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Section I. Overview

2-1. lNTRODUCTION. The first section of this chapter identifies and defines terms used in discussing shipboard functions. It discusses ship classifications, shipping categories, and types of ships terminal coordinators may encounter. The last section in this chapter will provide the ship's configuration and systems of the T-AKR 295 and 296 Class Strategic Sealift Ships, including general ship characteristics; RO/RO area and facilities; LO/LO facilities; miscellaneous ship systems and its two operational modes.

2-2. SHIPBOARD DIRECTIONS. In order to function aboard ship, coordinators must know basic ship terminology. Coordinators should thoroughly understand the common terms used for location, position, and direction aboard ship, and use these terms correctly.

    a. The front end of a ship is the bow. Moving toward the bow means going forward. When the vessel is moving forward, it is going ahead. From a direction facing toward the bow, the front right side is the starboard side and the front left side is the port side.

    b. The central or middle area of a ship is amidships. The right-center side is the starboard beam, and the left-center side is the port beam.

    c. The rear of a vessel is the stern. Moving toward the stern means going aft. When the ship moves toward the stern, it is going astern. From a forward direction the right-rear section is the starboard quarter, and the left-rear section is the port quarter.

    d. From the direction of stern to bow, the entire right side of a vessel is the starboard side and the left side is the port side. A line or anything else, running parallel to the length of the vessel is said to be fore and aft; its counterpart, running from side to side, is athwartship.

    e. A direction from the centerline of the ship toward either port or starboard side is outboard and either side toward the centerline is inboard. However, the use of outboard and inboard varies when a ship is moored to a pier. Refer to the side against the pier as being inboard; the side away from the pier is outboard. Going down a ladder is going below. Going up the ladder is going above unless headed for the upper deck which means going topside. Going higher, up into the rigging, would be going aloft. Figure 2-1 shows the directional terms as they apply aboard ship.

Figure 2-1. Basic shipboard directions

2-3. CARGO COMPARTMENTS. Cargo compartment information is as follows:

    a. When stowing cargo, a cargo concerned with space on the upper between deck and with hold storage areas on deck levels below it. Figure 2-2 shows the location of the cargo hold compartments on the vessel.

    b. Use the terms hatch and hold when referring to cargo compartments, but in strict terminology, there is a difference. The hatch is the opening in the deck through which the cargo is loaded or discharged. The hold is the lowest compartment under the hatch and is normally used to stow cargo. In general terms, the areas directly below the hatch are the square of the hatch. The areas under the tween deck are called the wings. A wing on the left side of a ship is called a port wing and on the right side it is a starboard wing. The wing toward the bow is the forward wing and the wing toward the rear or stern of the ship is the aft wing. This chapter will refer to names that apply to both hatch and hold compartments.

    c. Number cargo compartments beginning at the bow. The numbers progress as they go toward the stern. The number of cargo compartments varies depending on the size or type of ship.

    d. Before stowing in a hold, cargo handlers should be familiar with the names and purpose of the various parts of the hold, fittings, and equipment.

Figure 2-2. Cargo hold compartments

2-4. US MARITIME ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS. The US Maritime Administration Classification Systems are as follows:

    a. Maritime Administration vessels are classified by a system based on three groups of letters and numbers. For example, using the group classification C8-S-la the first group indicates the type of vessel (cargo, passenger, and tanker) and its approximate LWL. The second group indicates the type of propulsion, the number of propellers, and whether or not the vessel carries more than 12 passengers. The third group indicates the original design of the vessel or any modifications to the vessel.

    b. Table 2-1, shows that the C8 group covers cargo vessels with a length on the load waterline between 700 and 799 feet. Table 2-2 shows that the "S" means the vessel has a single propeller, is equipped with steam propulsion machinery, and carries no more than 12 passengers. Since there may be many vessels with these characteristics, an additional designation is necessary to identify the design of the particular vessel. The vessel designation is 1a. The number "1" means this is the original construction of the la design. The letter "a" indicates that this is the original design of the vessel.

    c. If major changes have been made to the vessel, then its designation alters to reflect these changes. For example, suppose that accommodations for 50 passengers are added to this vessel. Since the passengers are still fewer than 100, the first group does not change; it remains C8. The second classification group becomes S1 to indicate that the vessel can carry more than 12 passengers. The third group becomes 1b to show that this is the first major change to this vessel. The vessel designation would become C8-S1-1b.

