 2000 can perform missions ranging from RO/RO discharge of LMSR's to LOTS operations on unimproved beaches. The characteristics of the vessel are as follows:

 

Length overall: 174 feet
Beam: 42 feet
Displacement (weight): 1,087 long tons (loaded)
Deck area: 2,500 square feet (5 M1 main battle tanks or 24 double stacked, 20-foot ISO containers)
Payload: 350 tons (equivalent payload of 15 C-141 aircraft loads)
Range: Light - 10,000 nautical miles at 12 knots, loaded - 6,500 nautical miles at 10 knots
Crew size: 2 WOs and 11 enlisted


Figure 1-2. LCU 2000

DESCRIPTION OF LCU 1600
 

1-14. The LCU 1600 (Figure 1-3) is used to transport combat vehicles and sustainment cargo from ship-to-shore, shore-to-shore, and in retrograde operations. Intratheater transport is also accomplished using harbor and inland waterway routes. The characteristics of the vessel are as follows:

 

Length overall: 135 feet
Beam: 30 feet
Displacement (weight): 390 long tons (loaded)
Deck area: 1,785 square feet (2 M1 main battle tanks or 10 double stacked, 20-foot ISO containers)
Payload: 184 tons (equivalent payload capacity of 7 C-141 aircraft loads)
Range: Light - 1,200 nautical miles at 12 knots, loaded - 1,100 nautical miles at 11 knots
Draft: Light - 6 feet, loaded - 7 feet
Crew size: 2 WOs and 12 enlisted


Figure 1-3. LCU 1600

DESCRIPTION OF THE LCM-8
 

1-15. The LCM-8 (Figure 1-4) is used to transport cargo, troops, and vehicles from ship-to-shore or in riverine operations. It is also used in lighter and utility work in harbors. It is designed for use in rough or exposed waters and is capable of operating through breakers and grounding on the beach. The bow ramp permits RO/RO operations with wheeled and tracked vehicles. Its small size allows for use in confined areas. The characteristics of the vessel are as follows:

 

Length overall: 74 feet
Beam: 21 feet
Displacement (weight): 111 long tons (loaded)
Deck area: 620 square feet (two 20-foot ISO containers or 200 combat troops)
Payload: 53 tons (equivalent payload capacity of 2 C-141 loads)
Range: Light - 332 nautical miles at 11 knots, loaded - 271 nautical miles at 9 knots
Draft: Light - 3.5 feet, loaded - 5 feet
Crew size: 6 enlisted for 24-hour operations (two shifts)


Figure 1-4. LCM-8

DESCRIPTION OF THE LARGE TUG, 128-FOOT
 

1-16. The 128-foot LT (Figure 1-5) is used for ocean and coastal towing operations. It is also used to dock and undock large ships. It has a secondary mission, which is to perform general purpose harbor duties (such as positioning floating cranes and so forth). The LT is equipped to accomplish fire fighting duties, a significant capability particularly where ammunition ships are being worked. It is also used to perform salvage and recovery operations for other watercraft disabled or damaged along the coastal MSR. The 128-foot tug is totally self deployable. The characteristics of the vessel are as follows:

 

Length overall: 128 feet
Beam: 36 feet
Displacement (weight): 1,057 long tons (loaded)
Bollard Pull: 58 tons
Range: Light - 5,000 nautical miles at 13.5 knots, loaded - 5,000 nautical miles at 12 knots
Draft: Light - 14.5 feet, loaded - 17 feet
Crew size: 8 WOs and 15 enlisted


Figure 1-5. Large Tug, 128-Foot

DESCRIPTION OF THE LARGE TUG, 100-FOOT
 

1-17. The 100-foot LT (Figure 1-6) is used to berth and unberth large oceangoing vessels and for towing within the harbor areas. Secondary missions include general utility uses, fire fighting, and salvage operations. It is also used for limited offshore and coastal towing between terminals. The characteristics of the vessel are as follows:

 

Length overall: 107 feet
Beam: 27 feet
Displacement (weight): 390 long tons (loaded)
Bollard pull: 13.8 long tons/31.5 long tons
Range: Light - 3,323 nautical miles at 12.8 knots
Draft: Light - 11.5 feet, loaded - 12.5 feet
Crew size: 4 WOs and 12 enlisted


