Normally, Army water transport operations are confined to combat service support roles in the communications zone (COMMZ). However, sometimes Army water transport units are committed to combat support functions in support of a corps support command (COSCOM), especially in contingency areas or in theaters of operations before a fully developed theater Army organization has been formed.
Army watercraft can be used in a variety of operations to include support of both logistical and tactical missions. These operations range from those at large, deep draft fixed port complexes to amphibious assaults on hostile shores. Each type of operation has its own peculiarities that require different types and combinations of watercraft to ensure mission accomplishment.
Fixed port operations are conducted at developed shoreside facilities. Oceangoing ships may be docked along the piers or quays and their cargo discharged directly onto the pier. Army tugs are used to berth ships alongside the pier and assist them in maneuvering. The terminal commander may use command and control watercraft to take harbor pilots out to the ships.
Watercraft are described by type of construction design and by type of use.
Displacement hull craft are designed so that a major portion of their hull remains below water during use. This group of vessels consists of both self-propelled and non-self-propelled craft. Self-propelled craft include tugs, logistics support vessels (LSVs), command and patrol craft, powered causeway units, and landing craft. Landing craft are shallow-draft, flat-bottomed vessels. Under certain underwater gradient conditions, landing craft can maneuver close enough to the beach to discharge their cargo through low ramps. Non-self-propelled craft include dry and liquid cargo barges, floating causeways, and floating cranes. See Appendix B for information on causeway systems.
Amphibians are designed to travel both in the water and on land. The current inventory includes wheeled craft and air-cushion vehicles (ACVs). They all are self-propelled.
Watercraft are used in four principal roles.
Port and Harbor Support. The most common support craft are tug boats. Modernizing the Army watercraft fleet will result in two sizes of tugs in the inventory. Large tugs are used to dock and undock large ocean ships and to position other non-self-propelled craft in and around the harbor complex. Small tugs assist in docking operations and maneuver barges in shallow or constricted waters where large tugs cannot operate. Additional equipment such as floating cranes unload heavy lifts when shoreside support is not available.
Inland Waterway (IWW). IWW operations are generally characterized by the use of tugs and barges to extend the theater transportation system from deep-draft ports to inland discharge points. Using host nation assets must be strongly considered since those craft are designed for use in their specific countries' waterway system. Landing craft and LSVs can supplement standard tug and barge operations.
LOTS Support. Landing craft and amphibians are the principal craft that transfer cargo from anchored ships to shoreside unloading points. Adverse underwater gradients or offshore obstacles, such as reefs or sandbars, preclude efficient use of landing craft. In these circumstances, using amphibians is more advantageous. Landing craft, on the other hand, are generally more durable; have a greater capability for accommodating heavy, outsize cargo; and are more economical to operate. Floatable causeway components provide interfaces at shipside, particularly in conjunction with the discharge of RO/RO vessels, and also span from the shore outward to landing craft that otherwise would be grounded. These systems complement each other. The planner must develop a LOTS support package that blends the advantages of the different equipment into an efficient force mix package.
Intratheater Support. Intratheater support takes the nature of a transshipping concept that applies to contingency operations in underdeveloped countries. The few available major ports must be efficiently used in conjunction with other ports or limited capacity sites not served by military sealift command operations. Vessels that best support this type of use are craft with relatively shallow draft that can transport a variety of cargoes and whose sustainability permits extended operation. The LSV has been specially acquired for this use. The 2000 class landing craft, utility (LCU), although of far less capacity than the LSV, can augment intratheater support when not required in its primary LOTS role.
The command element in the COMMZ is the theater Army headquarters, which provides an integrated support system for two or more corps. The theater Army operational area extends from the ocean terminals of the theater to the rear boundary of the corps. It links the combat force to its source of manpower and materiel replenishment. The transportation command is one of the four functional commands of the theater Army.
