Support to the ASG
METT-T determines support requirements. The type of operation and expected duration dictates the degree to which support is required by the ASG. The source of support will be identified in the service support annex of the OPORD.
If ASG elements are attached to a CSG multifunctional CSB or to a rear CSG functional battalion, staff should refer to FMs 54-30 and 63-3. If supported by another Service, ASG elements must adjust to the support procedures existing in the theater.
HNS includes civil and military assistance provided by a HN to forces and organizations located in or transiting through the HN territory. HN resources augment the logistics support mission. HNS must be considered as a significant source of logistics assistance. ASGs will make maximum use of HNS. This support may include--
- Information and intelligence.
- Stationing support.
- Communications networks support.
- Operation of ports, railways, and MSRs.
- Traffic control.
- HN utilities.
- Engineer support and maintenance.
- Rear operations support by HN military or paramilitary units.
- Local area security and law enforcement.
- Population control.
- Logistics support, to include potable water, fresh fruits and vegetables, bulk fuel transport, laundry, bakery, construction, and general labor.
Using HN resources reduces requirements for US forces, materiel, and services. HN personnel are more adept at providing support due to their familiarity with local customs, local terrain, HN transportation networks, and HN facilities.
HNS is theater and situation dependent. Support depends on the geographical area, prior agreements, the friendliness of the nations, and their willingness and ability to provide support. Viable HNS may only be available in certain areas of the world. In those areas where no HNS agreements exist, CA teams assigned to the ASG's CA battalion negotiate support agreements. The ASG's HNS logistics directorate coordinates and manages HNS negotiated or obtained by the CA teams. When operations occur in a foreign nation whose sovereignty remains viable and HNS exist, the HN may be responsible for overall rear security operations.
ASG HOST-NATION SUPPORT LOGISTICS DIRECTORATE
The HNS logistics directorate determines requirements that can be met by employing HN resources. It coordinates HNS requirements with the ASG's CA battalion and with legal, contractual, and financial elements. The HNS logistics directorate coordinates with the HN in identifying which HN assets are available and what quantities can be provided. Directorate personnel coordinate HNS agreements with HN authorities and US legal elements. They maintain status of HN support available to the ASG. In coordinating with supporting CA teams, they keep track of the locations and capabilities of HNS activities. They also monitor HNS contract performance, perform quality control inspections of HN products and services and ensure delivery and compliance with contract agreements.
HNS logistics directorate personnel need to consider the following factors when determining the suitability of using HN resources to accomplish logistics support missions:
- The HN's capability, dependability, and willingness to provide support.
- US capability to manage HN resources.
- Shortfalls in US force structure or force structure that could be reduced by using HN resources.
- Operational security.
- Risk associated with relying on HNS for contingencies.
Functions and services not appropriate for a HN to provide may include:
- Command, control, and communications support.
- Triage and sorting casualties for evacuation.
- Veterinary subsistence inspection.
- Law and order operations over US forces.
- Control and maintenance of chemical ammunition.
- Accountability and security of EPWs retained in US custody.
- Medical supply accountability.
- Identification of US remains.
HN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
Based on agreements with the HN, HN government agencies may provide services and operate the following facilities in support of wartime requirements:
- Bulk petroleum distribution and storage facilities.
- Medical facilities.
- Telephone networks.
- Radio and television broadcasting networks.
Even if civil authorities operate independently, ASGs normally coordinate with government agencies through HN military representatives. At OLS, the rear area is the sovereign territory of the friendly HN. Police, fire companies, and border patrols may be available to provide support.
HN CIVILIAN FACILITIES
HN civilian facilities can be converted to support logistics operations. Schools can be used for headquarters or staff office areas. Gas stations and garages may be used as maintenance shops. Civilian truck terminals can be adapted to trailer transport terminals.
HN MILITARY UNITS
HN MP units may provide external security for US-operated bases and ports. They may also--
- Control traffic.
- Assist with displaced persons and refugee evacuation control.
- Escort convoys.
- Guard installation and air bases.