2-5. SHIPPING CATEGORIES. The Navy Strategic Sealift Program, through MSC, provides the ships and shipboard cargo-handling systems for loading, transporting, and discharging equipment and materiel of the US Armed Forces anywhere in the world. Military units, which support a contingency plan, have predetermined cargo movement requirements. These requirements are provided to the JCS and describe the makeup of the unit, equipment, and supplies to be moved. Units give RDDs that specify the time they are to be in place and ready for combat. Strategic sealift support for any contingency consists of three broad categories for shipping: prepositioned, surge, and resupply shipping.

    a. Prepositioned Shipping. This phase consists of the MPS and other prepositioning ships (formerly called depot ships and NTPS). The MPS carries military cargo and equipment, and is prepositioned near a contingency area. The MPS program consists of 13 self-sustaining ships forward deployed in three independent, prepositioned squadrons. Each squadron carries equipment and 30-day supplies for a MAB. Cargo consists of a balanced load of vehicles and equipment; containers and pallets; fuels, lubricants, and potable freshwater. Each ship is outfitted with ship-to-shore lighterage of powered and nonpowered causeway sections, LCM-8s, and a side-loadable-warping tug. Two squadrons of four ships each will carry vehicles, equipment, and supplies for one-fourth MAB in each vessel. The remaining MPS squadrons will have five ships, each carrying an equal portion of a MAB. Each squadron will serve under the operational control of the US Navy fleet commander in whose area the squadron is located. The other prepositioning ships are strategically located and carry equipment, ammunition, and sustaining supplies for the Army, Air Force, and Navy.

Table 2-1. Classification of Ship Type and Length

Length at Load Waterline (ft)

  Ship (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Remarks
B Barge up to 100 100 to 150 150 to 200 200 to 250 250 to 300 300 to 350 350 to 400 (1)
C Cargo up to 400 400 to 450 450 to 500 500 to 550 550 to 600 600 to 650 650 to 700 (1)
G Great Lakes
up to 300 300 to 350 350 to 400 400 to 450 450 to 500 500 to 550 550 to 600 (1)
H Great Lakes
up to 300 300 to 350 350 to 400 400 to 450 450 to 500 500 to 550 550 to 600 (2)
IB Integrated
up to 200 200 to 300 300 to 400 400 to 500 500 to 600 600 to 700 700 to 800 (1)
J Inland cargo up to 50 50 to 100 100 to 150 150 to 200 200 to 250 250 to 300 300 to 350 (2)
K Inland
up to 50 50 to 100 100 to 150 150 to 200 200 to 250 250 to 300 300 to 350 (2)
L Great Lakes
tanker (ore
or grain)
up to 400 400 to 450 450 to 500 500 to 550 550 to 600 600 to 650 650 to 700 (1)
LG Liquid gas up to 450 450 to 500 550 to 600 600 to 650 650 to 700 700 to 750 750 to 800 (1)
N Coastwise
up to 200 200 to 250 250 to 300 300 to 350 350 to 400 400 to 450 450 to 500 (2)
OB Combination
up to 450 450 to 500 500 to 550 550 to 600 600 to 650 650 to 700 700 to 800 (1)
P Passenger
(100 or
up to 500 500 to 600 600 to 700 700 to 800 800 to 900 900 to 1000 1000 to 1100 (1)
Q Coastwise
up to 200 200 to 250 250 to 300 300 to 350 350 to 400 400 to 450 450 to 500 (2)
R Refrigerated up to 400 400 to 450 450 to 500 500 to 550 550 to 600 600 to 650 650 to 700 (2)
S Special X up to 200 200 to 300 300 to 400 400 to 500 500 to 600 600 to 700 700 to 800 (1, 3)
T Tanker up to 450 450 to 500 500 to 550 550 to 600 600 to 650 650 to 700 700 to 800 (1)
U Ferries up to 100 100 to 150 150 to 200 200 to 250 250 to 300 300 to 350 350 to 400 (2)
V Towing
up to 50 50 to 100 100 to 150 150 to 200 200 over

1Larger vessels are designated by successive numbers in 100-foot increments (C8 for 700 through 799 ft, and so forth).

2Longer vessels are designated by successive numbers in 50-foot increments (H8 for 600 through 650 ft, and so forth).