Army water transport units normally operate as part of a terminal service organization. These units are attached to and commanded by elements of the terminal service organization, which is a terminal group. The terminal group commands, controls, plans, and supervises the operations of up to six terminal battalions.
The terminal structure in Figure 2-1 shows the command relationships within the theater Army. Units under the terminal battalion are structured according to their mission, physical terminal layout, and most efficient mix of watercraft units and terminal service units required to support the terminal. The planner must ensure that the capabilities of the terminal service units equal or exceed those of the watercraft units hauling the cargo. This requirement prevents bottlenecks at the terminal and maximizes the use of watercraft. The wholesale logistical transportation system must be treated as an integrated pipeline. The individual capacities of the various components must complement the overall objective.
The terminal battalion (TOE 55-816L) is the basic operating element of the theater terminal structure. The terminal battalion commands, controls, plans, and supervises attached units. These units are required to discharge up to four ships simultaneously at an established water terminal or up to two ships at a LOTS site. The terminal battalion also commands two to seven companies and operationally controls special units assigned to provide security or other support to the battalion.
Generally, the transportation unit's location on the battlefield dictates its mobility requirements. Requirements based on echelon of assignment are as follows:
- Units located in the division and forward require
100 percent mobility.
- Units located in the corps require 50 percent
- Units located in echelons above corps (EAC) require 33 percent mobility.
Three major types of company-sized water transport units in the Army are: the medium boat company, the heavy boat company, and the medium lighter company (ACV). Also, several separate watercraft teams with tables of organization and equipment (TOEs) are designed to perform special marine service support functions when less-than-company-size units are required. When required, these teams can augment other watercraft or terminal service units.
The transportation medium boat company provides and operates landing craft to move personnel and cargo in Army water terminal operations and waterborne tactical operations. It also augments naval craft in joint amphibious operations when required. The task lighter is a landing craft, mechanized (LCM).
The company is assigned to a transportation command (TRANSCOM), a subordinate functional command of the theater Army in a theater of operations. It is normally attached to a transportation terminal battalion (TOE 55-816L) or to a transportation terminal group (TOE 55-822). It may be attached to the Navy to support a joint amphibious operation. It may also operate separately under an appropriate commander, such as a theater Army area command (TAACOM), in an independent logistics support area where no combat zone exists.
The capability data in the following paragraphs has been extracted from TOE 55-828L. However, for unit capability planning on a daily basis, the commander may prefer the craft capability data and turn-around formula in the second paragraph more helpful.
At Level 1, operating on a 24-hour basis with a 75 percent availability of equipment, this unit can--
- Transport an average of 1,000 short tons (STONs)
of noncontainerized cargo daily. (This estimate is based on each
of the 12 landing craft transporting an average of 42 STONs per
trip and making two trips daily [12 x 42 x 2 = 1,008].)
- Transport a maximum of 720 STONs of non-containerized
cargo on a onetime lift using 12 landing craft.
- Transport 240 20-foot equivalent containers or
trucks per day using 12 landing craft each making 20 trips per
- Transport 2,400 combat-equipped troops on a onetime lift using 12 landing craft.
- Transport 60 STONs of noncontainerized cargo.
(Normally the boat runs out of cargo space before it reaches cargo
- Transport one 20-foot equivalent container. (The
design maximum gross weight of a fully loaded 20-foot container
[ammunition/general cargo] is 44,800 pounds or 22.5 STONs.)
- Transport one truck and trailer or several small
vehicles that do not exceed the cargo space of the boat (42.75
feet) or a lift capacity of 60 STONs. The deck is 42.75 feet long
and 14.5 feet wide.
- Transport 200 combat-equipped troops (over short
- Cruise 150 nautical miles when loaded.
- Operate in a water depth of 6 feet when loaded.
The transportation medium boat company has 18 LCM-8s at Level 1. One is authorized for the company headquarters; one, for the maintenance and salvage system; and sixteen are distributed evenly to the four boat sections of the two boat platoons. The unit also has several wheeled vehicles and trailers and two bulldozers. Refer to TOE 55-828 for a description of equipment.
