Find a Security Clearance Job!

Military

Appendix B

Railway Planning Example

This appendix contains an example of railway planning. Use this plan for the operation of any rail system.

SITUATION

B-1. Plan for the operation of a rail system to move supplies in a theater of operations. The target date for the initiation of service is on 1 December. Route all rail tonnages originating in the port to the railhead over the main line of the system as shown in Figure B-1.

Figure B-1. Hypothetical Rail System for Planning

Note 1. All tonnages are expressed and computed in STONs.

Note 2. All computations resulting in a fraction are raised to the next higher whole number.

PLANNING DATA

B-2. Planning depends on the size and type of rails, condition of crossties, rail and ballast, washout and rockslide potential, number of single and double main lines, and the availability of sidings or passing tracks.

TRACK

B-3. If there is a usable double track, trains may operate in both directions without delays in schedules. However, the unit often takes the usable parts of a damaged double track to make one single main line with good passing tracks. Computations in this appendix are based on a single track.

Number   Single track (unless otherwise stated)
Gauge   Standard (56.5 inches)
Condition   All divisions: Good to fair
Percent of Grade   All divisions: 1.5 percent or less
Ruling Curve   All divisions: 5 degrees

Weather

  All divisions:

Summer: +60oF to +95oF
Winter: +35oF to -20oF
Wet weather: Local and temporary

Passing Tracks   First divisions - 15
Second division - 9
Third division - 11
Fourth division - 14

MOTIVE POWER

B-4. Motive power consists of all self-propelling equipment found on a railroad. The most common motive power refers to locomotives.

Road Engines

B-5. US Army 0-6-6-0, 120 tons, diesel-electric locomotive.

Switch Engines

B-6. US Army 0-4-4-0, 60 tons, diesel-electric locomotive.

ROLLING STOCK

B-7. Rolling stock refers to a collection of a large group of railway cars.

Boxcars   40-ton rated capacity
Gondolas   40-ton rated capacity
Flatcars   50-ton rated capacity

FIRST COMPUTATION

B-8. Determine the train density for each of the four railway divisions.

TD = (NPT +1)
      2
X 24 X S
    LD
S = 10 mph (refer to Table 10-2)

STEP 1.

  First Division: TD = (15 + 1)
      2
X 24 X 10
    130
= 16
2
X 240
130
    = 3,840
  260
= 14 + of 15 trains
STEP 2.

  Second Division: TD = (9 + 1)
   2
X 24 X 10
    100
= 10
2
X 240
100
    = 2,400
  200
= 12 trains
STEP 3.

  Third Division: TD = (11 + 1)
   2
X 24 X 10
    110
= 12
2
X 240
110
    = 2,880
  220
= 13 + 14 trains
STEP 4.

  Forth Division: TD = (14 + 1)
      2
X 24 X 10
    120
= 15
2
X 240
120
    = 3,600
  240
= 15 trains

SECOND COMPUTATION

B-9. Determine the end delivery tonnage of this rail line during winter months using single-engine operation. You must use the following formulas:

  • EDT = NDT of most restrictive division
  • NDT = NTL X TD
  • NTL = GTL X .50
  • GTL = DBP X WF
                RR + GR + CR
  • DBP = CTE -- (Total weight of engine in STONs x 20 pound per STON)
  • CTE = STE
                  2
  • CTE = Weight on drives (lb)
                25% adhesion factor

STEP 1. Compute the starting tractive effort.

STE = Weight on drivers (lb)
            4
= 240,000
      4
=    60,000 pounds

STEP 2. Compute the continuous tractive effort.

STE = STE
  2
= 60,000
    2
=    3,000 pounds

STEP 3. Compute the drawbar pull of the road engine.

DBP = CTE-- (Total weight of engine in STONs x 20 pounds per STON)
= 30,000 -- (120 X 20)
= 30,000 -- 2,400 = 27,600 pounds

STEP 4. Compute the gross trailing load.

GTL =    DBP X WF
RR + GR + CR

Where:
    DBP = 27,600 pounds (preceding calculations)
    WF = 80 percent (see Table 10-1)
    RR = 6 (see paragraph 10-4)
    GR = 1.5 percent X 20 = 30
    CR = 5 degrees X 0.8 = 4

GTL = 27,600 pounds X .*80
        6 + 30 + 4
= 22,080
    40
= 552 STONs

STEP 5. Compute the net trainload.

