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Military

CHAPTER 11

SAFETY IN TERMINAL OPERATIONS

11-1. INTRODUCTION. Safety is the responsibility of each and every person working in a terminal. Supervisors have the responsibility of making sure that personnel working under their supervision are performing their duties under safe conditions.

11-2. VESSEL ACCESS. The different methods of boarding and leaving a vessel are listed below.

    a. Gangways. A gangway (Figure 11-1) is any ramp or stairway that is used to board or leave a vessel. Personnel should not be permitted to board or leave any vessel until the following conditions are met:

      (1) The gangway must be at least 20 inches wide, securely fastened, and safely maintained.

      (2) At night, the gangway should be lighted to keep personnel from tripping over steps or stumbling on floor ridges.

      (3) Obstructions such as support bridles, dunnage, or ropes should be kept clear of the gangway so they will not block passage or cause personnel to stumble.

      (4) When the end of the gangway overhangs the water between the ship and the pier, a net or other suitable protection should be rigged at the foot of the gangway to prevent personnel from falling into the water.

      (5) When the top of the gangway rests on or is flush with the top of the bulwark, steps should be installed between the bulwark and the deck. The steps should have a handrail at least 33 inches high.

      (6) If the foot of the gangway is more than one foot away from the edge of the pier (apron), a walkway (Figure 11-2) equipped with 33-inch high railings should be used to bridge the gap.

      (7) Since the distance from the weather deck to the pier rises and falls with the tide, or as the ship is loaded or discharged, some gangways must be raised or lowered in adjustment. Most gangways used today have rollers on the bottom which automatically adjust to this change. However, for gangways that are not automatically adjusting, someone aboard must be assigned to periodically check these structures to ensure they are properly adjusted.

Figure 11-2. Ship's walkway

    b. Straight Ladders. There should be at least one accessible ladder (Figure 11-3) for each gang working in a hatch. In cases where the coaming or other structural features cannot be used to gain a handhold at the top of the ladder, another means should be provided at the ladder head to serve this purpose.

      (1) When any fixed ladder is visually unsafe, do not use it.

      (2) Ladders must have 4 inches of clearance at the back of the ladder rungs.

      (3) Ensure straight ladders are of adequate strength and long enough to extend at least 35 inches above the coaming. These ladders must be properly secured against shifting or slipping.

      (4) Should the angle of a ladder become so great that it requires personnel to walk on the edges of the treads, secure boards with cleats to top of the ladder.

      (5) When it is necessary to reach stowed deck load or other cargo and no other safe means is available, ladders or steps should be used that are strong enough for support and that are properly secured. Steps formed by the cargo itself are acceptable when the nature of the cargo and the type of stowage permits this arrangement.

    c. Jacob's Ladder. When neither a gangway nor a straight ladder can be used, a Jacob's ladder (Figure 11-4) should be employed. Jacob's ladders are the double ring or flat tread type. They must be well maintained and properly secured. A Jacob's ladder has to hang without slack from its lashing or be pulled up entirely. When a barge, raft, or log boom is being worked alongside a larger vessel, a Jacob's ladder should be used for each gang unless other safe means of access are provided.

Figure 11-4. Jacob's ladder

    d. Bridge Plates and Ramps. Bridge or car plates used afloat must be strong, equipped with sideboards along the bridged space, well maintained, and secured to prevent movement. Ramps for access of vehicles to or between vessels must be strong, provided with side boards, well maintained, and properly secured (Figure 11-5).

Figure 11-5. Ramp for vehicle access

11-3. OPENING AND CLOSING HATCHES. The procedures for opening and closing hatches are discussed below.

    a. Coaming Clearance. The coaming clearance for the weather and intermediate decks is discussed below.

      (1) Weather deck. When bundles of lumber or other smooth-sided deck cargo is stocked over 5 feet high and stowed within 3 feet of the hatch coaming, personnel must be careful not to bump the stack when opening the hatch cover, because the lumber could fall into the hatch. Personnel handling the beams and hatch covers should be especially careful if they are not protected by at least a 24-inch clearing from the coaming. In this case, a tautline should be stretched along the side of the deck load for their protection.

      (2) Intermediate deck. Before intermediate deck hatch covers and beams are removed or replaced, supervisors should ensure there is a 3-foot working space in the following places:

      • Between the stowed cargo and the coaming at both sites.
      • At one end of all hatches having athwartship beams.
      • At both ends of hatches with fore and aft beams.

        (a) Exceptions to the above rules may be made when a 3-foot working space is not required on the covered portion of a partially opened hatch. Also, this space is not required when lower decks have been filled to beam height with cargo that provides a safe surface on which personnel can work.

        (b) Banana or other fitted gratings are considered a part of the decking when properly placed with the 3-foot area.

        (c) When bulkheads, lockers, refrigerated compartments, or large spare parts are within 3 feet of the coaming, grab rails or tautlines should be provided for the protection of the personnel handling beams and hatch covers.

        (d) The rules covering coaming clearance do not apply to hatches that are opened by hydraulic or other mechanical means. In all cases where the 3-foot clearance does not exist, appropriate means should be taken to prevent stowed cargo from shifting and falling into the hold.

    b. Beam and Pontoon Bridles. Supervisors should ensure that beam and pontoon bridles meet the following requirements:

      (1) Bridles must be long enough to easily reach the holes, rings, or other lifting attachments on the beams and pontoons. The bridles must be of the right strength and must have been taken care of properly.

      (2) Bridles for lifting hatch beams must be equipped with toggles, shackles, hooks, or other devices to keep them from being accidentally moved from the beams. Hooks may be used only when they are hooked into the standing part of the bridle. Toggles must be at least 1 inch longer than twice the greatest diameter of the holes into which they are placed.

      (3) Bridles used for lifting pontoons and plugs must have the number of legs required by the design of the pontoon or plug used. All the legs must be used. In cases where the use of a bridle requires fewer than the number of legs provided, idle legs should be hung on the hook or ring or otherwise prevented from swinging free.

      (4) At least two legs of all strong back and pontoon bridles must be equipped with a fiber rope lanyard a minimum of 8 feet long in good condition. The bridle end of the lanyard may be made of chain or wire.

    c. Handling Beams and Covers. When hatch covers or pontoons are stowed on the weather deck with the hatches, stack them not closer than 3 feet from the hatch coaming on the nonworking side of the deck. When on the working side of the deck, stack them no higher than the coaming . An exception to this is if covers or pontoons are spread one high between coaming and rail with no space between them. A minimum of 24-inch hatch coaming height should be maintained.