The medium boat company consists of a company headquarters, a supply and maintenance platoon, and two boat platoons (Figure 2-2). Elements of the supply and maintenance platoon are the platoon headquarters and supply section and the maintenance and salvage section. Each of the two boat platoons is made up of a platoon headquarters and two boat sections.
The company headquarters provides command, administration, and control for all elements of the company. This includes planning, direction, supervision, supply, subsistence, communications, boat control, and clerical services. The company headquarters has one task LCM-8 used during the command and control exercises. The craft can be equipped to serve as a floating command post and communication center. If a boat section or platoon is dispatched to another operational site or if the landing craft is operating at widely dispersed locations, it is used where it can best exercise command and control.
The supply and maintenance platoon has a platoon headquarters and supply section and a maintenance and salvage section. The platoon leader is responsible to the company commander for supervising the platoon engineer; a marine engineering warrant officer (military occupational specialty [MOS] 881A2) supervises the maintenance and salvage section.
The platoon headquarters and supply section performs overall supervision and planning. It also requests, receives, inspects, classifies, stores, issues, and accounts for repair parts and supplies.
The maintenance and salvage section performs unit and direct support levels of maintenance and salvage operations for organic watercraft. One LCM-8 is assigned to the maintenance and salvage section for use in contact repair and maintenance and salvage operations. The transportation floating craft general support maintenance company (TOE 55- 613L) provides general support maintenance from a nonpropelled floating machine shop (FMS).
Each of the two boat platoons in the medium boat company consists of a platoon headquarters and two boat sections. This organization lets a boat platoon or a boat section be relatively independently used. For example, either a platoon or a section may be detailed temporarily from the company as part of a lighterage task force at another location. When detailed, the element must be supported by a contact maintenance team from the supply and maintenance platoon. Each platoon headquarters has a platoon leader and a platoon sergeant. Each boat section has four task LCM-8s and crew for around-the-clock operation. The section sergeant also serves as a coxswain on one of the section trail. Crew assignments to individual boats should be stabilized as much as possible to promote healthy competition between crews in operating and maintaining their craft and to pinpoint responsibilities. Each craft has two landing craft operators, two marine engine men and two landing craft seamen.
The company has 18 LCM-8s. The LCM-8 is a welded steel, twin-screw craft used to land equipment, trucks, trailers, and tracked vehicles (Figure 2-3). It also transports cargo and personnel during LOTS and amphibious operations. The LCM-8 is used in rough or exposed waters. It can operate through breakers, remain upright and tight when ground on a beach, and retract from the beach under its own power. The craft is propelled by four main diesel engines assembled as two twin-engine propulsion units. The service life extension program (SLEP) for the LCM-8 is to replace the four engines with two V-12 engines. In light of this change of engines, speed may increase.
The LCM-8's characteristics are--
- Length overall - 73 feet 8 inches.
- Beam, extreme - 21 feet.
- Mean draft, loaded - 4 feet 7 inches.
- Cargo capacity - 60 STONs.
- Cargo space:
- Length, 42 feet 9 inches.
- Width, 14 feet 6 inches.
- Loaded, 9 knots.
- Modification II, 11 knots.
- Two .50 caliber machine guns.
- Two .40 millimeter grenade launchers.
The transportation heavy boat company provides and operates landing craft to transport personnel, containers, vehicles, and outsize cargo in offshore discharge operations. The heavy boat company augments lighterage service in a port or harbor, in inland or coastal waters, or between islands. The company also provides lighterage service required in joint amphibious or other water-borne tactical operations. The task craft is the landing craft, utility (LCU).
