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19-1. INTRODUCTION. Motor transport can provide contained delivery from origin to destination without transfer to another mode. The uses of motor transport are discussed below.

    a. Motor transport has universal application for local haul, line-haul, terminal clearance, and terminal transfer operations. Line-haul implies two round-trips per day (one per operating shift); local haul entails four round-trips per day (two per operating shift). Line-haul movement is characterized by a high ratio of running time to loading and unloading time.

    b. Motor transport personnel will give technical assistance in planning loads and will recommend methods of securing cargo. Representatives of technical services may also be called on for assistance and advice about equipment distinctive to their specialty. Transport personnel must also plan for the weight and size limitations of tunnels, bridges, curves, viaducts, or other obstructions along the route.

19-2. WEIGHT AND LOAD DISTRIBUTION. Marking and distributing of weight is discussed below.

    a. Personnel will mark the weight and cube on cargo where it can be easily seen. If the weight is not marked, it can usually be determined from the ship's manifest or other shipping records. If cargo is not marked and loading data on the weights of different types of cargo are not available, the weight of the cargo must be estimated.

    b. The distribution of weight on a motor vehicle affects the life of the frame, tires, axles, and other parts. A truck can be loaded within its rated gross weight capacity, yet individual tires and axles may be overloaded. Overloading may result from improper distribution of heavy cargo making the load excessive over a tire or an axle (Figure 19-1). Loads, such as structural steel, iron pipe, and lumber, may project far beyond the rear axle, overloading the rear axle and tires and tending to lift the front wheels. This reduces front-wheel traction and make steering difficult.

19-3. RULES FOR LOADING. To load and unload cargo, personnel should follow the rules listed below.

    a. The driver is not usually required to handle cargo during loading and unloading, but he must ensure that his vehicle is loaded properly and the cargo lashed properly. The driver must also ensure that responsible personnel-

    • Do not load vehicles beyond the limit appearing on the vehicle data plate or the lower limit that may be prescribed by the responsible commander.
    • Place heavy supplies at the bottom of the load and properly distribute the load.
    • Place the load so that it will not shift; distribute the weight evenly.
    • Do not build up loosely distributed loads too high. High, loose loads cause swaying, make the vehicle difficult to handle; and increase the danger of losing the cargo or overturning the vehicle.
    • Put a tarpaulin over the cargo to protect against sun, dust, rain, or pilferage, if the truck has an open body.

    b. The safety of loads in cargo vehicles depends upon the protection offered by the stakes or sides, the tailgate, and the tarpaulin with its rear and front curtains. Loads consisting of objects longer or higher than the body of an open cargo truck should be lashed.

Figure 19-1. Right and wrong ways to distribute truck loads

19-4. UNITIZED LOADS. Because unitized cargo is made up of loads of uniform size, it is possible to preplan loads for cargo trucks and trailers.

    a. Cargo Trucks, 6x6, 2 1/2-Ton. Loading procedures are as follows:

      (1) Containers can be loaded into 2 1/2-ton trucks by placing one container in each truck longitudinally. To prevent overloading vehicles, transport personnel must consider the weight of the container, the condition of the vehicle, and the condition of the road.

      (2) If M34 and M135 2 1/2-ton, 6x6 trucks are to carry unitized loads, personnel will build a frame between the fender wells using 2- by 4- by 4-inch lumber to make a level floor across the body of the vehicle. When used, frames must be blocked and braced. Frames also make loading and unloading easier when using forklifts.

    b. Stake-and-Platform Semitrailers. Loading procedures for palletized and containerized loads are as follows:

      (1) Palletized loads. The number of palletized loads that can be carried in stake-and-platform semitrailers depends on the weight of the pallets and the model of the trailer.

        (a) The M127 12-ton semitrailer is well suited for palletized cargo. The weight of the cargo dictates the manner in which the pallets are placed on the trailer bed.