      (1) When these requirements cannot be met due to the narrowness of the available deck area, stow pontoons more than one high against the coaming. This is so at least a 24-inch height of hatch coaming is kept on the working side of the vessel. If pontoons are stowed closer than 3 feet to and higher than the coaming on the nonworking side, secure them to prevent movement.

      (2) When some of the small weather deck hatch boards or similar covers on seagoing vessels are removed from the beams for handling, cleaning, or other operations, do not stow these covers on covers left in place.

      (3) Lay beams on their sides, or stand them on edge closer together and lashed. This does not apply when-

      • The width of the flange of the beam is 60 percent or more of the height of the web.
      • The flange of the beam rests flat on the deck when the beam is stood upright.

      (4) Place strong back hatch covers and pontoons so as not to interfere with a safe walkway on all sides of the hatch. These covers and pontoons should be secured so they cannot be tipped over or dragged into hatches or overboard by drafts of cargo or ship's gear. Use dunnage or other suitable material under and between tiers of strong backs and pontoons. Place unshipped strong backs in an intermediate deck no closer than 6 inches to the coaming. If placed closer than 3 feet, secure strong backs so they cannot be tipped or dragged into a lower compartment. If this is not possible, move them to another deck.

      (5) Lash, lock, and secure any beam or pontoon left in place that is adjacent to a section through which cargo, dunnage, equipment, or any other material is being worked. This action prevents beams or pontoons from being moved accidentally. Remove all portable, manually handled hatch covers; this includes those covers bound together to make a larger cover from any working section.

      (6) Latch or pin back the roller hatch beam at the edge of the open section of the hatch so that it cannot be moved toward the open section.

      (7) Secure all sectional or telescopic hatch covers of barges which open in a fore-and-aft direction against movement while they are in an open position.

      (8) To cover a hatch, use hatch covers or night tents. Do not cover any partial hatch covering, such as alternate hatch covers or strips of dunnage, with a tarpaulin. Secure all hinged or folding hatch covers when in an upright position. Do not open or close hatches while other workers are in the square of the hatch below.

11-4. VESSEL WORKING SURFACE. The different types of vessel working surfaces and the safety rules for each are discussed below.

    a. Hatch Coverings. Personnel should-

      (1) Avoid loading or unloading cargo, dunnage, or other material at any partially opened intermediate deck unless the hatch at that deck is sufficiently covered.

      (2) Avoid handling or landing cargo on or over a covered hatch or between deck unless all beams are in place under the hatch covers.

      (3) Report to the hatch foreman all missing, broken, split, or poorly fitted hatch covers that would jeopardize the safety of crew members. Personnel should not work in a section containing unsafe covers or in adjacent sections unless the flooring is safe. When the hatch covers or beams are not of uniform size, they should be placed only in the hatch, deck, or section in which they fit properly.

      (4) Cover and guard the small trimming hatches located in intermediate decks while working in these hatches.

    b. Stowed Cargo and Temporary Landing Platforms. Personnel should-

      (1) Ensure that temporary tables on which loads are to be landed are large enough and strong enough to permit personnel to work in safety.

      (2) Guard the edge of a hatch section with a safety net when it is more than 8 feet higher than stowed cargo. Otherwise, personnel may fall into the opening.

      (3) Rig a safety net and securely fasten it to prevent personnel or cargo from falling when two gangs are working in the same hatch on different levels.

    c. Deck Loads. Personnel should-

      (1) Avoid passing fore and aft, over, or around deck loads, unless there is a safe passage.

      (2) Avoid permitting signalmen to walk over deck loads from rail to coaming unless there is a safe passage.

      (3) Provide some means of protection against falling from the deck load if it is necessary to stand at its outboard or inboard edge where less than 24 inches of bulwark, rail, coaming, or other protection exists.

    d. Skeleton Decks and Weather Deck Rails. Personnel should-

      (1) Avoid working cargo on a skeleton deck, mechanical deck, or other super structure unless temporary flooring is provided.

      (2) Keep removable weather deck rails in place except when cargo operations require they be taken off. If deck rails have to be removed or replaced, crew members should do this as soon as cargo operations are completed.

    e. Open Hatches. To protect working personnel, all open weather hatches not protected by 24 inches of coaming must be guarded. Tautlines may be used to guard open hatches at a height of 35 to 42 inches above the deck except on the side on which cargo is being worked. Portable stanchions or uprights should be used to prevent accidental moving.

    f. Barges. Personnel should-

      (1) Not be permitted to walk along the sides of covered lighters or barges with coamings more than 6 feet high unless there is a 3-foot clear walkway, or grab rail, or tautline provided.

      (2) Not be allowed to walk or work on the decks of barges needing loading unless the walking or working surfaces have been determined by visual inspection to be safe and sound. If, in the case of discharging a barge, a crew member discovers an unsound deck surface, all personnel should stop work and not resume until temporary measures to ensure a safe working surface are taken.

    g. Freshly Painted or Oiled Decks. Personnel should not be permitted to engage in operations until freshly painted or oiled decks are made safe for walking and working by the use of suitable nonskid materials.

11-5. SHIP'S GEAR. The specific safety requirements in using ship's gear include-

    a. Certification and Limitation Requirements. Personnel should apply the following safety rules:

      (1) Before using gear, ensure that it has a valid registration certificate These certificates show that the cargo gear has been tested, examined, and heat-treated by or under the supervision of persons or organizations deemed competent to make register entries and issue certificates.

      (2) Do not exceed the safe working load as specified in the cargo gear certification papers, nor the safe working load marked on the booms (Figure 11-6). Do not use unsafe rigging gear.

Figure 11-6. Safe working
load marking on boom

    b. Equipment-Handling Requirements. The specific safety guidelines in using ship's gear are listed below.

      (1) Stoppers. Personnel should-

        (a) Ensure that chain topping lift stoppers are in good condition, equipped with manila tails, and long enough to allow not fewer than three half-hitches in the cabin.

        (b) Secure chain stoppers in such a way that their links are not bent by being passed around fittings. The point of attachment must be strong and located so that the stopper is in line with the normal topping lift lead at the time the stopper is used.