Figure 1-6. Large Tug, 100-Foot

DESCRIPTION OF THE PUSHER TUG, 60-FOOT
 

1-18. The 60-foot PT (Figure 1-7) is capable of moving cargo barges and lighters of various types within a harbor, port, or LOTS anchorage. The PT is a shallow draft vessel with enough horsepower to tow and husband LASH other barges in harbors, inland waterways, and along coastlines. It is capable of operating in sea state 3. It can also assist in the docking and undocking of ships, movement of floating cranes, and line haul duties. It is transportable aboard LASH ships to the operation area. It is not self deployable. The characteristics of the vessel are as follows:

 

Length overall: 60 feet
Beam: 22 feet
Displacement (weight): 105 tons light
Bollard pull: 15 long tons
Range: Light - 720 nautical miles at 6 knots, loaded - variable with tow type
Draft: 6 feet
Crew size: 2 WOs and 10 enlisted


Figure 1-7. Pusher Tug, 60-Foot

DESCRIPTION OF THE SMALL TUG, 65-FOOT
 

1-19. The ST (Figure 1-8) is used to move nonpropelled barges in harbors and on inland waterways. Secondary missions include utility uses, fire fighting, salvage, and assisting in the docking and undocking of large vessels. The characteristics of the vessel are as follows:

 

Length overall: 71 feet
Beam: 19.5 feet
Displacement (weight): Light - 100 long tons, loaded - 122 long tons
Bollard pull: 8.75 tons
Range: Light - 1,700 nautical miles, loaded - variable depending on the tow configuration
Draft: Light - 7.5 feet, loaded - 8.5 feet
Crew Size: 2 WOs and 10 enlisted


Figure 1-8. Small Tug, 65-Foot

DESCRIPTION OF THE LIGHTER, AMPHIBIOUS RESUPPLY CARGO, 60-TON
 

1-20. The LARC-LX (Figure 1-9) is used to transport tracked and wheeled vehicles (including beach preparation equipment and sustainment cargo) from ship-to-shore or inland transfer points. The LARC-LX is the only amphibian in the US Army's inventory and the only vessel capable of landing on a beach through a breaking surf. The characteristics of the vessel are as follows:

 

Length overall: 63 feet
Beam: 27 feet
Displacement (weight): 88 long tons (light)
Deck area: 527 square feet (4 20-foot ISO containers or 125 combat equipped soldiers)
Payload: 60 tons (2 C-141 loads)
Range: Land - 60 tons cargo, 150 statue miles at 14 MPH; water - 60 ton load, 75 nautical miles at 6 knots
Draft: Light - 7.5 feet, loaded - 9 feet
Crew size: 12 enlisted


Figure 1-9. Lighter, Amphibious Resupply Cargo, 60-Ton

DESCRIPTION OF THE BARGE DERRICK, 115-TON
 

1-21. The BD (Figure 1-10) is used to load and discharge heavy lift cargo that is beyond the capacity of a normal ship's gear. This provides the lift and reach needed to discharge the heaviest of projected Army cargo from LMSR's and commercial container ships to accomplish strategic deployment. It is capable of lifting a 75-ton main battle tank from the centerline of a nonself-sustaining ship. The 89-ton BD cannot support this operation. The BD 115-ton is deployable worldwide by towing or heavy lift aboard a submersible heavy lift ship. The characteristics of the vessel are as follows:

 

Length overall: 200 feet
Beam: 80 feet
Boom length: 220 feet
Capacity: 115 long tons at 80 foot radius
Draft: Light - 7 feet, 4 inches
Crew size: 2 WOs and 13 enlisted

 

Note: The 89-ton BD has the same mission as the 115-ton BD.