NTL = GTL X .50
= 552 X .50 = 276 STONs

STEP 6. Compute the EDT of the system by determining the NDT of the most restrictive division.

NTL X TD = NDT

First Division276 X 15 = 4,140 STONs
Second Division276 X 12 = 3,312 STONs
Third Division276 X 14 = 3,864 STONs
Fourth Division276 X 15 = 4,140 STONs
EDT = NDT of second division (most restrictive)
EDT = 3,312 STONs

THIRD COMPUTATION

B-10. Determine the rolling stock requirements for this rail system when operating at maximum capacity during winter months using single-engine operation. Each type of freight car will move the following percentages of the end delivery tonnage:

Boxcars 50 percent of EDT
Gondolas 25 percent of EDT
Flatcars 25 percent of EDT

STEP 1. Compute the portion of the EDT to be moved in each type of railcar:

Boxcars: EDT X 50 percent = 3,312 X .50 = 1,656 STONs
Gondolas: EDT X 25 percent = 3,312 X .25 = 828 STONs
Flatcars: EDT X 25 percent = 3,312 X .25 = 828 STONs

STEP 2. Compute rolling stock requirements for one day's dispatch. You must apply the following formulas:

Total cars required = EDT (by type car) X TAT X 1.1
 Average payload for type of car
1 DD =           EDT (by type car)       
Average payload for type car
Note: Average payload in tons per type car = Rated capacity
          2

Therefore, 1 day's dispatch for all types of cars is computed as follows:

Boxcars: 1 DD = 1,656
  20
= 82 + or 83 cars
Gondolas: 1 DD = 828
 20
= 41 + or 42 cars
Flatcars: 1 DD = 828
 25
= 33 + or 34 cars
Total cars in 1 DD = 159 cars

Rolling stock requirements are based on a TAT of 11 days (see paragraph 10-47). Therefore, total rolling stock requirements are computed as follows: 1 DD X TAT = cars required X 1.1 (reserve factor) = total cars required (also see Figure B-2).

1 DD X TAT = cars required X 1.1 (reserve factor) = total cars required

Boxcars:83 X 11 = 913 X 1.1 =1,004+ or1,005 cars
Gondolas:42 X 11 = 462 X 1.1 =508+ or509 cars
Flatcars:34 X 11 = 374 X 1.1 =411+ or 412 cars
Total rolling stock requirements: 1,926 cars

Figure B-2. Determination of Turnaround Time in Days

FOURTH COMPUTATION

B-11. Determine the road and switch engine requirements for the operation of the system at maximum capacity during winter months using single engine operation.

STEP 1. Compute for road engines required.

Number of road engines = TD X (RT + TT)
      24
X  2  X  1.2

COMPUTE FOR FACTORS

B-12. Compute the running time for each division.

      RT
  TD   (Length of div ÷ avg speed)
First division: 15   130 ÷ 10 = 13
Second division: 12   100 ÷ 10 = 10
Third division: 14   110 ÷ 10 = 11
Forth division: 15   120 ÷ 10 = 12

Note: Average value for terminal time of diesel-electric motive power is 3. Average value for steam is 8.

COMPUTE REQUIREMENTS

B-13. The following computations shows the number of road engines (per division) required for operation over a given railway division.

First division: 15 X (13 + 3)
    24
X 2 X 1.2 = 36 X 16
24
= 576
 24
Second division: 12 X (10 + 3)
    24
X 2 X 1.2 = 28.8 X 13
24
= 274.4
  24
Third division: 15 X (13 + 3)
    24
X 2 X 1.2 = 36 X 14
24
= 504
 24
Forth division: 15 X (12 + 3)
    24
X 2 X 1.2 = 36 X 15
24
= 540
 24

Total road engines required = 24 + 16 + 21 + 23 = 84 road engines

STEP 2. Compute for switch engines.

    Cars dispached
and recieved
        per day       
Cars passing
      per day     
  Computation
factor
(refer to
par 10-4C(2))
  Switch
engines
required
Port              
  Terminal 159 X 2   ÷ 67 = 4+ or 5
2nd div:              
  Terminal   159 X 2 ÷ 100 = 3+ or 4
3rd div:              
  Terminal   159 X 2 ÷ 100 = 3+ or 4
4th div:              
  Terminal   159 X 2 ÷ 100 = 3+ or 4
Railhead   159 X 2   ÷ 67 = 4+ or 5
Subtotal = 22   
+ 20 percent reserve (4+ or 5) =     5   
Total = 27   

FIFTH COMPUTATION

B-14. Determine the number of switch and road crews required to support this rail system.