3The special designation X applies to certain Navy ships built by MARAD and other ships so specialized that they don't fit any other designation.

Table 2-2. Classification of Ship Machinery, Propellers, and Passenger Capability

Passenger Capability
Machinery Type Propellers 12 and Under1 Over 122

Steam Single S S1
Motor Single M M1
Steam and motor Single SM SM1
Turboelectric Single SE SE1
Diesel-electric Single ME ME1
Gas turbine Single G G1
Gas turboelectric Single GE GE1
Nuclear Single N N1

1For triple- and quadruple-screw vessels, add TR or Q respectively to single-screw designation. For example, a triple-screw motor ship is MTR.
2For triple- and quadruple-screw vessels, make digit 3 or 4 respectively. For example, quadruple-screw steam is S4.


Passenger Capability
Machinery Type Propellers 12 and Under1 Over 122

Steam Twin ST S2
Motor Twin MT M2
Steam and motor Twin SMT SM2
Turboelectric Twin SET SE2
Diesel-electric Twin MET ME2
Gas turbine Twin GT G2
Gas turboelectric Twin GET GE2
Nuclear Twin NT N2

1For triple- and quadruple-screw vessels, add TR or Q respectively to single-screw designation. For example, a triple-screw motor ship is MTR.
2For triple- and quadruple-screw vessels, make digit 3 or 4 respectively. For example, quadruple-screw steam is S4.

      (1) The current prepositioning ship program consists of 17 ships (5 break-bulk, 4 LASHs, 4 POL tankers, 3 RO/ROs, and 1 water tanker). Thirteen ships are prepositioned in the Indian Ocean; 2 in the Philippines; 1 in Guam; and 1 in the Mediterranean.

      (2) Five of the prepositioned ships store unit equipment supplies for the MAB. Four ships carry Army ammunition and supplies, two ships carry Air Force ammunition, and one ship transports the Navy Rapidly Deployable Medical Facility to support the Marine Corps. The five tankers carry POL and water for all services. The Commander, Seventh Fleet has operational control of these ships, except for the ship in the Mediterranean, which is under the operational control of the Sixth Fleet.

      (3) In a combat situation, Navy combat cargo-handling teams will discharge cargoes of the MPS during an initial assault. Army terminal service units will discharge the other prepositioned ships.

    b. Surge Shipping. Surge ships fill the need for early lift of military cargo. This phrase begins within days of a NCA decision to deploy. At this phase, the terminal service companies and terminal transfer companies play a critical role in the overseas theater of operations. Their response is critical in order to support an overseas military operation requiring great volumes of priority cargo. Surge cargoes consist primarily of unit equipment, wheeled-and-tracked-vehicles, no self-depoyable aircraft, and limited amounts of sustaining supplies and ammunition. Although RO/RO vessels are the preferred type of vessel for the initial movement of combat equipment into developed fixed ports, in a LOTS operation these vessels are difficult to discharge unless they have a LO/LO capability for over-the-side discharge into lighterage. The FSS can sustain a speed of over 30 knots and provide a fast and easy way to accomplish rapid deployment. The FSS (see Figure 2-3) can also rapidly resupply forces, during the resupply phase, that have already deployed with large quantities of mechanized equipment, rations, repair parts, and other cargo. When not in use, keep the FSS in ROS 4. At its layberth, a nine-crew maintains the ship on a full-time basis and performs routine maintenance. In addition, the ship will have at least a 90-percent full load of bunkers. Surge ships also include containerships and crane ship TACS that are maintained in the Ready Reserve Fleet. TACS provide the capability to unload non-self-sustaining ships in the forward area.

    c. Resupply Shipping. This phase provides the bulk of the sustaining support required by the deployed forces. Forces in the forward areas of operation depend on this shipping to replenish their supplies and increase the theater reserves from a 30- to 60-day level. Resupply shipping begins after the surge shipping requirements have been met and continues for the duration of the operations.

      (1) Resupply shipping includes the reuse of the prepositioned ships and surge ships after their initial discharge in the theater of operations. Break-bulk ships at this time will be reactivated from the Ready Reserve Fleet.