HN transportation truck units transport troops, supplies, and equipment and evacuate casualties. HN terminal transfer companies may assist in terminal transfer operations. HN maintenance units can provide maintenance for a variety of equipment. HN chemical units can provide decontamination, NBC reconnaissance, and smoke support.
HN SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT
Supplies and equipment may be available quicker through the HN than through the US supply system. Depending upon the HN, ASG units could obtain the following supplies and support from the HN:
- Dairy products, fresh fruits, and vegetables.
- Fuels, oils, and lubricants.
- Construction supplies.
- Common repair parts.
- Transport of heavy equipment and supplies.
Host country, third country, or US contractors providing support to civilian and military agencies may continue to provide support during transition to war and, if practical, during wartime. Civilian contractors could provide--
- Construction support.
- Bakery support.
- Laundry and bath services.
G5 and CA personnel may arrange for civilian laborers, stevedores, truck drivers, supply handlers, mechanics, equipment operators, and medical personnel. Plans should address labor support arrangements for port and terminal operations.
The HN must provide for the needs of its labor force personnel unless otherwise stated in HNS agreements. In the absence of an agreement, US forces may have to assume some responsibility for the care of labor forces.
The LSE augments theater sustaining base assets. LSE elements provide technical assistance to ASG units. LSE activities may collocate with ASG activity elements. For example, LSE and ASG maintenance personnel may share portions of an industrial facility. LSE elements supervise contractor activities, individual DOD personnel, and HNS activities operating within the AO. For example, the LSE oversees AMC funded contractors, ensuring that the support provided is based on the priority prescribed by the senior logistics commander.
MODULAR ORGANIZATION AND MISSIONS
The LSE is a TDA organization designed to augment the EAC support command of a theater. It consists of the modular organization shown on Figure 9-1 that provides technical expertise to TOE and TDA units. This modular organization allows it to respond more ready to a crisis. Table 9-1 lists the mission functions performed by LSE divisions.
Upon mobilization, the LSE will be staffed primarily by battle rostered civilian personnel from existing TDA activities. Critical skill employees and managerial civilian positions are identified as emergency essential civilian spaces on the TDA of AMC, FORSCOM, and CASCOM headquarters and their subordinate activities. Civilian personnel assigned or attached to the LSE are considered combatants. DOD Directive 1404.10 discusses the status of these emergency-essential DOD US citizen civilian employees.
Within the theater, the LSE will be under the OPCON of the US Army EAC support command. LSE divisions interface with the theater materiel manager. They are linked to CONUS inventory managers at NICPs via the Standard Depot System. If an AMC OCONUS headquarters is operational in a mature theater of operations to exercise central control over AMC support elements, it will merge with the LSE into a single organization.
LSE MISSION SUPPORT AREAS
Table 9-1 listed the major mission support functions of LSE divisions. DLA and AMC provide the personnel to perform these functions. The LSE provides support in the following mission areas:
LSE activities store selected high dollar, high tech-low density items identified by the theater materiel manager as critical to supporting the theater mission. Upon receipt of a MRO from the theater materiel manager, the LSE arranges for their movement.
LSE elements determine requirements for repair program stocks unique to the repair of end items, components, or components that are part of the reparable exchange program. They request these items directly from the materiel manager. Note that these items are not authorized to be requisitioned by any other organization in the AO.
The LSE ammunition division provides technical expertise to activities involved in ammunition supply, maintenance, and transportation. QASAS personnel may deploy and remain with assisted units. Attached QASAS personnel provide on-site technical assistance in the areas of quality assurance and explosive safety to ammunition officers.
ASG units turn in retrograde items to the LSE. LSE elements receive, inspect, classify, store, and ship items for retrograde. If directed, they clean contaminated equipment or equipment containing depleted uranium for retrograde.
An item requiring repair may be repaired by LSE activities or by a contractor within the theater under LSE supervision. It may even be sent out of the theater to a repair facility.
LSE activities provide limited depot level/GS maintenance. Depot level maintenance support may be provided by modular commodity or weapon systems oriented teams from CONUS depots or arsenals or by contractor forward repair activities. Depending upon requirements, GS maintenance companies, workloaded by the LSE, may perform repairs. The owning unit must arrange for transportation of items to a site identified by the LSE.