        (b) Palletized loads may be loaded in semitrailers using one of the following methods:

        • Spot a trailer directly beneath a cargo boom during discharge and place palletized loads on the trailer directly from the cargo hook. Change the position of the trailer between drafts, and land each pallet in its exact stowage position on the trailer. This may delay the discharge.
        • Position palletized loads on semitrailers by forklift trucks. During vessel discharge, spot semitrailers a short distance from the side of the vessel in a position that will permit forklifts to approach them from either side. Land the draft on the pier; move the draft to its position on the semitrailer by a forklift. The ship's cargo-handling gear will then operate at maximum speed, and the delay caused by maneuvering the trailer and steadying the draft is eliminated.
        • Use truck-mounted or crawler cranes to load pallets aboard semitrailers. Attach a pallet bridle to the cargo hook of the crane, and load the pallets on the bed of the trailer.

      (2) Containerized loads. Containers are placed in semitrailers so that the weight of the load is spread evenly over the trailer bed.

        (a) During vessel discharge, containers are handled more slowly than palletized loads. Because of their size and weight, containers may be handled best by loading directly from the cargo hook to the trailer. The trailer can normally be maneuvered into position between loads without slowing discharge.

        (b) Cranes may be used to load containers on semitrailers. Cranes are used when a shortage of semitrailers makes it impossible to load containers directly from the cargo hook to the semitrailer. The containers are moved to an area adjacent to the pier by forklift trucks and loaded onto semitrailers by crane as the semitrailers become available.

    c. CONEX Tie-Down Systems. Proper tie-down systems for CONEXs on various motor vehicles are shown in Figures 19-2 through 19-5.

Figure 19-2. Recommended tie-down for CONEX on M-35 truck

Figure 19-3. Recommended tie-down for CONEX on M-127 semitrailer

Figure 19-4. Recommended tie-down for two CONEXs on M127 semitrailer

Figure 19-5. Recommended tie-down for three CONEXs on M127 semitrailer

19-5. EXPLOSIVES AND FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS. The following guidelines from the Department of Transportation pertain to the shipment of explosives and flammables by military forces in a theater of operations and are applicable in the United States. Methods of handling such cargo overseas depend on circumstances and the military urgency. Regulations for handling dangerous cargo are agreed upon jointly by representatives of the US armed forces and the authorities of the governments concerned. All personnel must be constantly reminded of the safety rules governing the handling and moving of dangerous cargo. Officers and NCOs responsible for the handling of dangerous cargo must thoroughly instruct their personnel in safety rules and enforce them through constant supervision and on-the-spot correction of any violations.

    a. Responsible personnel must avoid jars or shocks in handling explosives, particularly sensitive explosives used in detonators. Containers packed with explosives should never be carelessly rolled, thrown, or dropped. All reasonable precautions (such as stopping the engine and placing the vehicle in gear, setting the hand brake, and blocking the wheels) should be taken to prevent accidental movement of vehicles while they are being loaded or unloaded.

    b. Responsible personnel should clearly identify vehicles carrying explosives unless there is need for secrecy.

    c. Personnel must not smoke within 50 feet of any truck or trailer loaded with explosives or flammable liquids. Open flames, such as matches, cigarette lighters, or torches are prohibited within 100 feet of any vehicle loaded with explosives or flammable liquids.

    d. All personnel must be instructed in the use of fire extinguishers. Each truck hauling explosives and flammables must have two fire extinguishers, one inside the cab and one outside on the driver's side. In areas where considerable quantities of explosives and flammables are being handled, a special apparatus must be available for fighting large-scale fires.

    e. When a vehicle catches on fire, personnel will move all vehicles away from the vicinity of the fire and stop all traffic. Every effort must be made to warn personnel in the vicinity of the danger. Personnel will not drive motor vehicles transporting explosives or flammables past a fire until it has been determined that these vehicles can pass with safety.

    f. When loading or unloading vehicles, personnel must ensure that explosives or flammables are not placed near the exhaust. Ignition and lighting systems must be properly insulated and frequently inspected to eliminate danger from short circuits.

    g. Personnel will not carry fuses and detonating devices in the same vehicle with other explosives (fixed ammunition is an exception). Personnel will ensure loads are blocked and lashed to prevent shifting. Responsible personnel will line the interior of the truck body so that every portion of the lining with which a container may come into contact will be of wood or other nonsparking material. Gasoline-powered forklifts or dock tractors used where explosives or flammables are being handled should be equipped with spark arresters.

    h. Responsible personnel will ensure the entire cargo of explosives or flammables is contained within the body of the vehicle. The truck tailboard or tailgate must be closed and secured.


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