        (c) Keep patent stopper clamps in good condition and free of paint and dirt which would prevent their being drawn tight. Clamps should be suited to the size of the rope used.

      (2) Falls. Personnel should-

        (a) Avoid wing fiber rope fastenings. Secure the end of the winch fall to the drum by clamps, U-bolts, shackles, or some other equally strong method.

        (b) Avoid wing winch falls with fewer than three turns on the winch drum.

        (c) Avoid forming eyes in the ends of wire rope on cargo falls by making knots. In single part falls, eyes are not formed by wire rope clips.

        (d) Wind the fall on the drum when the design of the winch permits so that the control mechanism moves in the same direction as the load.

        (e) Rig a preventer of at least 3/4-inch diameter wire rope, wound reasonably snug and secure, when required to work in the bight formed by the heel block. This is to hold the block and fall in case the heel block attachments fail. When conditions do not allow for the fitting of a wire rope preventer of the required size, ensure the maximum possible protection is provided.

        (f) Secure the heel block, if it is not being used, so that it remains in its normal operating position. This rule does not apply when the heel block is located at least 10 feet above the deck at its lowest point.

      (3) Coaming rollers. Secure portable coaming rollers by using wire preventers in addition to the regular coaming clamps.

      (4) Cargo hooks. Place cargo hooks (Figure 11-7) as close to the junction of the falls as the assembly permits. In no case should they be farther than 2 feet from it. This principle does not apply when the construction of the vessel and the operation in progress are of the type that fall angles in excess of 120 degrees do not occur normally. Personnel should not shorten overhaul chains by bolting or knotting them.

      (5) Cargo winches. Personnel should-

        (a) Guard moving parts of winches that present a hazard.

        (b) Do not use winch control extension levers except for short handles on wheel-type controls. An exception is if these levers are provided either on the shop or by the owner. Such levers must be strong and securely fastened with metal connections at the fulcrum and at the permanent control lever.

        (c) Do not use winches if control levers operate with excessive friction or play.

        (d) Avoid using double gear winches or other winches equipped with a clutch unless a positive means of locking the gearshift is provided.

        (e) Use no load other than the fall and cargo hook assembly on the winch when changing gears on a two-gear winch.

        (f) Report immediately any defect or malfunction of winches to the officer in charge of the vessel.

        (g) Avoid use of temporary seats and shelters for winch operators which create a hazard to the winchmen or other workers.

      (6) Electric winches. Personnel should-

        (a) Avoid using a winch when the electromagnetic or other service brake is unable to hold the load.

        (b) Do not use winches when one or more control points, either hoisting or lowering, are not operating properly. Do not tamper with or adjust electric control circuits.

        (c) Shut off power or lock control levers at the winch or operating control when winches are left unattended.

      (7) Rigging gear. Personnel should-

        (a) Place guys so as to produce a minimum stress without permitting the boom to jackknife when alternate positions are provided for securing guys.

        (b) Spot the head of the amidship boom no farther outboard of the coaming than necessary for control of the load.

        (c) Observe the following procedures when rigging or using preventers:

        • Properly secure preventers to suitable fittings other than those to which the guys are secured. They are to be as nearly parallel to the guys as available fittings permit.
        • Ensure that the leads of preventers fastened to cleats are secured in such a way that the direction of the line pull of the preventer is parallel to the plane of the surface on which the cleat is mounted. This applies unless the cleat is above a chock and the hauling part is led through the chock opening.
        • Adjust guys and associated preventers to share the load equally when cargo operations are being conducted by buttoning. Personnel should leave the guy slack where guys are made and intended for trimming purposes only, and where the preventer is intended to perform the function of the guy.

        (d) Observe the following safety precautions when operating cargo booms:

        • Do not run cargo runners across the hatch coaming.
        • Do not handle drafts that exceed the safe working load of the rigging.
        • Continually check all rigging during cargo operations. This is the responsibility of the hatch foreman and deck men.
        • Instruct deck crews to take enough turns on a cleat or cathead while the boom is high since the weight on a topping lift increases as a boom is lowered. This ensures control of the boom when it reaches a low position.
        • Avoid overloading or putting shock load on the cargo gear when the boom is at a low angle.
        • Keep tension on married falls as low as possible during a lift to avoid excessive tension on the guys.
        • Use slings as short as cargo permits, and keep the hook as close to the junction of the falls as possible.
        • Avoid letting a loaded boom rest against a stay, shroud, or other fixed object. The boom will bend and may ultimately fail.
        • Inspect booms before starting work, and use any that are visibly bent with extreme caution because of their weakened condition. Before applying power to a guy, responsible personnel should be sure that the gooseneck is free to turn by heaving on the guy by hand.
        • Keep the loads as close to the rail and deck and as low to the coaming as possible.
        • Avoid severe tightening of even very light loads; a difference of only a foot or two in the height of the load may increase the stress tremendously.
        • Keep the heads of the two booms as close together and as high as possible to reduce the tension on the falls and the guys. This maneuver is effective at any given height in the junction of married falls.
        • Place the guy at right angles to the boom, as seen by looking up from on deck, when the amidship boom angles inboard from its heel.
        • Place the guy at a right angle to the boom for minimum tension when the amidship boom is fore and aft.
        • Place the guy abreast of the heel or as far behind it as possible without permitting the boom to jackknife when the boom angles outward from its heel.
        • Do not permit cargo falls under load to chafe on any standing or other running rigging.
        • Secure the bull wire to the gypsy head by shackle or other equally strong method where a bull wire is taken to a gypsy head for the purpose of lowering or topping a boom. Securing it by fiber rope fastening is not considered sufficient.
        • Use at least five turns of topping lift wire around the cathead when it is not possible to secure the bull wire to the gypsy head in lowering or topping a boom. Also, at least five turns should be used when the topping lift itself is taken to the gypsy head.

11-6. OTHER GEAR AND EQUIPMENT. Cargo handlers should inspect all gear and equipment before use. Inspections are also to be made at intervals during the use of equipment to make sure that it is safe. Any gear that is found on visual inspection to be unsafe should not be used until steps are taken to make it safe. All special cargo-handling gear, such as shackles or chains, is to be tested as a unit before being put into use. The weight must be plainly marked on any article of cargo-handling gear hoisted by ship's gear weighing more than 2,000 pounds.

    a. Fiber Rope and Fiber Rope Slings.

