|Army transportation units must be prepared to support US Armed Forces and their allies in a variety of operational environments, ranging from war to domestic support operations. These operations may be conducted anywhere in the world, and transportation units must be ready to deploy on short notice. Also, they must be prepared to remain after operations terminate to support the redeployment of other combat and support forces. Motor transport is the predominant mode of transportation for the reception, onward movement, and sustainment of forces. Motor transport units must be highly trained, rapidly deployable, and capable of sustaining themselves for a long time. This chapter addresses basic organizational and operational concepts from theater army level down through the division.|
1-1. MOTOR TRANSPORT ORGANIZATION CONCEPT. Motor transport units are at each echelon: theater army, corps, and division. These units--together with other mode operators (water, rail, and air), terminal operators, and movement control units--form the backbone of the theater's transportation capability. Most of the Army's motor transport units are located above division level and are assigned to a transportation battalion (motor transport) or a CSB. Motor transport units are usually assigned to the following headquarters:
- Theater army (COMMZ):
- Transportation command.
- Transportation groups.
- Transportation battalions.
- Area support groups.
- Support commands.
- Support groups.
- Support battalions.
- Transportation battalions.
- Division: Main support battalion.
The Army will fight as part of a joint team. Motor transport units must be prepared to support the inland surface movement requirements of other services or nations and to integrate HN, LOGCAP, or other contract support. The Army will fight as a total force--active and reserve components and civilians. Army transportation headquarters units must be able to integrate all deployed mode operating units. The objective is a seamless transportation system that supports the movement requirements of the joint force and the Army.
The senior Army headquarters in a theater of operations is normally the Army component headquarters of the joint force. The Army component may be a theater army, corps, or division. Planners determine the transportation force structure that deploys to support an operation based on the following:
- Magnitude of transportation tasks.
- Size of the supported force.
- Availability and quality of HN support.
- Type and extent of LOGCAP support.
In any case, Army motor transport units will be deployed to support nearly all operations. The following missions must be performed regardless of the echelonment of forces or the type of transportation headquarters:
- Reception and onward movement of forces.
- Port clearance.
- Theaterwide distribution and retrograde of personnel, supplies, and equipment.
- Operational mobility.
- Tactical support to sustain combat operations.
- Environmental protection.
The operation dictates the transportation force structure required.
The Army's environmental vision requires that units at all levels integrate and practice effective environmental protection programs in all operations. Because motor transport units have the potential to make a major impact on the environment, training and operations must be conducted IAW applicable environmental laws and regulations.
1-2. THEATER ARMY. When the scope of operations warrants the deployment of a theater army headquarters, the appropriate support structure will usually also be deployed. From a transportation perspective, this includes a TRANSCOM as the senior mode and terminal operating headquarters and a TMCA as the senior movement control headquarters (Figure 1-1). Both the TMCA and TRANSCOM serve under the staff supervision of the theater army DCSLOG.
The senior logistics headquarters in the COMMZ is the TAACOM. The TAACOM provides logistics support through subordinate ASGs. ASGs have a variety of logistics units but usually do not have transportation units assigned when the TRANSCOM is deployed. The TRANSCOM provides direct support to the TAACOM and other units operating in the COMMZ. In operations where EAC logistics support is required short of a full capability, motor transport units may be assigned to an ASG or a transportation composite group.
Figure 1-1. Theater motor transport service
The TRANSCOM provides theaterwide transportation services. It implements theater movement programs that include port clearance and local and line haul transportation to theater, corps, and division locations. The TRANSCOM has subordinate transportation groups and battalions with a variety of motor transport, cargo transfer, terminal service, watercraft, and rail units. These units are located to support transportation requirements.
a. Transportation Group (Composite). The mission of the transportation group headquarters is to command and control transportation units. The group may serve under the command and control of the TRANSCOM, if deployed, or operate as a major command of the theater army or as EAC augmentation to the corps. As a mode operator, the TRANSCOM or group:
- Commands and controls fleet assets.
- Operates inland intermodal and transfer points.
- Provides transportation assets as committed by a movement control organization.
- To evaluate motor transport requirements.
- To study conditions affecting road movement.
- To plan specific road movements.
- Supports other allied and HN forces, as required.
- Prepares movement and port clearance plans and programs.
- Conducts liaison with higher, lower, HN, and foreign movement military movement control elements.
- Supervises the activities of subordinate transportation battalions (MC), movement control detachments, port detachments, and movement regulating detachments.
- Operational mobility.
- Corpswide distribution.
- Reinforcing support to the CSG (forward).
- Supports allied and HN forces, as required.
- Prepares movement and port clearance plans and programs.