Figure 2-3. Fast Sealift Ship

      (2) Break-Bulk ships have always been routinely used for deployed and resupply in the past, that is, during WWII, Korea, and Southeast Asia sealift operations. With their open deck, multiple cargo holds, and service by booms and/or cranes, these ships can lift most military cargoes. These are the most versatile ship types for in-the-steam or LOTS-type operations. The disadvantages of break-bulk ships are that they require the most people for loading and discharging operations and they require the most time to load and off-load. For these reasons, the break-bulk ships are no longer commercially competitive with the containers and RO/RO ships and are being phased out of the commercial trade routes. The government has purchased many of the newer break-bulk ships and put them into the Ready Reserve Fleet for use in an emergency.

2-6. SEALIFT ENHANCEMENT FEATURES PROGRAM. The Navy's SEF program develops and provides equipment and modifications to adapt merchant ships to specific military missions. The majority of American merchant ships are now containerships. The carrying capabilities of these ships are limited to containerized cargo. The SEF program of the Navy develops sea sheds and flatracks to enable these ships to carry vehicles, outsize cargo and heavily lift tracked-vehicles such as an M-1 tank.

    a. Sea sheds. Sea sheds are 40 feet long, 24 feet wide, and 12 feet 5 inches high. They weigh about 72,000 pounds and fit into containership cells. One sea shed can occupy the space of 4-1/2 40-foot containers. Sea sheds provide temporary multiple decks in containerships for transporting large military vehicles and outsize break-bulk cargo that cannot fit into containers. Figure 2-4, shows installation of the entire sea shed system.

      (1) A CCSA is a three-part system, which provides a lower cargo hold for heavy, outsize cargo or vehicle. The ship's loading-bearing containers cell guides must be reinforced before this system can be installed.

Figure 2-4. Sea shed system

      (2) A standard size pontoon is 8 feet by 40 feet by 3 feet (see Figure 2-5) and is put into three adjacent container cells and sets on top of the tank tops. This arrangement provides the reinforced decking required for heavy lift cargo and cargo tie-downs. The CCSA is inserted over the pontoons in the three adjacent container cells. Figure 2-6 shows three versions of the containership and the CCSA, and various combinations for loading containers and other cargoes.

Figure 2-5. Conceptual sketch of the heavy-duty pontoons flats

Figure 2-6. CCSA/sea shed and container compatibility

      (3) Sea sheds are open-topped and have two bi-panel self-activated, folding work-through floor sections. These sections can accommodate cargo up to 30 feet by 18 feet. Sea Sheds can be stacked below deck, three high on top of the CCSA. With all the floors opened, personnel can load the sea sheds lower deck first, closing the floor over each successively loaded unit (see Figure 2-7). The rated capacity of the sea shed is 100 tons, and it can accommodate aircraft, vehicles, and outsize break-bulk cargo. The cargoes are blocked, braced, and tied down in the same manner as in a general cargo hold.

NOTE: The ship's personnel will open and close the folding work-through floor sections.

Figure 2-7. Sea sheds stacked and loaded in
containership hold

      (4) Sea sheds for commercial containerships are prepositioned ashore at sites closest to predesignated military outloading ports. Each fast sealift ship T-AKR carries eight 35-foot sea sheds. Sea sheds do not require handling during loading operations. They can be retained aboard ship, as long they are needed to enhance the military utility of commercial containerships.

    b. Flatracks. Flatracks are portable, open-topped, open-sided units which fit into existing below deck container cell guides. By augmenting sea sheds, flatracks maximize the capability of containerships to lift outsize military cargoes (see Figure 2-8).

      (1) Standard commercial flatracks are limited to a maximum gross weight of 30 tons. The newly developed heavy-duty flatracks, which are part of the SEF program, have a 60-ton capacity, roughly the equivalent weight of an M-1 tank. These flatracks may be used as single units or combined horizontally in sets, or they may be stacked vertically. When placed side-by-side, the folding plates on the right-hand side of the flatracks are laid over to the next flatrack so that vehicles can cross from one flatrack to the other.

        (a) The platform is 8 feet by 40 feet by 30 inches. It is a steel structure frame with wood decking.

        (b) Five side flaps on the right-hand side of the flatrack bridge the gap between flatracks. They can support a total load of 20,000 pounds on a two-square foot area.

Figure 2-8. Flatracks

        (c) D-rings are used for deck tie-down to support the capacity load subjected to a 20-degree roll, with a 13-second roll period and three units stacked in the hold. The D-rings have a 10,000-pound holding strength.

