Appendix B
Railway Planning Example
This appendix contains an example of railway planning. Use this plan for the operation of any rail system.
SITUATION
B1. Plan for the operation of a rail system to move supplies in a theater of operations. The target date for the initiation of service is on 1 December. Route all rail tonnages originating in the port to the railhead over the main line of the system as shown in Figure B1.
Figure B1. Hypothetical Rail System for Planning
Note 1. All tonnages are expressed and computed in STONs.
Note 2. All computations resulting in a fraction are raised to the next higher whole number.
PLANNING DATA
B2. Planning depends on the size and type of rails, condition of crossties, rail and ballast, washout and rockslide potential, number of single and double main lines, and the availability of sidings or passing tracks.
TRACK
B3. If there is a usable double track, trains may operate in both directions without delays in schedules. However, the unit often takes the usable parts of a damaged double track to make one single main line with good passing tracks. Computations in this appendix are based on a single track.
Number  Single track (unless otherwise stated)  
Gauge  Standard (56.5 inches)  
Condition  All divisions: Good to fair  
Percent of Grade  All divisions: 1.5 percent or less  
Ruling Curve  All divisions: 5 degrees  
Weather 
All divisions:
Summer: +60^{o}F to +95^{o}F 

Passing Tracks  First divisions  15 Second division  9 Third division  11 Fourth division  14 
MOTIVE POWER
B4. Motive power consists of all selfpropelling equipment found on a railroad. The most common motive power refers to locomotives.
Road Engines
B5. US Army 0660, 120 tons, dieselelectric locomotive.
Switch Engines
B6. US Army 0440, 60 tons, dieselelectric locomotive.
ROLLING STOCK
B7. Rolling stock refers to a collection of a large group of railway cars.
Boxcars  40ton rated capacity  
Gondolas  40ton rated capacity  
Flatcars  50ton rated capacity 
FIRST COMPUTATION
B8. Determine the train density for each of the four railway divisions.
TD =  (NPT +1) 2 
X  24 X S LD 
S =  10 mph (refer to Table 102) 
STEP 1.  
First Division:  TD =  (15 + 1) 2 
X  24 X 10 130 
=  16 2 
X  240 130 

=  3,840 260 
= 14 + of 15 trains  
STEP 2.  
Second Division:  TD =  (9 + 1) 2 
X  24 X 10 100 
=  10 2 
X  240 100 

=  2,400 200 
= 12 trains  
STEP 3.  
Third Division:  TD =  (11 + 1) 2 
X  24 X 10 110 
=  12 2 
X  240 110 

=  2,880 220 
= 13 + 14 trains  
STEP 4.  
Forth Division:  TD =  (14 + 1) 2 
X  24 X 10 120 
=  15 2 
X  240 120 

=  3,600 240 
= 15 trains 
SECOND COMPUTATION
B9. Determine the end delivery tonnage of this rail line during winter months using singleengine operation. You must use the following formulas:
 EDT = NDT of most restrictive division
 NDT = NTL X TD
 NTL = GTL X .50
 GTL = DBP X WF
RR + GR + CR  DBP = CTE  (Total weight of engine in STONs x 20 pound per STON)
 CTE = STE
2  CTE = Weight on drives (lb)
25% adhesion factor
STEP 1. Compute the starting tractive effort.
STE =  Weight on drivers (lb) 4 

=  240,000 4 
= 60,000 pounds 
STEP 2. Compute the continuous tractive effort.
STE =  STE 2 

=  60,000 2 
= 3,000 pounds 
STEP 3. Compute the drawbar pull of the road engine.
DBP =  CTE (Total weight of engine in STONs x 20 pounds per STON) 
=  30,000  (120 X 20) 
=  30,000  2,400 = 27,600 pounds 
STEP 4. Compute the gross trailing load.
GTL =  DBP X WF RR + GR + CR 
Where:
DBP = 27,600 pounds (preceding calculations)
WF = 80 percent (see Table 101)
RR = 6 (see paragraph 104)
GR = 1.5 percent X 20 = 30
CR = 5 degrees X 0.8 = 4
GTL =  27,600 pounds X .*80 6 + 30 + 4 