      (1) Use Table 11-1 to determine the safe working load for various sizes and configurations of manila rope and rope slings. Exceptions to these safe working loads are allowed for certain items when recommended by the manufacturer.

Table 11-1. Manila rope (in pounds or tons of 2000 pounds)

Circumference
(inches)

Diameter
(inches)

Single Leg

60o

45o

30o

3/4
1
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 3/8
1 1/2
1 3/4
2
2 1/4
2 1/2
2 3/4
3
3 1/4
3 1/2
3 3/4
4
4 1/2
5
5 1/2
6
6 1/2
1/4
5/16
3/8
7/16
15/32
1/2
9/16
5/8
3/4
13/16
7/8
1
1 1/16
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 5/16
1 1/2
1 5/8
1 3/4
2
2 1/8
120 lbs
200
270
350
450
530
690
880
1080
1300
1540
1800
1.0 tons
1.2
1.35
1.5
1.8
2.25
2.6
3.1
3.6
240 lbs
346
467
605
775
915
1190
1520
1870
2250
2660
3120
1.7 tons
2.1
2.3
2.6
3.1
3.9
4.5
5.4
6.2
170 lbs
282
380
493
635
798
973
1240
1520
1830
2170
2540
1.4 tons
1.7
1.9
2.1
2.5
3.2
3.7
4.4
5.1
120 lbs
200
270
350
450
530
690
880
1080
1300
1540
1800
1.0 tons
1.2
1.35
1.5
1.8
2.25
2.6
3.1
3.6

      (2) Use equal sizes of synthetic fiber ropes when substituting them for manila ropes of less than 3-inch circumference. When substituting synthetic fiber ropes for manila ropes of 3-inch circumference or more, the size of the synthetic rope is determined from the formula:

      C = O.6C82 + 0.4Cm2

    Where:

    C = the required circumference of the synthetic rope in inches.

    C8 = the circumference to the nearest 1/4 inch of a synthetic rope having a breaking strength not less than the breaking strength of the size manila rope required by this section.

    Cm = the circumference in inches of manila rope required by this section.

    b. Wire Rope and Wire Rope Slings. Use the following tables (Table 11-2) on wire rope and wire rope slings to determine the safe working loads of various sizes and classifications. For sizes, classifications, and grades not included in these tables, use the safe working load recommended by manufacturer.

Table 11-2. Independent wire rope core, wire rope
and wire rope slings (in tons of 2000 pounds)

Rope
Diameter
(inches)

SINGLE LEG

Vertical

Choker

A

B

C

A

B

C

6 x 19 CLASSIFICATION

1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
1 1/8

0.59
1.3
2.3
3.6
5.1
6.9
9.0
11.0

0.56
1.2
2.2
3.4
4.9
6.6
8.5
10.0

0.53
1.1
2.0
3.0
4.2
5.5
7.2
9.0

0.44
0.98
1.7
2.7
3.8
5.2
6.7
8.5

0.42
0.93
1.6
2.5
3.6
4.9
6.4
7.8

0.40
0.86
1.5
2.2
3.1
4.1
5.4
6.8

6 x 37 CLASSIFICATION

1 1/4
1 3/8
1 1/2
1 3/4
2
2 1/4

13.0
16.0
19.0
26.0
33.0
41.0

12.0
15.0
17.0
24.0
30.0
38.0

10.0
13.0
15.0
20.
26.0
33.0

9.9
12.0
14.0
19.0
25.0
31.0

9.2
11.0
13.0
18.0
23.0
29.0

7.9
9.6
11.0
15.0
20.0
25.0

(A) - Socket or Swaged Terminal attachment.

(B) - Mechanical Sleeve attachment.

(C) - Hand Tucked Splice attachment.

      (1) Do not cover protruding ends of strands in splices on slings and bridles.

      (2) Use Table 11-3 to determine the number and spacing of clips where U-bolt wire rope clips are used to form eyes. Apply the U-bolt so that the "U" section is in contact with the dead end of the rope. Wire rope should never be secured by knots except on haul back lines on scrapers.

Table 11-3. U-bolt wire rope clips

Improved plow
steel, rope
(diameter inches)

Number of clips

Minimum
spacing
(inches)

Drop forged

Other material

1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 3/8
1 1/2

3
3
4
4
4
5
5
6
6

4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8

3
3 3/4
4 1/2
5 1/4
6
6 3/4
7 1/2
8 1/4
9

NOTE: Three clips shall be used on wire size less
than 1/2-inch diameter.

      (3) Take the following limitations into consideration when using wire rope:

        (a) Use at least three full trucks when making an eye splice in any wire rope. However, do not use this in place of another form of splice or connection which is safe to use.

        (b) Except for eye splices made in the ends of wires and used for endless rope slings, ensure that each wire rope used in hoisting, lowering, or bulking cargo consist of one continuous piece without knot or splice. Eyes in wire rope bridles, slings, or bull wires are not to be formed by wire rope clips or knots.

        (c) Do not use wire rope as cargo-handling gear if, in any length of eight turns, the total number of visible broken wires exceeds 10 percent of the total number of wires. Also, wire rope is not used if the rope shows other signs of excessive wear, corrosion, or defect.

    c. Chain and Chain Slings. Use Tables 11-4 and 11-5, on chains and chain slings to determine the maximum safe working loads of various sizes of wrought iron or alloy steel chains and chain slings. Higher safe working loads are allowed when recommended by the manufacturer. Proof coil steel chain, also known as common or hardware chain, is not to be used for hoisting purposes. Avoid using other chains not recommended for slinging or hoisting by the manufacturer.

      (1) Visually inspect all sling chains, including end fastenings, before using them on the job. Inspect for wear, defective welds, deformation, and increase in length of stretch.

      (2) Note interlink wear that is not accompanied by stretch in excess of 5 percent. The chain is to be removed from service when maximum allowable wear at any point of the link has been reached, as indicated in Tables 11-4 and 11-5.