An aviation classification repair activity depot provides maintenance support above AVIM. LSE activities also provide limited depot level repair of aircraft, to include their engines and components. They also provide armament support and engineering support for nonstandard repairs. Contractors operate limited assembly lines to overhaul and perform major battle damage repair. Attached engineers, logistics assistance representatives, and contract field service representatives provide on-site technical assistance.
Automation Software Support
In the absence of an operational CSSAMO at the ASG, the LSE's automation logistics assistance division centralizes STAMIS support to all logistics units. It manages logistics software. Automation logistics assistance division personnel receive, distribute, and implement software change packages. They provide unit level technical assistance, system troubleshooting, and software replacement.
The LSE's contracting support division performs local purchase and leasing for the LSE and units or activities supported. It contracts for the supplies and services to support the LSE's maintenance mission. It oversees the CORs monitoring contractor forward repair activities, coordinating contracted work load based on theater priorities. It also provides administrative services to the CORs.
Test, Measurement, and Diagnostic Equipment Support
The LSE's TMDE battalion provides TMDE support on an area basis through its attached area TMDE support teams.
The quality assurance division performs quality assurance for various commodity and weapon system repair lines.
Field Assistance in Science and Technology
The LSE's FAST office coordinates changes in performance specifications and interim materiel modifications to improve the design of weapon systems. It uses information from battle damage assessment teams to determine technical requirement changes. It provides this data to AMC laboratories and centers for solution.
Logistics Assistance Program
LAP field maintenance technicians and logistics assistance officers provide on-site technical assistance to users of AMC fielded equipment in theater. This includes new equipment fielding. They help resolve supply and maintenance problems. A senior logistics assistance office representative from the EAC support command coordinates support requirements for the ASG.
Army Oil Analysis Program
The LSE's Army oil analysis division coordinates oil sampling procedures within the theater. This includes samples taken at fixed and mobile laboratories and with portable instruments. Designated laboratories test oil samples and provide the results to the LSE. The LSE then distributes test results and recommendations to supported units.
Engineer forms at the operational level are responsible for constructing, maintaining, and rehabilitating the theater support base. This includes support to other services, and agencies and allied military forces in joint and combined theaters of operations. The ability of logistics units to perform sustainment operations as well as movement and sheltering of combat and combat support forces is dependent on adequate, responsive engineer support. The number and type of operational level engineer support units depend on the size of the support base required, host nation infrastructure, the mission, the availability of existing engineer support brought to the theater of operation, and perceived threat in the rear area. Operational level engineer units provide topographic support to the theater; troop construction and repair to all US elements in the COMMZ; contract construction support; and as required, provide support to tactical level organizations. Figure 9-2 depicts engineer support.
Engineer support is normally rendered by area-oriented GS engineer units under the direct control of the ENCOM. Engineer battalions (combat heavy) and specialized engineer support units are attached to an engineer group. These may include a construction support company, a port construction company, and a pipeline construction company. Refer to Figure 9-3. However, certain engineer elements may be attached to, or placed under the OPCON of the ASG headquarters. For example, real estate teams and utilities teams provide support to ASG installations.
Engineer support is provided on an area basis. ASGs provide real property maintenance support to all army facilities in its AO, to include leased facilities not maintained by the HN. Units in the ASG area submit requests for engineer support to the ASG's SPO directorate. HN units submit requests for US engineer support to ASG CA teams. If the attached facilities engineering and fire protection teams cannot provide support, the requirements are passed onto the AWCM for execution in accordance with theater priorities.
Typical engineer missions in the ASG area are to--
- Acquire, maintain, and dispose of real estate (ASG RPMA mission).
- Provide minor construction, repair, maintenance, fire protection, and utility operation support for all Army installations and facilities in the COMMZ (ASG attached utilities teams and fire-fighting teams).
- Plan, design, supervise, and construct maintenance, repair, or rehabilitation of airfields, ports, pipelines, roads, railroads, and inland waterways.
