Our soldiers are the key element in crisis response and combat capability. To ensure their survival, we must provide them rations, water, protective gear, and adequate shelter. Supplies may be pre-positioned afloat or ashore, purchased locally or deployed with the force. Follow-on logistics must be properly sequenced to arrive and support deployed forces until LOCs are established.
Deployed units must have sufficient supplies. The Army must be capable of rapid and effective conversion to a war-supporting supply system. There are no special wartime CSS systems. Existing supply systems are expanded and the emphasis changes to unconstrained support of combat elements.
Establishing supply support operations where no prior operations exist presents formidable challenges to supply staff officers. A phased buildup of forces may begin in peacetime. Temporary changes to policy may be necessitated by the buildup. As the buildup proceeds, additional ASG elements deploy to perform-supply support functions.
ASG SUPPLY MISSION AND ORGANIZATION
ASG supply support operations include procuring, receiving, storing, and issuing items. This chapter discusses the DS and GS supply support provided by ASGs. ASGs perform the supply functions for all classes of supply except Class V and VIII. They also procure and salvage supplies. Geography, availability of HNS, probability of local procurement, and the probable duration of the operations influence the ASG's supply support mission and organization.
ASG SUPPLY MISSION
The ASG's supply mission is determined by the supply management actions of the EAC support command MMC. The type and quantity of materiel entering, stored in, and issued from ASG supply units are determined by MMC.
Supply units listed on Table 5-1 can be assigned or attached to an ASG ASB or S&S battalion to provide required supply support capabilities. These supply units support units in or passing through the ASG AO. Depending upon the ASGs location in the COMMZ, the EAC support command may task the GS supply units and heavy materiel supply units to provide general supplies to corps GSUs/DSUs.
Following advance warning of impending crisis, ASG supply units--
- Screen ASL to delete noncombat-critical items.
- Initiate selective cancellation on outstanding requisitions deemed nonessential for combat.
- Prepare to receive and distribute CONUS-based army reserve stocks.
- Acquire facilities to receive, process, store, and issue stocks.
- Call forward CONUS reserve stocks and preplanned supplies.
- Initiate theater wartime requisitioning procedures.
ASG SUPPLY SUPPORT ORGANIZATION
The ASG supply support organization depends upon whether supply requirements can be offset through assured HNS or by local contracts. It also depends on whether the ASG is tasked to support allies and HN military or paramilitary units and civilian activities.
Forward-presence units attached to BSBs store materiel in theater to facilitate deployment of additional forces to the theater. They are authorized to establish combat ASLs for all commodities required during the initial stages of war. AR 710-2 prescribes wartime stockage.
Initially, tailored supply elements may deploy early as part of an ASG area support element-forward. Refer back to Figure 4-1. They reconfigure to their basic TOE structure and are attached to a multifunctional ASB or S&S battalion upon establishment of a SEALOC and in-country storage areas.
DS Supply Units
ASG DS supply units provide requested supplies to customer units in their assigned areas on a customer-demand basis. DS supply work load is based on requests received from supported units.
Requisitions originate at DS supply units. They are prepared to obtain materiel requested by customers or to return DS stockage to authorized levels. ASG DSUs replenish their stocks by sending requisitions to their EAC MMC.
DS supply units adjust their receipt, storage, and issue activities to match the needs of supported units. Past history and estimates are used to plan for the local area DS supply work load. Stockage at DS supply units is based on the economic order quantity or days of supply stockage policy prescribed by AR 710-2. Requirements must be recalculated frequently to keep pace with changing conditions and movement of customer units.
DS supply units operate salvage collection points near maintenance collection points. Supported units turn in unserviceable or excess supplies and equipment as well as found and captured items. Inspectors determine serviceability. The EAC support command MMC provides disposition instructions. Reparable items are sent to maintenance units. Unserviceable items and equipment are evacuated to marketing and reutilization facilities.