Table 11-4. Wrought iron chain (in pounds or tons of 2000 pounds)

Nominal Size
Chain Stock
(inches)

Single Leg

60o

45o

30o

*1/4
*5/16
3/8
*7/16
1/2
*9/16
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 3/8
1 1/2
1 5/8
1 3/4
1 7/8
2

1060 lbs
1655
2385
3250
2.1 tons
2.7
3.3
4.8
6.5
8.5
10.0
12.4
15.0
17.8
20.9
24.2
27.6
31.6

1835 lbs
2865
2.1 tons
2.8
3.7
4.6
5.7
8.3
11.2
14.7
17.3
21.4
25.9
30.8
36.2
42.0
47.9
54.8

1500 lbs
2340
3370
2.3 tons
3.0
3.8
4.7
6.7
9.2
12.0
14.2
17.5
21.1
25.2
29.5
34.3
39.1
44.8

1060 lbs
1655
2385
3250
2.1 tons
2.7
3.3
4.8
6.5
8.5
10.0
12.4
15.0
17.8
20.9
24.2
27.6
31.6

* These sizes of wrought iron chain are no longer manufactured in the United States.

Table 11-5. Alloy steel chain (in tons of 2000 pounds)

Nominal Size
Chain Stock
(inches)

Single Leg

60o

45o

30o

1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 3/8
1 1/2
1 5/8
1 3/4

1.62
3.30
5.62
8.25
11.5
14.3
19.3
22.2
28.7
33.5
39.7
42.5
47.0

2.82
5.70
9.75
15.24
19.9
24.9
33.6
38.5
49.7
58.0
68.5
73.5
81.5

2.27
4.65
7.90
11.65
16.2
20.3
27.3
31.5
40.5
47.0
56.0
59.5
62.0

1.62
3.30
5.62
8.25
11.5
14.3
19.8
22.2
28.7
33.5
39.7
42.5
47.0

      (3) Remove chain slings from service if any section shows a measured increase in length greater than 5 percent, or if raised scarves or defective welds appear.

      (4) Repair chains under qualified supervision. Links or portions of a chain found to be defective must be replaced by links having proper dimensions. Replacement links should be made of material similar to that of the rest of the chain. Before returning repaired chains to service, proof test them to the proof test load recommended by the manufacturer.

      (5) Strengthen or normalize wrought iron chains in constant use at intervals not exceeding 6 months, using recommended procedures for annealing or normalizing. Alloy chains are not to be tempered.

      (6) Avoid lifting a load with a chain having a kink or knot in it. Personnel should not shorten any chain by bolting, wiring, or knotting.

    d. Shackles. Personnel should-

      (1) Use Table 11-6 to determine the safe working loads or various sizes of shackles. Higher safe working loads are allowed when recommended by the manufacturer.

Table 11-6. Safe working loads for shackles
(in tons of 2000 pounds)

Material size (inches)

Pin
diameter
(inches)

Safe
working
load

1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 3/8
1 1/2
1 3/4
2

5/8
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 3/8
1 1/2
1 5/8
2
2 1/4

1.4
2.2
3.2
4.3
5.6
6.7
8.2
10.0
11.9
16.2
21.2

      (2) Mouse the pin on screw pin shackles except in cargo hook assemblies (Figure 11-8).

Figure 11-8. Screw pin shackles and
cargo hook assemblies

    e. Hooks (Except Hand Hooks). Use manufacturer's recommendations to determine the safe working loads of specific and identifiable hooks. Hooks for which no applicable manufacturer's recommendations are available must be tested before being used. The owner or shipper should maintain a record of the dates and results of such tests.

      (1) Apply loads to the throat of the hook, since loading the point overstresses and bends or springs the hook. Inspect hooks regularly to see that they have not been bent by overloading. Do not use bent or sprung hooks.

      (2) Keep the teeth of case hooks in good condition. The jaws of patent clamp-type plate hooks also should be kept in safe condition so that they will grip the plates securely.

    f. Pallets. Properly maintain pallets so that they can safely support and carry loads. Fastenings of reusable pallets include bolts and nuts, drive screws, annular threaded nails, or fastenings of equal strength.

      (1) Hoist wing or lip-type pallets by means of bar bridles only if these pallets have an overhanging wing or lip at least 3 inches long. Loaded pallets that are damaged or otherwise unsafe should be placed on ground pallets before being hoisted on or off the vessel.

      (2) Ensure bridles that are used to handle flush end or box-type pallets are made in such a way as to prevent them from coming loose from the pallet under load.

    g. Chutes and Gravity Rollers. Ensure chutes used in the manual handling of cargo are long enough and strong enough for their intended use. Keep chutes free of splinters and sharp edges which could stop or damage cargo. Also, make sure that side boards are tall enough to prevent falling of cargo.

      (1) Firmly place or secure chutes and gravity roller sections to prevent movement.

      (2) Ensure gravity rollers are strong enough to withstand the weight of the materials placed on them. Rollers should be locked in position to prevent them from falling or separating from the frame. Responsible personnel should ensure that roller frames are free of burrs and sharp edges.

      (3) Find a way to brake objects at the delivery end of the roller or chute.

    h. Powered Conveyors. Ensure that readily accessible "stop" controls are provided for an emergency. No crew member should be allowed to work around a power conveyor unless an operator is on duty at the conveyor controls.

    i. Rain Tents. When using rain tents, secure lanyards to pad eyes or other fixed structures of the vessel which are strong enough to hold them. Otherwise, secure lanyards to objects heavy enough to withstand the breaking stress of all attached lanyards.

    j. Tools. Observe the following precautions regarding the use of tools:

      (1) Visibly unsafe tools should not be used for any purpose.

      (2) Portable electric (hand-held) tools must be equipped with switches that are manually held in a closed position.

      (3) All portable, power-driven circular saws must be equipped with guards above and below the base plate or shoe. The upper guard should cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc, required to permit the base to be tilted for level cuts. The lower guard should cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to allow proper retraction and contact with the work. When the tool is withdrawn from the work, the lower guard should automatically and instantly return to the covering position.

      (4) The officer in charge of the operation notifies the ship's master before using the ship's electric power for the operation of any electric tools and equipment.

      (5) The frames of portable electric equipment tools, except double-insulated tools approved by Underwriters' Laboratories, Incorporated, must be grounded through a separate wire at the source of the current. Circuits grounded other than by means of the structures of the vessel on which the equipment is being used must be checked to ensure that the circuit between the ground and the grounded power conductor is of low resistance.

    k. Mechanically Powered Vehicles. Personnel should-

      (1) Make sure that all automotive equipment is in good working order, and that safety devices are not removed or made inoperative.