- Provide subsurface water detection, well drilling, and construction in support of water supply activities.
- Construct and repair hospitals, troop camps, EPW and civilian internee compounds, bulk petroleum storage and distribution systems, and dry cargo and ammunition storage areas.
- Construct missile sites, air defense emplacements, protective shelters, field defenses, and ground security facilities.
- Perform emergency repairs that exceed AF capability at key AF bases, upgrade emergency repairs to semipermanent status, and repair other base facilities.
- Perform combat-engineering missions in the COMMZ and corps area on a task or area basis.
- Provide engineering support of denial operations.
- Construct deception devices and decoys.
- Provide area damage control support in coordination with the ROC (ASG).
The director for personnel and administration at the ASG headquarters directs, supervises, and coordinates selected PSS in the ASG area. PSS includes the management of all personnel-related services and functions.
Figure 9-4 depicts the variety of units located throughout the EAC support command area that provide PSS to ASG units. The number of units allocated to provide a given support function varies depending on the size of the troop population to be serviced.
CRITICAL MILITARY PERSONNEL FUNCTIONS
Critical military personnel functions impact current operations and planning for future operations. They cannot be curtailed or suspended. The PSS structure provides the following critical functions:
- Replacement operations.
- Strength management.
- Personnel accounting and strength reporting.
- Casualty management.
- Personnel data base management.
- Personnel information management.
- Postal operations
FM 12-6 provides a detailed description of each of these critical military personnel functions.
Other military personnel functions include finance services, morale and welfare support activities, and legal services. These functions may be curtailed or suspended during intense periods of combat. However, since they directly affect morale, they must be fully resumed as soon as possible.
PERSONNEL SERVICES SUPPORT
Personnel service companies process combat-essential personnel information. They provide direct military personnel support to strength managers and commanders. They provide or process the following military personnel support functions and/or documents:
- Personnel data base management.
- Personnel accounting and strength reporting.
- Personnel information management.
- Enlisted and officer evaluations.
- Identification documents.
- Casualty reports.
- Enlisted promotions and reductions.
- Officer promotions.
DS replacement companies process individual and small-team replacements and other in-transit personnel. Replacement platoons receive replacements to the AO, provide them with a battlefield orientation, and arrange for billeting and field feeding. Since ASGs operate marshaling and staging areas for some deploying units, replacement platoons may collocate with ASG units. DS replacement companies make assignments against fill plans and coordinate transportation support to carry replacements to their assigned units. Replacement platoons also coordinate re-equipping of return-to-duty personnel.
Strength management functions determine personnel replacement requirements and influence personnel cross-leveling and replacement distribution decisions. Company headquarters personnel use SIDPERS personnel accounting and strength reporting system to maintain their unit's personnel data base. They forward their daily personnel summaries and personnel requirements reports to the supporting personnel service company. Battalion S1s prepare a consolidated report and information copies.
Services (DS) postal platoons are normally attached for support to the major supported unit in the supported area and collocate as the unit deploys. Location ultimately depends on METT-T The company headquarters element collocates with the Personnel Services Battalion in the division rear CP or with the personnel group in the corps rear CP.
The services (DS) postal platoon is responsible for the following critical tasks:
- Provide official mail to division signal officer.
- Prepare mail to unit mail clerks mail delivery points for delivery to addressees.
- Receive, process, cancel, and dispatch outgoing mail.
- Receive, process, and redirect incoming unit and individual mail.
- Process and redirect mail for soldiers and army civilians in a casualty status.
- Maintain mobility to move to and support forward areas, normally brigade areas, then rapidly relocate according to the tactical situation.
- Update postal routing schemes by accurately tracking supported unit locations and unit individual gains and losses.
The theater finance group provides finance support on an area basis to all units in the COMMZ through its finance support battalion. A finance support battalion normally collocates with the supporting personnel service company. It provides military pay to soldiers and operates commercial accounts and operational funds. For more information on finance support, refer to FM 14-7.
Company headquarters appoint class A agents and establish internal procedures to meet the personal financial needs of their soldiers. Budget officers must establish procedures for specialty teams, such as CA teams or utilities teams, to obtain and account for operational funds.