        (d) Forklift pockets are 14 foot by 4-1/2 foot openings, by which aRTCH with forks can transport an empty flatrack.

        (e) The gooseneck tunnel is for transporting the flatrack on a chassis in an empty or normal load condition (not to exceed 67,000 pounds).

      (2) The end posts on an empty flatrack can be lowered and laid flush on the platform when they are stowed ashore or aboard ship. When the flatracks are in use, the end posts are raised and locked in position. The end posts in their compressed stage have a maximum high of 8 feet 6 inches above the platform. Depending on the height of the cargo to be loaded, the end posts can be rated in 6-inch increments to a maximum height of 13 feet 6 inches above the platform.

NOTE: The heavy-duty flatrack must be on the pier for setting up, and raising or lowering the end post.

      (3) The 40-foot heavy-duty flatrack has three load conditions.

        (a) Empty condition -- no cargo.

        (b) Normal load condition -- cargo loaded aboard with a maximum gross weight of less than 67,000 pounds.

        (c) Heavy load condition -- cargo loaded aboard with a maximum weight greater than 67,000 pounds but not more than 137,000 pounds.

      (4) An empty flatrack weighs 21,000 pounds. The RTCH with forks can lift and transport the flatracks. If the flatrack has its end posts up, use the top handlers to lift and transport the flatrack.

      (5) The flatrack can be lifted with the end posts erect or stowed when in an empty or normal load condition. Never attempt to lift the flatrack in a heavy load condition. The flatrack should be lifted and placed in the cell in an empty condition and then loaded.

      (6) Figure 2-9 shows three heavy-duty flatrack units side-by-side in a container cell with their end posts in the extended position, and loaded with two M-1 tanks. When flatracks are positioned vertically, the flatrack must be removed from the cell after cargo is discharged so that the cargo in the flatrack below will be accessible.

Figure 2-9. M-1 tanks loaded on flatracks

      (7) If the flatracks are kept aboard the containership after it has been discharged, then the end posts are lowered and the flatracks are stowed in an empty cell aboard the ship. Otherwise, they can be stacked in the terminal's holding area. Each of the T-AKRs will carry 78 heavy-duty flatracks.

2-7. READY RESERVE FORCE. The RRF program provides assured, responsive shipping to support the deployment of military forces. The current Navy program will place 116 ships in the RRF by FY1991, which will include 100 dry cargo ships (including 12 TACS). Ships in the RRF will be maintained in either a five-, ten-, or twenty-day readiness status by the MARAD at NDRF sites or designed outports. Ships in the RRF have a high degree of military utility. Usually these ships are longer commercially competitive in the liner trade, but have a significant amount of remaining useful life. Selected ships are upgraded from the NDRF and some ships are retired from active MSC service.

Section II. T-AKR 295 and 296 Class Ship Configurations

2-8. GENERAL SHIP CHARACTERISTICS. The T-AKR 295 and 296 Class Strategic Sealift Ships were designed to permit simultaneous RO/RO and LO/LO operations (Tables 2-3 and 2-4), with minimal cargo flow interference, using the slewing stern ramp, the sideport ramp, and the single-pedestal twin cranes. They were designed to be self-sustaining for RO/RO and LO/LO cargo operations both pierside and in the stream (up to Sea State 3). In-the-stream RO/RO operations should be conducted using both the stern and sideport ramps with RO/RO discharge facilities RRDFs. to support LO/LO operations, the cranes and associated equipment were designed to compensate for load rotation, load swing, and vertical motion. In-the-stream LO/LO operations should be conducted using either on-site assets or onboard powered and non-powered lighterage. Ramp locations and the internal flow of vehicle traffic permit vehicle transit between all cargo stowage areas and the slewing stern ramp and sideport ramp systems.

Table 2-3: T-AKR 295 Class Principal Characteristics


Table 2-4: T-AKR 296 Class Principal Characteristics

    a. Cargo Stowage Areas. Cargo stowage areas for T-AKR 295 and T-AKR 296 Class Ships are as follows:

      (1) T-AKR 295 Class ship. Four cargo holds (Hold 1, Hold 2, Hold 3, and Hold 4) are located forward of the main machinery space and one cargo hold (Hold 5) is located aft of the main machinery space. Weathertight cargo hatches for Holds 2, 3, and 4 are located on 01 Deck (weather deck). The cargo hatchways for Holds 3 and 4 provide access to E Deck, while hatchways for Hold 2 provide access to D Deck. No hatch or hatchways are provided for LO/LO access to Holds 1 and 5. In addition, weather deck cargo space is available on the 02 Deck, aft of the superstructure. (See Figure 2-10 for Inboard and Outboard Profile.)