=  22,080 40 
=  552 STONs 
STEP 5. Compute the net trainload.
NTL =  GTL X .50 
=  552 X .50 = 276 STONs 
STEP 6. Compute the EDT of the system by determining the NDT of the most restrictive division.
NTL X TD = NDT
First Division  276 X 15 = 4,140 STONs 
Second Division  276 X 12 = 3,312 STONs 
Third Division  276 X 14 = 3,864 STONs 
Fourth Division  276 X 15 = 4,140 STONs 
EDT = NDT of second division (most restrictive)  
EDT = 3,312 STONs 
THIRD COMPUTATION
B10. Determine the rolling stock requirements for this rail system when operating at maximum capacity during winter months using singleengine operation. Each type of freight car will move the following percentages of the end delivery tonnage:
Boxcars  50 percent of EDT  
Gondolas  25 percent of EDT  
Flatcars  25 percent of EDT 
STEP 1. Compute the portion of the EDT to be moved in each type of railcar:
Boxcars:  EDT X 50 percent = 3,312 X .50 = 1,656 STONs  
Gondolas:  EDT X 25 percent = 3,312 X .25 = 828 STONs  
Flatcars:  EDT X 25 percent = 3,312 X .25 = 828 STONs 
STEP 2. Compute rolling stock requirements for one day's dispatch. You must apply the following formulas:
Total cars required =  EDT (by type car) X TAT X 1.1 Average payload for type of car 
1 DD =  EDT (by type car) Average payload for type car 
Note: Average payload in tons per type car =  Rated capacity 2 
Therefore, 1 day's dispatch for all types of cars is computed as follows:
Boxcars:  1 DD =  1,656 20 
= 82 + or 83 cars 
Gondolas:  1 DD =  828 20 
= 41 + or 42 cars 
Flatcars:  1 DD =  828 25 
= 33 + or 34 cars 
Total cars in 1 DD = 159 cars 
Rolling stock requirements are based on a TAT of 11 days (see paragraph 1047). Therefore, total rolling stock requirements are computed as follows: 1 DD X TAT = cars required X 1.1 (reserve factor) = total cars required (also see Figure B2).
1 DD X TAT = cars required X 1.1 (reserve factor) = total cars required
Boxcars:  83 X 11 = 913 X 1.1 =  1,004+ or  1,005 cars 
Gondolas:  42 X 11 = 462 X 1.1 =  508+ or  509 cars 
Flatcars:  34 X 11 = 374 X 1.1 =  411+ or  412 cars 
Total rolling stock requirements: 1,926 cars 
Figure B2. Determination of Turnaround Time in Days
FOURTH COMPUTATION
B11. Determine the road and switch engine requirements for the operation of the system at maximum capacity during winter months using single engine operation.
STEP 1. Compute for road engines required.
Number of road engines = TD X  (RT + TT) 24 
X 2 X 1.2 
COMPUTE FOR FACTORS
B12. Compute the running time for each division.
RT  
TD  (Length of div ÷ avg speed)  
First division:  15  130 ÷ 10 = 13  
Second division:  12  100 ÷ 10 = 10  
Third division:  14  110 ÷ 10 = 11  
Forth division:  15  120 ÷ 10 = 12 
Note: Average value for terminal time of dieselelectric motive power is 3. Average value for steam is 8.
COMPUTE REQUIREMENTS
B13. The following computations shows the number of road engines (per division) required for operation over a given railway division.
First division:  15 X  (13 + 3) 24 
X 2 X 1.2 = 36 X  16 24 
=  576 24 
Second division:  12 X  (10 + 3) 24 
X 2 X 1.2 = 28.8 X  13 24 
=  274.4 24 
Third division:  15 X  (13 + 3) 24 
X 2 X 1.2 = 36 X  14 24 
=  504 24 
Forth division:  15 X  (12 + 3) 24 
X 2 X 1.2 = 36 X  15 24 
=  540 24 
Total road engines required = 24 + 16 + 21 + 23 = 84 road engines
STEP 2. Compute for switch engines.
Cars dispached and recieved per day 
Cars passing per day 
Computation factor (refer to par 104C(2)) 
Switch engines required 