The company is normally assigned to a TRANSCOM, a subordinate functional command of the theater Army, and attached to a transportation terminal battalion (TOE 55-816L) or terminal group (TOE 55-822L). It may be attached to the Navy in support of a joint amphibian operation. It may also operate separately under an appropriate command, such as a TAACOM, in an independent logistics support area where no combat zone exists.
The capability data provided in TOE 55-829L is designed for broad transportation planning. Planners should be cautious when planning LCU operations. There will be two classes of LCUs employed and a unit may have more than one class assigned. LCUs are often individually- or group-tasked in preference to unit. At Level 1, based on 75 percent of landing craft available to operate on a 24-hour basis, this unit can--
- Transport 1,600 STONs of noncontainerized cargo.
Each vessel makes one trip daily.
- Transport 288 containers. Each vessel makes 7.2
- Transport 3,200 combat-equipped personnel. Each vessel makes one trip daily.
The heavy boat company consists of a company headquarters, two boat platoons, and a maintenance platoon with a direct support maintenance section (Figure 2-4).
The company headquarters is organized and functions in a manner similar to the headquarters of a medium boat company.
Each of the two platoons has a lieutenant as the platoon leader who is responsible to the company commander for operations. The vessel master is responsible for the safe and efficient operation and maintenance of his craft.
The maintenance platoon performs organizational, intermediate, and direct support levels of maintenance on the assigned landing craft and associated equipment.
The company has 10 LCUs. The two types of LCUs are the LCU 1600 (1667/1671) class and the LCU 2000 class.
The LCU 1600 has twin screw, twin engines with four rudders, including two flanking rudders (Figure 2-5). The engines are located in two separate engine compartments in the stern of the vessel. One engine compartment is forward on the port side; the other is offset aft on the starboard side. The crew spaces and the pilot house are on the starboard side. These features allow the deck to be left open from bow to stern for maximum use of cargo space and ease of loading and discharge. The vessel also has a drive-through capability.
The LCU 2000 class has twin screw, dual marine engines with dual rudders and bow thruster (Figure 2-6). The crew spaces are in the superstructure at the stern of the vessel. There is no drive-through capability. The bow thruster with remote control helps direct the vessel against winds and currents.
The LCU 2000 class is designed to be self-delivered overseas. During a deployment the LCU 2000 class vessel is considered a class A-2 vessel and is manned accordingly.
Deployment crew complement is 16: the employment crew augmented by 4 additional members. The augmentation crew consists of an MOS 880A2, master; MOS 881A2, chief engineer; MOS 91B20, medical aid specialist; and MOS 31C20, radio operator. LCU 2000 deployment manning provides the necessary crew to safely sustain long-range ocean transit operations. Upon arrival at the employment site, the manning is returned to the employment mission level.
During deployments the Military Sealift Command (MSC) has operational control (OPCON) and provides optimum track ship routing (OTSR).
Other considerations and options for commanders are as follows:
- Deploy in convoy, preferably escorted by a vessel
with ocean towing and salvage capability.
- Additional towing, salvage equipment, and spare
parts may be required on board during ocean voyages.
- Plan for intermediate ports of call to replenish
fuel, food, and other required items as required.
- When manning cannot be augmented for ocean transit, tow LCUs by ocean tugboats or carry LCUs aboard semi-submersible (float-on/float-off) ships.
The medium lighter company operates its lighter air-cushion vehicle (LACV-30) for lighterage between ship and shore or from shore to shore in LOTS operations. It can also support coastal, harbor, and inland waterway container transport requirements.The unit is a lighter unit that specializes in quick movement of containers (up to 20-foot) in all types of operations. The unit is especially useful in swampy areas and in contingency areas where the beach gradient is very slight.
The medium lighter company (ACV) has the same assignment as the medium boat company.
At TOE Level 1 (full strength), the medium lighter company can--
- Transport two 8 - x 20-foot containers or cargo
up to its maximum payload of 30 STONs per craft.
- Transport 24 containers or 300 STONs of cargo on a onetime maximum lift, using all 12 ACVs.