Figure 2-10. T-AKR 295 Class Inboard and Outboard Profile

      (2) TAKR-296 Class ship. Three cargo holds (Hold 1, Hold 2, and Hold 3) are located forward of the main machinery space, and on four cargo holds (Hold 1, Hold 2, Hold 3, and Hold 4) are located forward of the main machinery space and one cargo hold (Hold 5) is located aft of the main machinery space. Weathertight cargo hatches for Holds 2, 3, and 4 are located on 01 Deck (weather deck). The cargo hatchways for Holds 3 and 4 provide access to E Deck, while hatchways for Hold 2 provide access to D Deck. No hatch or hatchways are provided for LO/LO access to Holds 1 and 5. In addition, weather deck cargo space is available on the 02 Deck, aft of the cargo hold (Hold 4) is located aft of the main machinery space. Weathertight cargo hatches for Holds 1, 2, and 3 are located on A Deck (weather deck). The cargo hatchways provide access to the lowest cargo decks. No hatch or hatchways are provided for LO/LO access to Hold 4. (See Figure 2-11, for Inboard and Outboard Profile.)

In addition, covered cargo stowage space has been provided within the ship's superstructure and in an enclosed area on A Deck in Hold 3. There is also weather deck cargo space available on the 02 Level, directly forward of the superstructure.

Figure 2-11. T-AKR 296 Class Inboard and Outboard Profile

    b. Fire Extinguishing. There are several fire extinguishing systems on the T-AKR 296 Class ships. These include fixed, high-pressure CO2 systems that protect the emergency diesel generator room, paint locker, incinerator room, pump room, and the bow thruster room; a fixed, refrigerated, low-pressure CO2 system that serves the main machinery space and auxiliary machine room number 2; a USCG-approved, 3-percent-foam system that serves the cargo stowage areas and main machinery space; foam hose reels for the helicopter landing facility; aqueous potassium carbonate systems for each deep fat fryer in the galley; and portable CO2 and dry powder extinguishing systems throughout the ship.

      (1) The cargo stowage areas have the following fire extinguishing systems:

      • fire stations,
      • foam hose reels, and
      • foam sprinkling system.

      (2) The interior cargo stowage areas have fixed-sprinkler systems that can apply foam from above with a low-level foam-making system. Sprinkling above the hoistable decks can be isolated when the deck is raised. Sprinkling from below hoistable decks for the fixed deck level underneath is achievable with the hoistable deck in either position. Exterior cargo stowage areas have sprinkling systems with low-level foam.

      (3) Activation and control switches for each fixed-sprinkling zone are provided locally (at an access to the cargo hold being served) and remotely from DCC. The activation of any sprinkling zone or hose reel results in the activation of the foam proportioners, concentrate pumps, seawater pumps, and the alignment of system valves. Remote controls for starting and stopping the concentrate transfer pumps are available at the foam proportioner units. System piping is also provided with low-point drains and isolation valves that have drainage for any piping exposed to the weather.

      (4) The foam-hose reels are located at personnel access doors to the cargo stowage areas and vehicle ramps. The reels are capable of reaching any point of the cargo stowage area with at least two hoses. Activation controls are provided at each hose reel. Portable fire extinguishers are also available throughout the ship and in every cargo hold area.

    c. Receptacles. General purpose 115-volt, 15-ampere, duplex receptacles -- Electrical 115-volt explosion proof receptacles have been provided throughout the enclosed cargo stowage areas. Outlets are interlocked with the ventilation fans, serving the respective area, to prevent the energizing of the receptacles unless the fans are operating. Each hold contains five outlets which are located in the following general locations:

    • One is located near the cargo hold's stairtower.
    • Two are located in the forward section of the cargo hold, one port and one starboard.
    • Two are located in the aft section of the cargo hold, one port and one starboard.