      (2) Ensure forklift trucks are equipped with overhead guards securely attached to the machines, except as noted in (6), following. The guards protect the operator from boxes, cartons, packages, bagged material, and other similar items of cargo which may fall from the load being handled or from stowage.

      (3) Ensure that guards do not interfere with good visibility. Openings in the top of the guard should not exceed 6 inches in one of the two dimensions, width or length. Larger openings are permitted provided no opening is larger than the smallest unit of cargo that is likely to fall on the guard.

      (4) Ensure the guards are large enough to extend over the operator in all normal circumstances of truck operation including forward tilt.

      (5) Ensure that associated parts do not cause the overhead guard to injure the operator of forklift trucks equipped with a single tilt cylinder.

      (6) Remove the overhead guard only at times when the construction of the truck is such that the presence of a guard would prevent the truck from entering working spaces. The guard may also be removed if the operator cannot be injured by a low overhead obstruction.

      (7) Equip every crawler-type, rider-operated, bulk cargo-moving vehicle with an operator's guard that protects the seated operator against injury from contact with an overhead projection. Guards and their attachment points must be made to withstand a load applied horizontally at the operator's shoulder level equal to the drawbar pull of the machine.

      (8) Do not require guards on vehicles used in situations in which the possibility of the seated operator coming in contact with projecting overheads does not exist.

      (9) Ensure that every truck operated from an end platform or pedal position is equipped with an operator's platform guard of a design that allows rapid and unobstructed exit.

      (10) Ensure that guards are able to withstand a load equal to the weight of the loaded machine without excessive deflection.

      (11) Secure forks, fork extensions, or other attachments to prevent them from being detached accidentally.

      (12) Clearly post the vehicle weight, with and without removable counterweights, on all mechanically powered vehicles lifted aboard vessels.

      (13) Post the rated capacity of every forklift truck, with and without removable counterweights, on the vehicle in such a way that it is readily visible to the operator.

      (14) Ensure that loads in excess of the rated capacity are not lifted or carried by forklift trucks. If loads are lifted by two or more trucks working in unison, the total weight must not exceed the combined safe lifting capacity of all the trucks.

      (15) Ensure that no load on a forklift truck or industrial crane truck is suspended or swung over any personnel.

      (16) Make adequate provisions, when mechanically powered vehicles are used, to ensure that the working surface can support the vehicle and load. Also, ensure that hatch covers, truck plates, or other temporary surfaces cannot be broken loose by movement of the vehicle.

      (17) Ensure that, when mechanically powered vehicles are left unattended, the controls are shut off and the brakes set. Also, the forks, blade, or scoop must be placed in the lowered position.

      (18) Ensure that, when forklift trucks of other mechanically powered vehicles are operated on open-deck barges, the edges of the barges are guarded by railings, sideboards, timbers, or other means. These guards prevent vehicles from rolling overboard. When vehicles are operated on covered lighters where door openings other than those being used are left open, take all necessary means to prevent vehicles from rolling overboard through such openings.

    l. Cranes and Derricks. The safety procedures are as follows:

      (1) Post the crane weight on all mobile cranes hoisted aboard vessels for temporary use.

      (2) Equip all types of cranes with a durable rating chart visible to the operator. This chart covers the complete range of the manufacturer's capacity ratings for which the cranes are certified where required. The rating chart includes all operating radii for permissible boom and jib lengths, with and without outriggers, that may be fitted. It also includes alternative ratings with optional equipment affecting these ratings, and all necessary precautions or warnings.

      (3) Mark operating controls or post an explanation at the operator's position to indicate the function. A boom angle or radius indicator must be fitted where necessary.

      (4) Clearly mark all shore-based derricks to indicate applicable capacity ratings. Ratings are based on manufacturer's (or design) data for which derricks are certified. These ratings and any necessary precautions or warnings must be visible to the operator. Ensure that operating controls are marked or an explanation is posted at the operator's position to indicate their function.

      (5) Do not exceed the rated safe working loads of each crane and derrick. Counterweights in excess of manufacturer's (or design) specifications should not be fitted. All equipment must be used in accordance with manufacturer's specifications and recommendations.

      (6) Pull barges or rail cars and cargo in such a way as to prevent side loading stresses on crane booms.

      (7) Use no cranes or derricks when visible defects affecting safe use exist.

      (8) Ensure that every crane used to load or discharge cargo into or out of a vessel is fitted with a load indicating device or alternative device in proper working condition which will provide, as a minimum-

        (a) A direct indication, in the cab, of the weight being hoisted.

        (b) An indication, in the cab, of the radius and load at the moment.

      (9) Use devices which will prevent an overloaded condition from occurring.

      (10) Ensure the accuracy of a load indicating device, a weight-movement device, or an overload protection device. These devices must be within a range of not less than 95 percent nor more than 110 percent of the actual true total load (5 percent overload, 10 percent underload). Such devices permit the operator to determine before making any lift that the indicating or substitute system is operating. Checks on accuracy using known load values must be performed at the time of every certification survey and at additional times as recommended by the manufacturer.

      (11) Markings indicating safe working load of cranes or derricks are to be placed giving-

        (a) Units of measure in pounds or in both pounds and kilograms.

        (b) Capacity of the indicating system.

        (c) Accuracy of the indicating system.

        (d) Operating instructions and precautions.

      (12) Provide the following data in the case of systems using indications other than actual weights:

        (a) Capacity of the system.

        (b) Accuracy of the system.

        (c) Operating instructions and precautions.

        (d) The means of measurements.

      (13) Provide markings giving the make and model of the device installed, a description of what it does, how it is operated, and any necessary precautions regarding the system. This method should be used when the crane does not automatically stop when it reaches its load limits. All weight indications, other types of loading indications, and other required data should be readily visible to the operator.

      (14) Ensure that all load indicating devices work over the full operating radius. Overall accuracy is based on actual applied load and not on full-scale (full capacity) load.

      (15) Temporarily guard working areas within the swing radius of the outermost part of the body of a revolving crane by using ropes or other suitable mean during cargo operations. This action prevents personnel from being caught between the body of the crane and fixed parts of the vessel or between the load of the crane itself.

      (16) Make sure that enough light is provided in the work area to carry out operations safely during the hours of darkness.

      (17) Ensure that the posted safe working loads of mobile crawler or truck-mounted cranes under the conditions of use are not exceeded.