- Conducts liaison with higher, lower, HN, and foreign military movement control elements.
- Commands movement control, port, and movement regulating detachments.
- Ensure order.
- Prevent congestion.
- Support command priorities.
- Preclude any adverse effects on the environment.
- Environmental factors of climate, weather, and terrain.
- Operational factors such as the roadnet and highway surfaces or trafficability.
- Tonnage requirements, type of cargo, and type or length of hauls.
Both have planning functions designed to complement movement control planning. They include organizational level planning--
b. Battalion. The battalion headquarters commands, controls, and supervises units engaged in all types of motor transport missions. The battalion supervises operating units that perform local and line haul operations, terminal clearance, or transfer operations. The battalion headquarters plans and schedules tasks to conform with the overall movement program. The battalion receives commitments for transportation from a movement control authority and translates these into specific vehicles or units required. It then passes taskings to its subordinate truck companies.
1-3. THEATER MOVEMENT CONTROL. Movement control is the planning, routing, scheduling, controlling, coordinating, and in-transit visibility of units, personnel, supplies, and equipment moving over the lines of communication. Movement control units commit transportation assets according to command planning directives. At theater army level, the normal movement control organization is the TMCA. The TMCA provides centralized movement control for the theater. This includes movement management services and highway traffic regulation. The TMCA also--
1-4. CORPS. A corps may be deployed independently or as part of a theater organization. When the corps deploys independently, motor transport units perform many of the functions usually associated with the TRANSCOM. These include port and terminal clearance and interzonal transportation services. Normally, EAC augmentation is provided so that the corps can focus on its tactical mission.
The COSCOM provides combat service support to the corps (Figure 1-2). Motor transport units in the corps are assigned to the COSCOM and attached to subordinate CSGs. Like the ASG in the COMMZ, the CSG provides logistics support to the corps area on an area basis. Unlike the ASG, the CSG has transportation units as part of its organization. There are two types of CSG: forward and rear.
The CSG (forward) operates behind each division in the corps. Each has subordinate CSBs, forward and rear, with a variety of motor transport units. These normally include medium and light-medium truck companies. The main mission of motor transport units in the forward CSG is distribution of supplies and equipment in support of a division.
The CSG (rear) operates behind the CSG (forward) in the corps rear area. The CSG (rear) has both a TMT battalion and CSB (rear). The transportation battalion will have a variety of motor transport units. These may include combat HET companies, medium truck companies, light truck companies, and command transportation companies. It is a large battalion, and it focuses primarily on the following:
The necessary cargo and trailer transfer units may be attached to the battalion to support the battalion mission.
Figure 1-2. Corps motor transport service
1-5. CORPS MOVEMENT CONTROL. The transportation battalion (MC) provides centralized movement control for the corps, including movement management services and highway traffic regulation. The MC battalion also offers the following services:
Truck companies in the COMMZ or corps are normally employed in a general support role under operational control of their battalion. Their trucks are committed by the TMCA or MC battalion through the battalion headquarters. Companies may be assigned in a direct support role when the support unit requires full-time use of truck assets.
1-6. DIVISION. A division is usually employed as part of a corps organization. The division's motor transport capabilities are limited, and it relies on corps transportation to deliver the bulk of its supplies and equipment. Corps will deliver to both the DSA and the BSAs.
A TMT company is assigned to the MSB of the division. The TMT company moves personnel, supplies, and equipment within the division area. Normally, the TMT company will not deliver Class I, III(B), or V. These commodities are usually throughput by corps. The four types of divisional TMT companies are TOE 55158 (airborne division), 55168 (air assault division), 55178 (light division), and 55188 (heavy division). The mission of each ground division motor transport unit is to distribute unit supplies and to supplement transportation available to other division elements. See Table 1-1 for SRC capability data.
Movement control in the division is a shared responsibility of the DTO on the division staff and the MCO on the DISCOM staff. The DTO coordinates with the division G3 on matters pertaining to tactical maneuver and movement and with the division G4 on logistical and nontactical transportation matters. The DTO assists the MCO in controlling motor transportation resources assigned or attached to the division for logistic support. The DTO is the communications link between the division and the COSCOM MC battalion. The DTO gives the DISCOM MCO broad policy guidance, basic plans and policies, staff supervision, and assistance.
The DISCOM MCO controls the employment of motor transport for CSS within the division. He coordinates priorities with the DTO. (For more on the responsibilities of the DTO and MCO, see FMs 55-2 and 55-10).
1-7. MOTOR TRANSPORT COMPANIES. Motor transport companies are the workhorses of motor transportation. They are basically organized in the same manner with a company headquarters, maintenance section, and three line platoons. See Table 1-2 for nondivisional SRC capability data.