The cargo hold receptacles have ventilation interlocking switches. They are 450-volt, 30-ampere, 60-Hz, three-phase, 4-pin, watertight receptacles. These receptacles have been specifically installed for submersible pumps and for portable welding sets. They may, however, be used for other electrical equipment as well. Receptacles are located at each personnel and cargo access from the weather deck to the lower decks. All receptacles are locally grounded.

    d. Container Receptacles. Watertight, combination-interlocked, circuit-breaker receptacles have been provided for 30 refrigerated containers. They are located between frames 230 and 244 on the weather deck (A Deck), near electrical equipment room number 2, and are situated to allow for easy connection once the container has been stowed on the deck. All of these receptacles have been grouped together to prevent interference with RO/RO operations. The refrigerated container receptacles are 4-pin (3-hole, 4 wire) grounded sockets, in accordance with ISO Standard 1496-2, Annex M.

    e. Compressed Air. Ship service air stations are located throughout the cargo holds and on the weather deck to facilitate maintenance, repair, and tire inflation of cargo vehicles.

    f. Lighting. The internal cargo stowage area lighting fixtures are high-pressure sodium, high-intensity lights. On average, the lighting in these areas is 10.0 foot-candles. The light fixtures are shielded to prevent blinding on approach from areas below.

Floodlights are also provided to illuminate the stern and sideport ramps. These shielded floodlights illuminate the driveway to prevent blinding on approach from above and below.

    g. Cargo Hold Drainage Systems. There are two cargo stowage area drainage systems provided: an oily waste transfer system for the cargo holds during normal operations and a dewatering system for casualty situations such as fires or floods. Both systems use common drain wells. The systems consist of deck drains located in each corner of the cargo holds on all decks. They are combined and lead down to a drainage well in the double bottom. There are also freeing port deck drains on B Deck and above. They permit normal housekeeping flow to drain to the WWDC tanks' drain wells. Any excess flows from large spills will discharge overboard. The amount of fluid drained into the individual WWDC drain tanks' drain wells determines the operation of the system. It will operate either in the housekeeping mode or in the casualty mode.

      (1) Oily Waste Transfer System. The oily waste transfer system is designed to take small accumulations of fluids from the cargo hold bilge wells, pump it to the oily waste holding tank, process the fluid through an oily water separator and then discharge the water effluent overboard and the oil effluent into the waste oil tank.

      (2) Cargo Hold Dewatering System. The cargo hold dewatering system is capable of handling large amounts of vehicle fluids, firefighting foam, and seawater. In cargo holds with ramps, the system is configured in conjunction with the fire zones. The dewatering system has three modes of casualty operation: fire, flooding/collision, and fuel spill.

      • Fire. When the foam-sprinkling system activates, the dewatering system pumps take suction from the WWDC drain tanks and discharge directly overboard. The decks above the bulkhead deck are drained overboard by the non-return freeing ports. Dewatering is not started, however, until after the foam system has been in operation long enough to establish a foam blanket.
      • Flooding/Collision. In the event of flooding or a collision in the cargo hold,the dewatering system operates in much the same manner as in a fire. (See description of this operation in the paragraph above.)
      • Fuel Spill. In the event of an oil spill caused by: a leak in the fuel tank of a vehicle, overfilling a tank while fueling the forklifts, leaking lube oil from vehicles or cargo-handling equipment, or over-accumulation of other petroleum products, the oily waste transfer system will operate in the housekeeping mode. In the event of a major spill such as the rupture of a tanker truck or trailer carrying JP-8, the accumulation of fuel in the drain tanks could exceed the pumping rate or holding capacity of the oily waste transfer system. The drain collection tanks are equipped with high level alarms, which will alert the crew to this situation, at which point the dewatering pumps activate and the spillage pumped overboard.

    h. Alarm and Indicator Systems. The ship has several alarm and indicator systems. These include: carbon monoxide and combustible gas; ventilation; smoke and heat detecting; flooding; and watertight door indicator alarm systems.

      (1) Carbon Monoxide and Combustible Gas Alarm System. A carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and combustible gas detector system is provided in all cargo stowage areas. The system has enunciators in the EOS, DCC, bridge, and quarter-deck stations. The ship also has a centralized catalytic-sampling system with calibration span gas. This system samples the air in cargo spaces below deck continuously and sounds an alarm if the concentration of carbon monoxide or combustible vapors reaches an unsafe level.