The medium lighter company consists of a company headquarters, three lighter platoons, and a maintenance platoon. The unit provides around-the-clock operations and has sufficient personnel to support a two-shift operation. Refer to Figure 2-7.
The transportation medium lighter company, equipped with the lighter air-cushion vehicle (LACV-30), can uniquely support LOTS operations. The terrain-independent characteristics of the LACV-30 give the planner a far wider range of employment options compared to displacement-type lighters. The LACV-30 was principally developed as a container carrier. However, it can carry other types of cargo, to include wheeled and tracked vehicles, commensurate with its overall capacity. The LACV-30 with its high overwater speeds also allows the planner to consider greater dispersion of vessels and unloading sites without significantly degrading operations.
Due to the impact of containerization and transforming the US flag fleet to predominately fully cellular non-self-sustaining vessels, the normal use of the unit is visualized as an integral unit at designated battalion level terminal sites. The US Navy's auxiliary crane ship (TACS) interfaces between non-self-sustaining containerships and US Army lighters. From this focal point, and considering the varying cargo commodities to be handled, loaded lighters are dispatched to designated unloading sites on or beyond the beach.
When considering to use separate elements of the medium lighter company, analyze maintenance support requirements carefully. The TOE is structured to provide an amalgamation of direct and general support maintenance into the unit maintenance organization. These resources cannot support separate platoon operations at sites that are located at extended distances from the company base.
The LACV-30 (Figure 2-8) is a fully amphibious, high-speed craft designed to transport military cargo in LOTS operations. Its two twin-pack, turboshaft engines use standard aviation kerosene fuel (JP4). The 150-horsepower auxiliary power unit (APU) provides 115 volts, 400-cycle AC power to run the swing crane and the drive for the air management system fan. The fan provides filtered, positive pressure for the air for the engines, the cabin, and the intakes of its own system. The basic hull structure is of hollow-core aluminum and can be disassembled into sections for transport.
The LACV-30 has a load supporting cargo deck area of 1,674 square feet. It can support a fully loaded 20-foot container at specified deck locations. The craft can transport two 20-foot containers. It can transport all classes of supply-palletized, containerized, or vehicular-up to 30 STONs under ideal operating conditions. Under average operational conditions, use a planning factor of 25 STONs. The LACV-30 has load spreader pallets for containers and sufficient tie-down points to secure most loads.
Specific characteristics of the LACV-30 are as follows:
- Height, overall -23 feet.
- Width, overall -38 feet.
- Length, overall -77 feet.
- Net weight of ACV with normal crew-56,100 pounds.
- Maximum land speed:
- Light, 20 mph.
- Loaded, 15 mph.
- Maximum water speed:
- Light, 57.5 mph.
- Loaded, 30 mph.
- Cargo space:
- Length, 51 feet 6 inches.
- Width, 32 feet 6 inches.
- Range with partial load - 487 miles.
- Endurance with full payload - 5 hours.
TOE 55-530L, Watercraft Teams, identifies crew and equipment requirements for a number of specialized watercraft. When activated and assigned a unit number and unit identification code (UIC), these teams are referred to as detachments; they are normally attached to a company or to a battalion for administrative and logistical support. In some instances, teams are stand-alone units such as the logistics support vessel. In other cases, such as small tugs, barges, and floating cranes, the teams are embedded in a parent company.
Unless specifically provided in the individual teams, each team must be furnished personnel, administration, supply, mess, and unit level maintenance support. The unit to which the teams are attached does not provide these services, they must be provided by attaching additional service organization teams from the TOE 55-500L series. All teams listed below, except the LA Team, are manned for 24-hour operations.
The LA Team provides the crew for non-propelled dry cargo barges. The barges vary in size from 45.5 feet long to 120 feet long. The capacity varies from 20 to 578 long tons. The larger barges can carry bulk liquid or deck cargo.