1-8. MOTOR TRANSPORT TEAMS. Sometimes a transportation battalion or group headquarters may need added personnel and equipment to meet operational requirements. Motor transport teams can meet specialized requirements.
1-9. HIGHWAY REGULATION. Movement requirements throughout the area of operations place a severe burden on the traffic and tonnage capabilities of the roads. Movement over roads must be controlled to--
Control of vehicular traffic is carried out by using clearances according to the highway regulation plan and the traffic circulation plan. These plans include directives, regulations, overlays, and estimates concerning control of MSRs. Motor transport units have specific responsibilities to comply with these plans.
Table 1-1. Divisional TC truck company SRC capability
1. All data rounded to nearest whole number.
2. TMT companies generally do not perform line- or local-haul missions as defined in doctrine; they are organic to the division.
3. These units normally do not transport ammunition.
4. HETs used for evacuation missions--one tank per HET.
Table 1-2. Nondivisional TC truck company SRC capability data
Table 1-2. Nondivisional TC truck company SRC capability data (continued)
1. The data in the cells for each SRC represent exclusive capability. For example, the Level 1 line haul capability for 55727L200 is 105 forty-foot containers per day or 210 twenty-foot containers per day or an intermediate value reflecting a combination. But, if the unit is carrying containers, it cannot carry breakbulk cargo. A POL unit (727L200) cannot carry any other type of cargo, and if the cargo trucks are equipped with SMFTs, the unit cannot carry any cargo other than water.
2. Semitrailers only carry passengers in emergency conditions. Cargo trucks routinely carry them. The pax data represents a single lift for each type unit using all the available trucks.
3. The data in this table is rounded. Normally, local haul capability for a unit is exactly double the line haul capability. When this data is recorded in a TOE section 1, it will be further rounded.
1-10. EQUIPMENT. Each type of motor transport company is equipped with different types of vehicles. These vehicles vary in type and design and in their capabilities to support operations under a variety of conditions. Planners must know the capability of each type of company when determining the proper mix to support any operation. Factors to consider include--
1-11. LOGISTICS CIVIL AUGMENTATION PROGRAM. LOGCAP is a DA capstone program that employs contractor support to augment the Army's organic planning and CS/CSS capability. This program applies both in CONUS and overseas. Before implementing LOGCAP, the CINC/ASCC considers the use of active and reserve components, other services, and HNS. During a contingency, the CINC/ASCC commander normally establishes an acquisition review board to determine the best means of fulfilling requirements. Board considerations include criticality, timeliness, quality, administration, effort, and cost. LOGCAP is used when contractor support is determined to be the most effective, expeditious, or cost effective.
LOGCAP applies primarily in areas where no multilateral or bilateral agreements or treaties exist. However, it can be employed in areas with formal HN agreements, where contractors are involved, or peacetime support contracts exist. LOGCAP can also be used during mobilization to assist the CONUS support base and help units prepare for war or other contingencies.
LOGCAP resolves shortfalls; it does not replace force structure. It includes all preplanned logistics and engineering/construction oriented contingency contracts already awarded and peacetime contracts with contingency clauses. Preplanned weapon system sustainment contracts, ASCC contingency contracts, and the AMC Support Contract are examples of contracts that fall under this program.
The AMC Support Contract is an umbrella contract that focuses on prioritized contingency planning for augmenting logistics and engineering/construction services. Under its terms, commercial vendors prepare contingency management plans based on specific CINC/ASCC pre-identified requirements to provide expeditious logistic and engineering/construction augmentation support upon deployment. Support must be accomplished with reasonable assurance of success and within reasonable cost. The contract can be adjusted to respond to changing requirements. It reduces potential contingency problems identified in peacetime planning such as language, customs, geographic conditions, and infrastructure constraints. It provides an alternative contract capability to meet facility and logistic services shortfalls, as well as for a quick reaction to contingency or crisis requirements.
The core of the AMC Support Contract is basic/logistic camp construction, base/logistic camp operations, and field services. However, this contract also encompasses other traditional logistics functions such as weapon system maintenance, materiel management, and transportation and port operations and complements existing weapon system sustainment and ASCC contingency contracts. Overall, it gives CINCs and ASCC commanders a means to source sustainment requirements for military contingency operations when other means are not available.
The AMC LSE provides a single focal point in the theater responsible for central oversight management of the AMC Support Contract in both peacetime planning and upon deployment. The LSE also advises the CINC or ASCC commander and staffs on alternate means of accomplishing CS/CSS requirements and spreads the word about LOGCAP capabilities.
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