The band company provides music to promote troop morale, esprit de corps, and civil-military relations in support of military operations. They provide music at troop gatherings and military and religious ceremonies. They also provide support for civil and public affairs, recruiting efforts, and psychological operations activities. The band augments local security forces when combat intensity reaches the point that the use of the band in its music mission is impractical.
Legal service support must be available to all personnel in the area. Unusual or complex legal questions, such as US unit relationships with the HN and the administration of HNS, presented to the ASG SJA section are passed on to the EAC support command headquarters legal staff for resolution.
Legal services support is provided to all units by personnel of the Judge Advocate General's Corps. Legal service support includes advice and assistance to commanders and staffs on matters concerning military, domestic, foreign, and international law. JAG officers advise commanders and staffs on the procedures used to implement statutes, treaties, and regulations. They also assist soldiers with personal legal problems.
Court-martial convening authority may be extended to the commander of an ASG. A trial defense detachment assigned to the EAC support command assists the ASG when necessary. A contract law team may be available from the EAC support command to assist and advise contract negotiators. If authority to negotiate contracts is delegated to the ASG, assistance from this team may be needed.
Combat health support is provided to the ASG on an area basis. Medical command, medical brigade, and medical group units provide this support. Refer to Figure 9-5. For a more detailed discussion on CHS refer to FMs 8-10, 8-10-4, 8-10-6, 8-10-7, 8-10-14, 8-10-24, 8-42, and 8-55.
PATIENT EVACUATION AND MEDICAL REGULATING
The medical battalion, area support in the corps and in the COMMZ, provides medical evacuation on an area basis to Echelons I and II medical treatment facilities within its respective area of operation. The medical battalion evacuation provides command and control for the ground and air ambulance companies providing medical evacuation to Echelons III and IV MTFs within the corps and COMMZ. The USAF has the primary responsibility for evacuating patients to CONUS.
AREA MEDICAL SUPPORT AND HOSPITALIZATION
Medical treatment in the corps and COMMZ is provided by--
- Organic assets of combat and combat support units (Echelon I).
- Medical battalion, area support to units assigned in the battalion's area of operations (Echelons I and II).
- Hospitals (Echelons III and IV).
Echelon III hospitals include the combat support hospital and the mobile army surgical hospital. Echelon IV hospitals include the field hospital and the general hospital.
COMBAT STRESS CONTROL
Mental health activities are conducted on an area basis by the medical battalion, area support for units located in the corps and COMMZ. Corps combat stress control elements (medical company, CSC and medical detachment, CSC) can provide combat stress prevention and restoration assistance at regeneration sites. These CSC teams can be attached to the regeneration task force to provide support to attrited unit personnel.
HEALTH SERVICE LOGISTICS TO INCLUDE BLOOD MANAGEMENT
Health service logistics functions include--
- Materiel management (receiving, shipping, storage, and property accounting of Class VIII medical supplies and equipment).
- Medical equipment maintenance.
- Prescription optical lens fabrication support.
- Blood management, storage, and distribution.
- New technology like oxygen generation, resuscitative fluids production, blood substitutes, and frozen blood.
The health service logistics function within the corps and COMMZ is accomplished by the medical battalion, logistics (forward/rear). The medical battalion logistics (rear) must be prepared to function as the single integrated medical logistics manager for a joint theater. The Theater Medical Materiel Management Center monitors the operation of health service logistics units in the theater that may include joint forces if a SIMLM is assigned. Units authorized medical materiel establish an account with the supporting medical logistics unit for resupply.
DENTAL SERVICE SUPPORT
The medical battalion, area support provides unit dental support for units in its AOR. Corps and COMMZ area support dental units can provide emergency, sustaining, and maintaining dental support within the theater. See FM 8-10-19 for a discussion of dental support.
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE SUPPORT
Preventive medicine support can reduce the adverse impact of disease and nonbattle injuries and assist in preventing their cause through pest management activities. Corps and COMMZ preventive medicine unit support includes--
- Dining facility and food preparation sanitation inspections.