The LB Team operates picketboats (J-boats) and coastal, harbor, inland (CHI) boats, 65-feet and smaller. Picketboats provide water transportation, water patrols, command, inspection, and general utility services to support port and inland waterway operations (Figure 2-9).
The LC Team consists of marine engineer and deck personnel required to operate the pumps and to crew the 120-foot, non-self-propelled liquid cargo barge to transport deck or bulk-liquid cargo. The barge can transport 4,160 barrels of liquid cargo or 655 STONs of dry cargo.
The LD Team has the necessary personnel to operate the 70-foot tug (small tug [ST]) on a 24- hour basis. This team performs operational missions including fire fighting, shifting and towing barges, and helping to dock and undock large vessels (Figure 2-10).
The LE Team loads and discharges heavy-lift cargo that is beyond the capability of the ship's gear. It provides crews for the 68-STON non-self-propelled floating crane and the 100-STON floating crane (Figure 2-11). These cranes can be operated on a 24-hour basis. The 68-STON crane has been reclassified to contingency and training because of age and limited use.
The Team FJ provides a 24-hour operating capability for the 100-foot huge tug (LT). The team is capable of heavy tows within a harbor area or limited offshore towing between terminals, berthing, and unberthing oceangoing vessels. It can also transport itself with a qualified escort in transoceanic voyages. The 107-foot LT may be rated as a 100-foot tug (Figure 2-12). (Team FJ is still in the system. It will become obsolete with the advent of the new large tug.)
The LI Team provides a 24-hour operating capability for the 128-foot large tug (LT). The team can dock and undock vessels and conduct barge towing operations and limited salvage operation (Figure 2-13).
The LJ Team can carry cargo and/or equipment throughout a theater of operations or intertheater routes not otherwise serviced by MSC. The 272-foot self-propelled vessel can carry up to 2,000 short tons of cargo along inland and coastal waterways, between islands, and on the open seas. The LSV will also assist in RO/RO or LOTS operations, particularly with container-handling equipment, vehicular, and other oversize/overweight cargo. Beaching cargo capacity is rated as 900 short tons on a 1:30 gradient beach or better (Figure 2-14).
The LH Team provides amphibious lighterage service primarily for items of heavy, outsize, or bulky equipment based on a 75 percent availability of the four LARC-60s (Figure 2-15). The daily capacity of this unit is 450 STONs of heavy, outsize, or bulky noncontainerized cargo in five trips; twenty-one. 8- x 8- x 20-foot containers; or 2,625 combat-equipped troops in seven trips. It is the only team that is authorized a commissioned officer (detachment commander) and a maintenance capability in addition to the vessel crew members. It is also authorized logistics and administrative personnel.
There are two additional types of transportation watercraft that are not authorized in the company- size units or teams discussed in this chapter: The non-self-propelled floating marine equipment repair shops (Figure 2-16) and the non-self-propelled self-elevating barge piers (Figure 2-17). The floating repair shop is authorized in the transportation floating craft general support maintenance company (TOE 55-157). The barge piers are self-elevating piers. Two are authorized in TOE 55-119 as platforms for the 240-ton container crane. The A DeLong pier is 300 feet by 80 feet and the B DeLong,150 feet by 60 feet. They may also be obtained as required by initiating table of distribution and allowances (TDA) requests.
2-6. ARMY WATERCRAFT CREWING. All types of Army watercraft require appropriate crewing. Proper crew size and configuration for a given watercraft depend upon its type and designed function. Generally there are three types of Army watercraft which consist of the following vessels.
a. Self- propelled Vessels Designed for Continuous Operation. These vessels are designed as Class A vessels. This class includes tugs, LSVs, and large landing crafts (LCU-1600 and LCU-2000). These vessels have numerous critical subsystems (such as propulsion, electrical power generation, environmental control, navigation/commo, and firefighting) which demand constant attendance. When a major subsystem on such a vessel fails, the vessel, though not mission capable, is still afloat and still subject to the common hazards of wind, tide, and sea state. The crew remains on board (they usually live on board) and repairs the subsystem to return the vessel to service. These vessels are capable of long duration, independent mission profiles; some of them are capable of independent ocean crossing voyages. These vessels must be crewed for 24 hour-per-day operations using watch standing techniques and procedures. Within this class of vessels are two sub-classes. They are as follows:
o A1 -
normally operated in coastal waters.
o A2 - fully ocean capable.