Port  
Terminal  159 X 2  ÷  67  =  4+ or 5  
2nd div:  
Terminal  159 X 2  ÷  100  =  3+ or 4  
3rd div:  
Terminal  159 X 2  ÷  100  =  3+ or 4  
4th div:  
Terminal  159 X 2  ÷  100  =  3+ or 4  
Railhead  159 X 2  ÷  67  =  4+ or 5  
Subtotal  =  22  
+ 20 percent reserve (4+ or 5)  =  5  
Total  =  27 
FIFTH COMPUTATION
B14. Determine the number of switch and road crews required to support this rail system.
STEP 1. Compute for road crews required.
Road crews = TD X 2 X  (RT + 3) 12 
X 1.25 
COMPUTE FOR FACTORS
B15. Compute the running time for each division.
RT  
TD  (Length of div ÷ avg speed)  
First division:  15  130 ÷ 10 = 13  
Second division:  12  100 ÷ 10 = 10  
Third division:  14  110 ÷ 10 = 11  
Forth division:  15  120 ÷ 10 = 12 
COMPUTE FOR ROAD CREW REQUIREMENTS
B16. The following computations shows the number of road crews (per division) required for operation over a given railway division.
First division: Road crews =  15 X 2 X  (13 + 3) 12 
X 1.25  = 37.5 X  16 12 
=  600 12 
= 50 crews 
Second division: Road crews =  12 X 2 X  (10 + 3) 12 
X 1.25  = 30 X  13 12 
=  390 12 
= 32+ of 33 crews 
Third division: Road crews =  14 X 2 X  (13 + 3) 12 
X 1.25  = 35 X  14 12 
=  490 12 
= 40+ or 41 crews 
Forth division: Road crews =  15 X 2 X  (12 + 3) 12 
X 1.25  = 37.5 X  15 12 
=  562.5 12 
= 46+ or 47 crews 
Total road crews required = 50 + 33 + 41 + 47 = 171 road crews
STEP 2. Compute for switch engine crews required (do not include reserve switch engines).
Switch crews = SE X 2 X 1.25  
Port area:  Switch crews = 5 X 2 X 1.25 =  12+ or 13 
Second division terminal:  Switch crews = 4 X 2 X 1.25 =  10 
Third division terminal:  Switch crews = 4 X 2 X 1.25 =  10 
Fourth division terminal:  Switch crews = 4 X 2 X 1.25 =  10 
Railhead:  Switch crews = 5 X 2 X 1.25 =  12+ or 13 
Total switch crews required =  56 
STEP 3. Determine total number of switch and road crews required.
Road crews =  171 
Switch crews =  56 
Total switch and road crews =  227 
SIXTH COMPUTATION
B17. Determine the monthly engine fuel, lubricants, and repair parts requirements for the operation of this system.
STEP 1. Compute fuel requirements for road engines.
TD  X  Twoway travel 
X  LD  =  Train miles per day 

First division:  15  X  2  X  130  =  3,900 
Second division:  12  X  2  X  100  =  2,400 
Third division  14  X  2  X  110  =  3,080 
Fourth division  15  X  2  X  120  =  3,600 
Total train miles per day =  12,980 
12,980 train miles per day X 2.5 gal per train mile = 32,450 per day
32,450 gallons per day X 30 days = 973,500 gallons per month
973,500 + 48,675 1,022,175 
gallons per month 5percent reserve total gallons per month 
STEP 2. Compute fuel requirements for switch engines (do not include reserve switch engines).
Number of switch engines 
X  Hours per day operation 
X  Rate of fuel consumption (gallons per hour per locomotive) 
=  Daily require ment (gallons) 
22  X  20  X  8  =  3,520 
3,520 gallons per day X 30 days = 105,600 gallons per month
105,600 + 5,280 110,880 
gallons per month 5percent reserve total gallons per month 
STEP 3. Compute total fuel requirements.
1,022,175 + 110,880 1,133,055 
road engine requirements per month in gallons switch engine requirements per month in gallons total requirements per month in gallons 
STEP 4. Compute monthly lubricant requirements in STONs.
TD  X  Twoway travel 
X  Lubricants (STONs per month per train per day 
=  Lubricants (STONs per month) 

First division:  15  X  2  X  .5  =  15 
Second division:  12  X  2  X  .5  =  12 
Third division  14  X  2  X  .5  =  14 
Fourth division  15  X  2  X  .5  =  15 
Total lubricants per month =  56 STONs 
STEP 5. Compute monthly repair parts requirements in STONs.
TD  X  Twoway travel 
X  Repair parts (STONs per month per train per day 
=  Repair parts (STONs per month) 

First division:  15  X  2  X  1.5  =  45 
Second division:  12  X  2  X  1.5  =  36 
Third division  14  X  2  X  1.5  =  42 
Fourth division  15  X  2  X  1.5  =  45 
Total spare parts per month =  168 STONs 
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