      (2) Ventilation Alarm System. A ventilation alarm system activates audible and visual alarms when the airflow decreases below a certain user-selected level in compartments where the possible leakage of hazardous materials presents a threat of fire, explosion, or a toxic hazard. The system consists of an airflow sensor and alarm in the cargo holds and remote alarms located in the EOS and DCC.

      (3) Smoke and Heat-Detection Alarm System. Cargo spaces are provided with remote smoke and heat-detection alarm systems. Enunciators are located in the EOS, DCC, bridge, and quarter-deck stations.

      (4) Flooding Alarms. Flooding alarms are provided for each cargo hold. Enunciators can be found in the EOS, DCC, and quarter-deck stations.

    i. MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS. The following miscellaneous ship systems are important for cargo operations: refueling station, list control system, small arms and ammunition locker, cargo battery recharging station, vehicle fresh water stations, and the helicopter landing facility.

      (1) Refueling Station. A cargo-handling truck and lighterage refueling station is located outside the stern door. The station has been fitted with a 250-foot reel hose and receives its fuel supply from the ship's diesel-fuel service tank via a dedicated transfer pump. Pump shutdown controls are located at the station.

      (2) List Control. The ship has an automatic list-control system for use during RO/RO and LO/LO operations. Except for filling and dewatering the dedicated tanks, the automatic list-control system is separate from the seawater ballast system and is capable of transferring seawater between dedicated tanks.

The system has the capacity to prevent a change in list angle due to either of the following situations:

  • When one M1A1 tank is traveling athwartship, at the maximum beam, in 1 1/2 minutes.
  • When lifting the warping tug from the weather deck on the ship's centerline to 25 feet outboard of the side of the ship at the maximum beam within 2 1/2 minutes.

The system's automatic controls are located in the EOS. The filling and dewatering of these tanks are done through the seawater ballast system using valves that remain locked and closed under normal conditions.

      (3) Ammunition and Small Arms Stowage. The vehicle weapons stowage area is located on the centerline of B Deck, between frames 127 and 116. A clear deck height in excess of 6 feet 6 inches has been provided, specifically for vehicle weapons stowage. Small arms and COMSEC material stowage are accessible from the interior of the ship. The small arms stowage area is located on the 01 Level on the starboard side between frames 78 and 74. The small arms stowage area contains a small arms locker and two small arms ammunition lockers. Supercargo personnel will store their small arms and small arms ammunition in this area. The COMSEC storeroom is used to store vehicle communications gear. The COMSEC storeroom is located on the starboard side of 01 Level between frames 78 and 81, next to the small arms locker. Bulk stowage of ammunition and explosives can occur below the weather deck, only if stowed in accordance with IMDG regulations.

      (4) Cargo Batteries Facilities. A facility for the storing and charging of vehicle batteries has been provided on the portside of A Deck between frames 28 and 34. Battery stowage is provided for 50 vehicle batteries (type 6TL). The battery charging facility can simultaneously charge 10 vehicle batteries within 20 hours.

      (5) Fresh Water for Vehicles. Fresh water service is provided in the cargo stowage areas to fill the vehicle engine cooling systems. This is achieved by distributing water from the potable water system with hose reels that are provided in each station. Nozzles for each hose are provided to add water to the vehicle engine cooling systems and to fill the portable containers.

      (6) Vehicle Washdown Stations. During the backload operations, all vehicles are required to be washed. Six fresh-water washdown stations are fed by a fresh-water system that provides 400 gallons of water a day for vehicle washdown. These freshwater stations have hose reels with 100 feet of hose and a high-velocity spray gun. Two are located adjacent to the stern door and two are located adjacent to each sideport. In each case, they are located on opposite sides of the door.

      (7) Helicopter Landing Facility. A day-only, visual-meteorological-conditions, emergency landing capability is provided through the helicopter landing facility located on the 02 Level, forward of the deckhouse. The facility is certified by the ABS and is in accordance with USCG NVIC 9-81. The helicopter landing facility has been configured to land CH-47D and CH-53E helicopters. When required, the helicopter landing facility may serve as a cargo stowage area. The helicopter landing facility is outfitted with foam hose reels fitted with non-collapsible hose and variable pattern nozzles and is capable of reaching all parts of the facility.


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