- Pest management.
- Immunization and control of communicable diseases.
- Water and ice quality assurance.
- Chemical prophylaxis.
- Prevention of heat and cold injuries.
Supporting corps and COMMZ veterinary units provide--
- Care and treatment for government-owned animals.
- Inspection of food sources and food stuffs for quality and wholesomeness.
- Inspection of food storage and issue facilities.
- Inspection of subsistence suspected of NBC contamination.
MEDICAL LABORATORY SERVICES
Limited medical laboratory diagnostic resources are located at Echelon II MTFs. The sophistication of medical laboratory capabilities increases within each echelon of care with the COMMZ area medical laboratory having the greatest capability within the theater.
MEDICAL COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS, AND INTELLIGENCE
Command, control, communication, computers, and intelligence is the responsibility of medical organizations at all levels of command. Normally, medical C4I is handled either by a medical command, medical brigade, or medical group. The type of medical C4I headquarters employed in the operational area is dependent upon the size of the deployed force.
As shown on Figure 9-6, transportation units provide terminal service operations, coordinate cargo transfer operations, and control highway transportation. ASGs depend upon the transportation system for movement of supplies into and out of their supporting facilities. ASG units request transportation support from the supporting MCT MCTs commit and schedule transportation support. Depending on the ASG commander's policy, ASG units may contact the MCT directly or they may submit requirements through the transportation branch of its support operations directorate. The later allows the ASG to prioritize requests when transportation support is limited.
Logistics support from outside the theater must pass through aerial or water ports of debarkation. transportation units operate ports, terminals, rail systems, and inland water systems. MCTs task line-haul units to move materiel from the ports to forward locations. Cargo transfer companies and trailer transfer detachments conduct inland transfer operations at terminals, depots, and transfer points. Transportation support may be provided by a combination of US commercial, US military, and HN civilian and military organizations. FMs 55-1 and 55-10 provide a detailed discussion of transportation organizations and functions.
The MCA is the movement manager in the COMMZ. It coordinates and administers transportation policy. Its highway regulation traffic division provides theaterwide management of transportation assets and highway traffic regulation. Its transportation battalions (MC) and subordinate MCTs coordinate movement into, within, and out of the theater. They perform the interface with ASG shippers and receivers. Depending upon geographic dispersion or span of control, MCTs may be assigned to movement regions to manage movements on an area basis. Refer again to Figure 9-6. MCTs issue movement releases, provide truck movement capabilities data, and alert ASG receiving agencies to accept programmed shipments. FM 55-10 describes movement control in a theater.
The Air Mobility Command moves high-priority personnel, equipment, and supplies from CONUS. Air terminal MCTs expedite movement of units, personnel, and supplies from AF terminals. Within the theater, AF and army air transport extend ALOCs. They support preplanned and immediate resupply of critical high priority supplies, to include munitions, rations, water, blood, and blood products. The cargo transfer company loads and unloads aircraft. It provides break-bulk of consolidated shipments.
In the COMMZ, highway regulation is the HN's responsibility. Movement regulating teams operate along MSRs. They schedule and direct movements on available road nets according to priorities.
Military rail unit capability is very limited. TOEs exist for a transportation railway battalion and subordinate rail equipment maintenance company, railway engineering company, and train operating company. However, ASGs normally rely on the HN's civilian rail transportation net to move supplies from ports to sites inland.
In harbor areas, inland waterways, and along theater coastlines, water transport units attached to a terminal service battalion support the movement of supplies as far forward as inland waterways and the tactical situation allows. The floating craft GS maintenance company and medium lighter company provide floating utility service and lighterage service. Cargo transfer companies and terminal service companies (breakbulk and container) provide cargo transfer support.
Maintenance support may be provided by allied or HN maintenance organizations and civilian contractors. Maintenance support not within the ASG's maintenance resources include--
- C-E/COMSEC equipment maintenance provided by signal support units and mobile MSTs. COMSEC logistics support facilities provide COMSEC maintenance beyond the capability of area maintenance and supply facilities.