11-7. HANDLING CARGO. The different handling methods for cargo and their procedures are discussed below.

    a. Slinging. Personnel should-

      (1) Make sure that drafts are securely slung before hoisting. Any dunnage or debris sticking out from the draft should be removed.

      (2) Ensure that cargo-handling bridles (such as pallet bridles), which are to remain attached to the hoisting gear while hoisting drafts, are attached by shackles or other positive means. This step prevents them from accidentally coming loose from the cargo hook.

      (3) Use double slings when hoisting long drafts such as lumber, pipe, or dunnage to prevent the top pieces from sliding off.

      (4) Use double slings on unstrapped dunnage, except when it is impractical to use them because of the size of the hatch or deep tank openings.

      (5) Avoid using case hooks for handling cases that are going into or out of the vessel, unless the cases are specifically made to be handled by this means.

      (6) Avoid hoisting bales of cotton, wool, cork, wood pulp, gunny bags, or other similar articles into or out of the vessel by their straps. (An exception to this is if the straps are strong enough to support the weight of the bale and two hooks.)

      (7) Provide loads requiring continuous manual guidance while in motion with tag lines.

      (8) Avoid hoisting drafts unless the winch or crane operators can clearly see the draft itself or see the signals of any signalman associated with the operation.

    b. Building Drafts. Personnel should build drafts so that cargo will not fall from them. Buckets and tubs should not be loaded above their rims.

    c. Tiering and Breaking Down Stowed Cargo. When breaking down, take precautions to prevent the remaining cargo from falling. Before securing any refrigerated compartment, workers should check to make sure that no one remains inside. Also, they should make frequent checks to ensure the safety of anyone working alone in a tank or cargo compartment.

    d. Bulling Cargo. Bulling cargo is normally done with the bull line directly from the heel block. Bulling may be done from the head of the boom when the nature of the cargo and the surface over which it is dragged are such as to avoid stalling the load. It may also be done when the winch does not have enough strength with the purchase used to overload the boom.

      (1) Falls from the cargo booms of vessels are not used to move scows, lighters, or railroad cars.

      (2) Snatch blocks are used to provide a fair lead for the bull line. This is to avoid unnecessary dragging of the bull line against coamings and obstructions.

      (3) Snatch blocks are not used with the point of the hook resting on the flange of a beam, but must be hung from pad eyes, straps, or beam clamps. Snatch blocks or straps are also not to be fastened to batten cleats or other insecure fittings.

      (4) Beam or frame clamps are secured to the beam in a way that minimizes the possibility of their slipping, falling, or being pulled from the beam.

    e. Handling Containerized Cargo. Personnel should be familiar with the methods of handling containerized cargo.

      (1) For the purpose of this section, the term "container" means a reusable cargo container or rigid construction and rectangular configuration. It is intended to contain one or more articles of cargo or bulk commodities for shipment aboard a vessel. The cargo container is capable of using one or more other modes of transport without intermediate reloading. The term includes completely enclosed units, open top units, half or other fractional height units, units incorporating liquid or gas tanks, and any other variations serving the same basic purpose. All types must fit into the container system, and be demountable or have attached wheels. The term does not include cylinders, drums, crates, cases, cartons, packages, sacks, unitized loads, or any of the other usual forms of packaging.

      (2) Personnel should mark every cargo container permanently in pounds as to-

        (a) The weight of the container when empty.

        (b) The maximum cargo weight that the container is intended and designed by its manufacturer to carry.

        (c) The sum of these two weights.

      (3) Personnel should not load aboard or discharge any container from a vessel by means of hoisting ship's cargo handling gear, shore crane, or derrick unless the following conditions have been met:

        (a) An empty container must be identified as empty. This can be done either by marking or by noting the fact in cargo stowage plans. Both means of identification may be used as well.

        (b) The actual gross weight of a loaded container must be plainly marked so as to be seen by the operator of the crane or other hoisting equipment, or by the signalman. The actual gross weight, the exact stowage position, and the serial number or other positive identification of the specific container must be available to all personnel involved in the operation.

        (c) Every outbound loaded container received at a marine terminal that is ready to load aboard a vessel without further consolidation or loading must be weighed to obtain the actual gross weight. Weighing is done either at the terminal or elsewhere before loading occurs.

NOTE: The following statements do not pertain to open-type vehicle-carrying containers and those built and used solely for carrying compressed gases.

        (d) When container-weighing scales are located at a marine terminal, any outbound container with a load consolidated at that terminal must be weighed to obtain an actual gross weight before loading aboard a vessel.

        (e) When there are no container weighing scales available, the actual gross weight may be calculated. This is provided that accurate weights of all contents are known and a list of these contents, including the empty container weight, is totaled and posted on the container. Lists of contents may refer to cartons, cases, or other means of packaging. A list need not specifically identify the commodity or commodities involved except as otherwise required by law. Inbound containers are subject to random sample weight checks at the nearest weighing facility. If errors are found in the weight of the containers, they may not be allowed to be loaded on the vessel.

        (f) If loaded inbound containers from foreign ports have been weighed, they must have the calculated weight posted in the manner described above. All loaded inbound containers from foreign ports must be subject to random sample weight checks at a time up to unloading the contents of the container at the terminal or until the container is delivered unopened to the land carrier. When such checks indicate incorrect weight of the containers, some suitable means to protect the safety of the personnel involved must be taken during discharge to assure safety until the correct weights are furnished.

        (g) Any scale used within the United States to weigh containers must meet the accuracy standards of the state or local public authority in which the scale is located.

        (h) No container is to be hoisted if its actual gross weight exceeds the weight marked, nor may it be hoisted if it exceeds the capacity of the crane or other hoisting device intended for use. All hoisting of containers must be done safely without probable damage to the container, using the lifting fittings provided.

        (i) All outbound containers must be inspected before loading for any visible defects in structural members and fittings. This inspection is to ensure that containers are safe before they are handled in loading. To the extent practical, inbound containers should be inspected before discharge. Any outbound containers found to have defects should not be loaded unless defects are first corrected. Any inbound containers found to have defects should either be discharged by special means to ensure safety, or they should be emptied before discharge.

    f. Handling Hazardous Cargo. The safe handling methods are as follows:

      (1) Determine, prior to the start of cargo handling operations, what hazardous cargoes, if any, are to be handled. Determinations may be made from cargo labels, from the dangerous cargo manifest, or from other shipping documents. Personnel must be informed of the general nature of the hazard, the importance of preventing damage to the cargo, and the special precautions to be taken.