Figure 1-10. Barge Derrick, 115-Ton

DESCRIPTION OF THE DECK CARGO BARGE (BC 231A)
 

1-22. The Army employs numerous types of barges. The basic configuration is the BC (Figure 1-11). It is used to transport containers, general cargo, and wheeled vehicles. It can be used in harbors, LOTS sites, and on inland waterways. The characteristics of the vessel are as follows:

 

Length overall: 120 feet
Beam: 33 feet
Displacement (weight): 760 long tons loaded
Cargo Capacity: 585 long tons
Draft: Light - 2.5 feet, loaded - 8 feet
Crew size: 2 enlisted for barge maintenance


Figure 1-11. Barge Cargo

DESCRIPTION OF THE BARGE DERRICK, 89-TON
 

1-23. The BD 89T (Figure 1-12) is used to load and discharge heavy lift cargo that is beyond the capacity of the ship's gear. It is commonly called the 100 ton crane, which is the short ton capacity rating. The BD 89T can be towed to overseas locations or deck loaded aboard a semisubmersible ship for transport.

 

Length overall: 140 feet
Beam: 70 feet
Displacement (weight): 1,630 long tons loaded
Cargo Capacity: 89 long tons at 80 foot radius
Draft: Light: Not available; Loaded: 6.3 feet
Crew size: 2 WOs and 13 enlisted for 24-hour operations


Figure 1-12. Barge Derrick, 89-Ton

DESCRIPTION OF THE BARGE, DECK CARGO (BC 7005)
 

1-24. The BC 7005 (Figure 1-13) is used to transport containers, general cargo, and wheeled and tracked vehicles in harbors and inland waterways. It is particularly suited for transporting vehicles due to its flush deck without fore and aft sheer. This barge is built without skegs, making it easy to maneuver at port terminals where piers are in close proximity to one another. The BC 7005 can be deck loaded aboard large ships or towed to overseas locations.

 

Length overall: 110 feet
Beam: 32 feet
Displacement (weight): 120 long tons (light)/690 long tons (loaded)
Cargo Capacity: 570 long tons
Draft: Light: 1.75 feet; Loaded: 7.5 feet
Crew size: 2 enlisted for barge maintenance


Figure 1-13. Barge, Deck Cargo

DESCRIPTION OF THE MODULAR CAUSEWAY SYSTEM (CAUSEWAY FERRY)
 

1-25. The CF (Figure 1-14) is used for the movement of rolling, break bulk, and containerized cargo from an oceangoing vessel directly to the shoreside logistics operation or to a fixed or semi-permanent pier. It can support RO/RO and LO/LO operations. The CF is constructed of modular causeway sections and can be deployed aboard container ships and other cargo-type vessels. The characteristics of the CF are as follows:

 

  • One powered modular causeway section.
  • Two modular causeway (intermediate sections).
  • One combination beach and sea-end section.
  • Crew required to assemble and operate consist of 4 enlisted for powered section and 12 enlisted for 24-hour operations.


Figure 1-14. Causeway Ferry

DESCRIPTION OF THE MODULAR CAUSEWAY SYSTEM (RO/RO DISCHARGE FACILITY)
 

1-26. The RRDF (Figure 1-15) provides the essential interface between Army lighterage and RO/RO ships. It receives tracked and wheeled vehicles when driven across the RRDF from the RO/RO ship directly onto an Army lighter moored to the RRDF. The RRDF is constructed of modular causeway sections and can be deployed aboard container ships and other cargo-type vessels. The characteristics of the RRDF are as follows:

 

  • Six modular causeway sections.
  • One combination beach and sea-end section.
  • Two side-loadable warping tugs.
  • One lighting, fendering, and anchoring system.
  • Crew required to assemble consist of 11 enlisted for the main section and 20 enlisted (2 crews) for warping tug for 24-hour operations.


Figure 1-15. RO/RO Discharge Facility

DESCRIPTION OF THE MODULAR CAUSEWAY SYSTEM (FLOATING CAUSEWAY)
 

1-27. The FC (Figure 1-16) provides a dry bridge for the discharge of cargo from lighters directly to the beach logistics operation. The FC is constructed of modular causeway sections and can be deployed aboard container ships and other cargo-type vessels. The characteristics of the FC are as follows:

 

  • Seventeen modular causeway (intermediate) sections.
  • Two combination beach and sea-end section.
  • One anchor system.
  • Two side-loadable warping tugs (powered sections).
  • Crew required to assemble and operate consist of 13 enlisted for the main segment and 20 enlisted (2 crews) for warping tug for 24-hour operations.


Figure 1-16. Floating Causeway

 



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