There are two types of non-self-propelled watercraft that, except for lack of propulsion sub-systems, meet all the requirements for watch standing crew. They are the floating crane and the FMS. Although both these vessels are barges, they have substantial power generation, communications, environmental control, and firefighting subsystems requiring constant attendance. They also have live aboard capability for their crews. These vessels must be crewed for 24 hour-per-day operations using watch standing techniques and procedures. Masters and chief engineers on all Al vessels stand a normal underway watch and remain on call during off-duty hours. On class A2 vessels, the master and chief engineer are not part of the watch standing rotation, but remain on call 24 hours a day.
b. Self-propelled Vessels Designed for Intermittent Use or for Relatively Continuous Use in Localized Areas. These vessels are designated as Class B vessels. This class includes smaller landing craft (LCM-8) and all amphibians. Because they generally operate in confined areas such as harbors or at LOTS sites, they typically have significant shoreside support capability available; amphibians (and their crews) berth ashore. Their crews are smaller and they do not have crew living accommodations. Their onboard subsystems are less complex than those of the larger vessels. Crewing for this type vessel generally is shift oriented and two separate crews are required for 24 hour operations.
c. Non-self-propelled Watercraft. These vessels are designated as Class C vessels. This class includes all barges. The crew requirements vary widely with the purpose and design of the barge. Regardless of their specific function, they are always afloat and, therefore, subject to wind, tide, and, sea state. They have a constant requirement for tending, even when not being actively employed for their designed purpose. Except for the floating crane and FMS noted above, crewing for these vessels is generally shift oriented.
Watercraft are crewed regardless of the class type vessel. No watercraft can safely operate without a full crew. Generally, fractional crewmembers (such as one marine engineman for two vessels) will not work in watercraft units as the individual craft, even those operating in the same harbor do not necessarily operate in close proximity to each other. For vessels that are watch crewed, fractional crewmembers are entirely inappropriate.
A vessel crew, even a shift oriented one, remains on the vessel whether the vessel is operating, standing-by awaiting an operation, or deadlined for maintenance or repairs. Afloat vessels must always be tended. Amphibians sitting ashore awaiting a mission must still have a crew on board (or, at least, immediately available). When any vessel is underway or under tow, a critical subsystem (such as the main propulsion system) failure, subjects the vessel to the common seagoing hazards. Also, the vessel becomes a hazard to navigation. A full crew must be available to effect repairs or jury rig the vessel to reach safe haven.
The following subparagraphs define appropriate crews for Army watercraft. Some of the vessels are specifically defined by Line Item Number (LIN) and others are more generic.
d. Self-propelled Vessels
Designed for Continuous Operations - Watch Standing Crews.
These vessels (see Tables 2-2 through 2-8) include
the barge crane and the FMS. Both are non-self-propelled barges
and require watch standing crews.
e. Self-propelled Vessels Designed for Intermittent Operations-Shift Crewed. The crews described below represent two full crews. This is the minimum manning essential for operating the type watercraft (shown in Tables 2-9 through 2-14) for two full shifts (24 hour operations).
f. Non-self-propelled Vessels Designed for Intermittent Operation - Shift Crewed. These type of vessels (see Tables 2-15 and 2-16) have a constant requirement for tending, even when not being actively employed for their designed purpose. The crews described below represent two full crews. This is the minimum manning essential for operating the type watercraft for two full shifts (24 hour operations).
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