      (2) Carefully sling and secure drafts of hazardous cargo to prevent individual packages from falling as the draft is tipped. Any leaks or spills must be reported. When a spill occurs, all personnel should vacate the holds or compartments until the owner or shopper has determined the specific hazards and has provided necessary personal protective equipment and clothing. Ventilation and fire protective equipment needed to avoid or protect against the hazard should also be provided. The owner or shipper should instruct personnel regarding the safe method of cleaning up and disposing of a spill or handling and disposing of the leaking containers. Cleanup and disposal is to be carried out under the personal supervision of a representative of the employer aboard the vessel.

11-8. GENERAL WORKING CONDITIONS. The safety rules for the different types of conditions are discussed below.

    a. Housekeeping. Personnel should apply the following safety rules:

      (1) Keep weather deck walking and working areas reasonably clear of lines, bridles, dunnage, and all other loose tripping or stumbling hazards. Gear or equipment not in use from immediate work areas should be removed and equipment placed so as not to present a hazard.

      (2) Eliminate slippery conditions as they occur. The work area should be kept clean and clear of loose paper, dunnage, and debris.

      (3) Do not use dunnage racked against sweat battens when the levels of these racks are above the safe reach of personnel.

      (4) Stow dunnage, hatch beams, tarpaulins, or gear not in use no closer than 3 feet to the port and starboard side of the weather deck hatch coaming. When circumstances make this impossible, personnel should try to stay as close to the 3 feet limitation as they can.

    b. Ventilation. Personnel should apply the following safety rules:

      (1) Make periodic air tests to check the amount of carbon monoxide in the air when internal combustion engines are used inside a hold, an intermediate deck, or any other compartment. The frequency of performing these tests depends on the type of location of the operation and the existing conditions. Tests should be made where personnel are working. They should be made by persons competent in the use of test equipment and procedures. Where operations are located in a deep tank or refrigerated compartment, the first test should be made within 30 minutes of the time the engine starts.

      (2) Ensure that the carbon monoxide content of the air is maintained at less than 50 parts per million (.005 percent). Vacate any compartment in which the carbon monoxide concentration exceeds 50 parts per million. Return only after the carbon monoxide content has been brought below 50 parts per million.

      (3) Take other means to make sure that there is good ventilation when neither natural ventilation nor the vessel's ventilating system is able to keep the carbon monoxide concentration within allowable limits.

      (4) Guard the intakes of portable blowers and any exposed belt drives by the use of screens. The frames of portable blowers should be grounded at the source of the current. Grounding may be done either through a third wire in the cable containing the circuit conductors or through a separate wire. When the vessel is the source of the current, the ground should be made to the structure of the vessel. Electric cords used must be free of visible defects. Personnel should not permit the use of shore electrical circuits unless they have been checked.

      (5) Keep a record of the date, time, location, and results of all carbon monoxide level tests performed for at least 30 days after the work is completed.

      (6) Check the air to determine if it is safe to work in places where hazardous cargoes are stowed, where dry ice has been used as a refrigerant, where fumigation has taken place, or where there is a possibility of oxygen deficiency.

      (7) Realize that there are dangerous gaseous contaminants not dangerous when breathed for a short period of time. However, these gases may produce discomfort and injury after a prolonged single exposure or repeated short exposures.

      (8) Do not to enter or remain in an unsafe work area until the air is safe to breathe or until suitable respiratory equipment is provided. If the air contains less than 16.5 percent oxygen, it would endanger the life of a person breathing it for even a short period of time.

    c. Other Hazardous Conditions. When personnel are exposed to heavy concentrations of dusts, supervisors are responsible for providing them with suitable respiratory protective equipment. Cargo-handling operations should not be carried out when chipping or scaling operations create noise which interferes with communication.

    d. Sanitation and Drinking Water. Cargo handling operations should not take place in the immediate vicinity of uncovered garbage, nor in the way of overboard discharges from sanitary lines unprotected by a baffle or splashboards. Drinking water should be kept in clean, covered containers.

    e. First Aid and Life Saving Equipment.

      (1) Ensure that a first aid kit is available aboard the vessel unless a first aid room is close at hand and a qualified attendant is prepared to render first aid to personnel. The contents of the first aid kit should be checked prior to each job to make sure that all expended items have been replaced.

      (2) Each vessel being worked must have one Stokes basket stretcher, or its equivalent, permanently equipped with bridles for attaching to the hoisting gear. This is not necessary if there are more than two stretchers on each pier. Stretchers should be kept close to the vessels.

      (3) In the vicinity of each vessel being worked, there must be at least one US Coast Guard-approved 30-inch life ring (Figure 11-9), with not less than 90 feet of line attached. Also, there should be at least one portable or permanent ladder which will reach from the top of the apron to the surface of the water. If this equipment is not available at the pier, it must be furnished during the time personnel are working the vessel. When working a barge, scow, raft, lighter, log boom, or car float alongside a ship, a US Coast Guard-approved 30-inch life ring with not less than 90 feet of line must be provided. The life ring should be located either on the floating unit itself or aboard the ship in the immediate vicinity of each floating unit being worked.

Figure 11-9. 30-inch life ring

      (4) When personnel are working on log booms or cribs, lifelines are furnished and hung over the side to the water's edge.

    f. Personal Protective Equipment. Ensure that items of protective equipment are available and used in situations requiring such equipment.

      (1) Eye protection. When an eye hazard from flying particles or heavy dust exists, exposed personnel should wear appropriate, authorized eye protection equipment.

      (2) Protective clothing. Personnel who are handling cargo which, due to ruptured, leaking, or inadequate containers could cause burns or skin irritation, must wear suitable protective clothing. Protective clothing is required in those situations that are otherwise injurious to health. Previously worn protective clothing should be cleaned and disinfected before it is reissued.

      (3) Foot protection. All personnel should wear safety shoes.

      (4) Head protection. Personnel must wear appropriate, authorized protective headgear when working in and around cargo operations. Protective headgear that has been previously worn should be cleaned and disinfected before it is reissued.

      (5) Ear protection. Personnel should wear proper ear protection devices while working in high noise areas.

       



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