- Computer hardware maintenance provided by civilian contractors.
- Rail maintenance provided by the HN or a commercial contractor or by railway engineering companies.
- Marine maintenance provided by marine maintenance units or TRANSCOM floating craft maintenance units.
MPs perform battlefield circulation control, area security, and EPW support. When needed, MPs help provide law and order. Table 9-2 lists MP battlefield missions. MP units may provide area support or special-purpose support. Friendly HN police forces may assume some of the responsibilities normally assigned to the MP.
As shown by Figure 9-7, general-purpose MP units and battalions are assigned to the EAC support command's MP brigade or battalions to provide support to forces in the assigned area. Based on EAC support command priorities, they provide security on an area basis of highly critical designated facilities or the LOC. MP battalion areas of operation generally coincide with the area boundaries of the ASGs. MP companies and detachments may be attached to the ASG. Those attached to the ASG's BSB provide installation and NEO support. Special-purpose MP units may be assigned to other subordinate commands to provide special MP support, such as EPW internment. FMs 19-1 and 19-4 provide a full discussion of MP support.
BATTLEFIELD CIRCULATION CONTROL
MP units work closely with the highway traffic section of the MCA to provide battlefield circulation control on MSRs. This control helps to expedite the movement of supplies and vehicles on the MSR network.
MP coordinate with ASG BSB, SPO, or ROC (ASG) personnel on NEO operation support. They provide escorts to move noncombatants from assembly points to theater embarkation terminals.
MP units also coordinate with the G5, CA dislocated civilian teams, and HN authorities to restrict refugee movement to routes other than MSRs. They deny the movement of civilians that may hinder military operations.
MP area security operations are listed on Table 9-2. MP elements attached to the ASG's BSB perform terrorism counteractions to secure installations from terrorist actions. ASGs require MP dedicated security of critical facilities, resources, and MSR critical points. MPs provide security for port, waterway, and railway facilities. They prevent sabotage, pilferage, and intentional mishandling of cargo. MPs patrol the area through which the LOC passes. If viable, the HN may provide security of LOC critical facilities.
The ROC (ASG) coordinates with MP battalions on rear operations support. MPs assist bases and base clusters in resisting threat activities and report threat activities in the area to the ROC (ASG). MP units delay and disrupt larger threat forces until US, allied, or HN combat forces arrive to defeat the threat.
Special-purpose MP EPW unit and MP confinement element are responsible for the collection, evacuation, and internment of EPW. They may operate temporary EPW holding areas in the COMMZ. The ASG provides rations, health and comfort packs, and Class II items for EPWs. Property controlled by the ASG SPO directorate may be required for use as temporary detention facilities.
LAW AND ORDER
MP presence helps ensure voluntary compliance with laws and with the orders and regulations of the command. It also helps prevent diversification of supplies and black market activity in the ASG area. MPs investigate serious incidents. Confinement teams are placed in direct support of ASG headquarters for pretrial detention purposes.
EOD support is designed to detect, identify, render safe, recover, evacuate, and dispose of items of unexploded domestic and foreign ordnance. This includes improvised explosive devices that present hazards to military operations, installations, personnel, and materiel. EOD personnel assist in the coordinated defense of installations from terrorists threats. They also assist law enforcement agencies in dealing with terrorist explosive devices.
As shown by Figure 9-8, EOD support is provided by an EOD control team, EOD detachments, and augmentation EOD response teams. For more information on these EOD support elements, refer to FMs 9-6 and 9-15.
EOD CONTROL TEAM
An EOD control team can be assigned to the EAC support command to control EOD response on an area basis. The EOD control team commander is the EOD staff officer for the EAC support command. All EOD assets report to the EOD control team for mission direction. It tasks subordinate EOD detachments based on priorities established by the EAC support command commander. It also coordinates civilian requests for EOD support.