STEP 1. Compute for road crews required.

Road crews =   TD X 2 X (RT + 3)
    12
X 1.25

COMPUTE FOR FACTORS

B-15. Compute the running time for each division.

      RT
  TD   (Length of div ÷ avg speed)
First division: 15   130 ÷ 10 = 13
Second division: 12   100 ÷ 10 = 10
Third division: 14   110 ÷ 10 = 11
Forth division: 15   120 ÷ 10 = 12

COMPUTE FOR ROAD CREW REQUIREMENTS

B-16. The following computations shows the number of road crews (per division) required for operation over a given railway division.

First division: Road crews = 15 X 2 X (13 + 3)
    12
X 1.25 = 37.5 X 16
12
= 600
 12
= 50 crews
Second division: Road crews = 12 X 2 X (10 + 3)
    12
X 1.25 = 30 X 13
12
= 390
 12
= 32+ of 33 crews
Third division: Road crews = 14 X 2 X (13 + 3)
    12
X 1.25 = 35 X 14
12
= 490
 12
= 40+ or 41 crews
Forth division: Road crews = 15 X 2 X (12 + 3)
    12
X 1.25 = 37.5 X 15
12
= 562.5
 12
= 46+ or 47 crews

Total road crews required = 50 + 33 + 41 + 47 = 171 road crews

STEP 2. Compute for switch engine crews required (do not include reserve switch engines).

Switch crews = SE X 2 X 1.25
Port area: Switch crews = 5 X 2 X 1.25 = 12+ or 13
Second division terminal: Switch crews = 4 X 2 X 1.25 = 10
Third division terminal: Switch crews = 4 X 2 X 1.25 = 10
Fourth division terminal: Switch crews = 4 X 2 X 1.25 = 10
Railhead: Switch crews = 5 X 2 X 1.25 = 12+ or 13
Total switch crews required = 56

STEP 3. Determine total number of switch and road crews required.

Road crews =171
Switch crews = 56
Total switch and road crews =227

SIXTH COMPUTATION

B-17. Determine the monthly engine fuel, lubricants, and repair parts requirements for the operation of this system.

STEP 1. Compute fuel requirements for road engines.

  TD X Two-way
travel
X LD = Train
miles
per day
First division: 15 X 2 X 130 = 3,900
Second division: 12 X 2 X 100 = 2,400
Third division 14 X 2 X 110 = 3,080
Fourth division 15 X 2 X 120 = 3,600
Total train miles per day = 12,980

12,980 train miles per day X 2.5 gal per train mile = 32,450 per day

32,450 gallons per day X 30 days = 973,500 gallons per month

973,500
+   48,675
1,022,175
gallons per month
5-percent reserve
total gallons per month

STEP 2. Compute fuel requirements for switch engines (do not include reserve switch engines).

Number of
switch
engines
X Hours per
day
operation
X Rate of fuel
consumption
(gallons per
hour per
locomotive)
= Daily
require-
ment
(gallons)
22 X 20 X 8 = 3,520

3,520 gallons per day X 30 days = 105,600 gallons per month

105,600
+   5,280
110,880
gallons per month
5-percent reserve
total gallons per month

STEP 3. Compute total fuel requirements.

1,022,175
+   110,880
1,133,055
road engine requirements per month in gallons
switch engine requirements per month in gallons
total requirements per month in gallons

STEP 4. Compute monthly lubricant requirements in STONs.

  TD X Two-way
travel
X Lubricants
(STONs per
month per
train per day
= Lubricants
(STONs per
month)
First division: 15 X 2 X .5 = 15
Second division: 12 X 2 X .5 = 12
Third division 14 X 2 X .5 = 14
Fourth division 15 X 2 X .5 = 15
Total lubricants per month = 56 STONs

STEP 5. Compute monthly repair parts requirements in STONs.

  TD X Two-way
travel
X Repair parts
(STONs per
month per
train per day
= Repair parts
(STONs per
month)
First division: 15 X 2 X 1.5 = 45
Second division: 12 X 2 X 1.5 = 36
Third division 14 X 2 X 1.5 = 42
Fourth division 15 X 2 X 1.5 = 45
Total spare parts per month = 168 STONs



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list