EOD DETACHMENTS AND RESPONSE TEAMS
Eight EOD detachments are allocated per EAC support command. These detachments are attached to the ASG for logistics support and to be proximate to the supported units for EOD missions as directed by the EAC support command EOD control team. For example, an EOD detachment is normally attached to the ASG's base support battalion. EOD detachments advise commanders and staff on unexploded ordnance hazard protective measures. Each EOD detachment can respond to approximately 50 routine incidents per day. EOD detachments dispatch one of five organic EOD response teams. EOD response teams perform the following tasks:
- Detect unexploded ordnance hazards.
- Identify unexploded US and foreign ordnance.
- Render safe unexploded ordnance.
- Recover unexploded ordnance.
- Dispose of unexploded ordnance.
EOD detachments assist the EAC support command and ROCs (ASG) in area damage control missions. An EOD detachment usually collocates with the ASG RAOC. The EAC support command ROC assists in categorizing and prioritizing EOD incidents. All units submit requests for EOD support through their S3 to their supporting RAOC. In peacetime, or when there is no requirement to mass EOD assets to respond to major incidents, requests for EOD support may be submitted directly to the area EOD detachment.
Each unit must have at least two personnel designated as explosive ordnance reconnaissance agents trained by the supporting EOD detachment. EOD detachments train unit personnel to recognize and report the presence and type of unexploded ordnance. These detachments also conduct EOD bomb and sabotage training for civil preparedness.
AUGMENTATION EODRESPONSE TEAMS
Augmentation EOD response teams may be assigned to an EOD control team or an EOD detachment. These teams can provide the capability to respond to an additional 10 routine incidents per day. They perform the same missions as the EOD teams.
Chemical units provide NBC reconnaissance, warning, agent identification, decontamination (less patient decontamination), and screening or deception smoke support to ASG units. Figure 9-9 depicts the NBC support organization in the COMMZ. The exact number of chemical units may vary from that shown in the figure due to theater specific differences in NBC support requirements.
A chemical battalion is assigned to the EAC support command. An NBC center team is authorized to each EAC support command and each ASG headquarters to perform NBC warning and reporting functions. ASG units submit requests for NBC support to a supporting chemical battalion.
Awareness of and subsequent avoidance of contamination are key to survival on the battlefield. Most units have basic detection equipment. However, a chemical reconnaissance company assigned to the EAC support command chemical battalion provides NBC reconnaissance for large-areas.
NBC WARNING AND REPORTING
NBC center teams at each EAC support command and ASG headquarters forward NBC hazard information and battlefield contamination information to the theater NBC center. The ASG NBC center team provides processed NBC information to units in or passing through the ASG AO. It interfaces with allied nation NBC information systems to exchange NBC hazard data.
Chemical agents may be identified with detection paper and chemical agent detection kits. However, biological agents or toxins require a laboratory facility for identification. Medical personnel collect medical samples (sputum, blood, tissue, and stool) of suspect biological agents or toxins for laboratory analysis. The area medical laboratory performs initial analysis and identification of biological agents and toxins from medical samples. Unknown contamination agent samples are managed by the technical intelligence chain. Technical intelligence teams forward samples to a servicing laboratory for analysis.
Most units decontaminate their own equipment or operate with partially contaminated resources. Their SOPs identify decontamination sequencing.
A chemical decontamination company assigned to the EAC support command's chemical battalion provides decontamination support for decontamination of high-priority equipment, facilities, and terrain. Decontamination detachments (Team FA) can work operational and thorough decon sites to support unit operations. The ASG commander sets priorities for decontamination of equipment in subordinate ASG units. The chemical decontamination company also provides guidance to units to assist in self-decontamination efforts.
A chemical smoke company assigned to the EAC support command's chemical battalion generates screening or deception smoke used to deny the enemy information and to conceal friendly activities. Smoke may be used to screen obstacle emplacements, critical rear area installations, and deception operations.
Screening smoke can be used to obscure ASG facilities during high-risk periods. Smoke screens can obscure logistics activities and reduce targeting by enemy intelligence. It reduces the effectiveness of threat surveillance and target acquisition efforts. Smoke can interfere with the guidance system of some munitions.
Deception smoke can confuse and mislead the enemy. It can simulate cover for unit relocations. It causes the enemy to commit resources to defend areas near areas where deception smoke has been observed.
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