GS Supply Units
ASG GS supply units and heavy materiel supply units provide supplies to replenish stocks and fill nonstockage supply requests from DS supply units. They respond to MMC directives and MROs from the EAC MMC. Less than full-scale deployments may necessitate a single GS supply unit serving the EAC MMC. ASG GS supply units are not involved in pass or fill decisions.
In a full-scale deployment, two GS supply units may be operational at the ASG. As shown by Figure 5-1, one GS supply unit performs as directed by the EAC MMC directives. For example:
- Those GS supply units and heavy materiel supply units that are theater-oriented respond to EAC MMC directives. Depending on the theater commander's policy, the EAC MMC tasks these units directly. These ASG GS supply units store materiel managed by the EAC MMC, to include theater critical items and army reserve stocks. They issue stock to theater-oriented GS supply units and to corps GS supply units.
- EAC support command GS supply units are theater-oriented. They are the source of general supply for EAC support command DS supply units.
The tiering of GS supply organizations shown on Figure 5-1 permits precise control of assets. The EAC MMC cannot originate MROs for theater-controlled materiel unless so directed by the theater commander. EAC MMC assumes control of materiel when the assets are released to them by the MMC MRO. An information copy of each MRO should be provided to both the EAC MMC and ASG support operations directorate.
PLANNING AND COORDINATING SUPPLY SUPPORT OPERATIONS
S&S branch staff officers must modify and adapt the basic supply planning guidance in AR 710-2 and FM 101-10-1/2 to local conditions in the AO. Petroleum supply staff personnel must provide the expected high volume of petroleum movements to the TAMCA's highway circulation plan.
After considering the areas listed on Table 5-2 ASG S&S branch personnel recommend ways to adapt the ASG supply support structure and capabilities to changing supply requirements. They prepare guidance and supply directives that specify how ASG units perform their supply support missions.
S&S branch personnel monitor support provided by ASG supply units to ensure compliance with SOPs/FSOPs and MMC directives. ASG SSAs should participate directly in supply planning. If the workload begins to approach the maximum capacity of an ASG SSA, the S&S branch personnel at the subordinate ASB or S&S battalion take appropriate action. ASG S&S branch personnel visit sites, conduct inspections, gather supply performance data, plot trends, and provide advice and assistance to ASG supply units.
ASG S&S branch personnel monitor the work loads from the EAC MMC to ensure that ASG supply units are not over committed. If work loads exceed a supply unit's capabilities, they recommend alternatives, such as cross-leveling assets or workloads with the ASG AO or attaching additional supply personnel and storage equipment.
Periodically, S&S branch personnel check storage facilities to ensure that they are operated according to regulations. They investigate problems surfaced by customer units. They resolve conflicts between MMC directives and the ability of ASG supply units to respond.
Repair parts technicians assigned to the S&S branch ensure that critical repair parts are expedited. They monitor the consumption of repair parts and resolve problems related to repair parts availability.
CLASS I SUPPLY ESTIMATE
Supply estimates provide a means by which S&S branch personnel assess how best to support proposed operations. The supply estimate is based on troop strength in the area, on consumption rates, experience data, and days of supply required. The basic calculations are further modified for types of units, location on the battlefield and other variables observed. To determine the feasibility of the proposed operations, S&S branch personnel requirements against the mission capability to receive, store, and distribute required stocks. Estimates of required storage and supply distribution requirements impact on estimates prepared by the transportation branch and engineer branch personnel.
Formulas in FM 101-10-1/2 are useful in estimating supply requirements when both the strengths to be supported and the desired level of support are known. ASG S&S branch personnel assess supply requirements based on knowledge of--
- Strategic and tactical plans.
- Area of operation.
- Accumulated demand data or previous experience factors.
- Force structure and troop strength data.
- Expected intensity of combat.
- Item density.
PLANNING FACTOR REQUIREMENTS DETERMINATION TEMPLATES
Requirements determination templates automate many of the procedures outlined in FM 101-10-l/2. They contain the most current operational rates approved by HQDA. LOTUS 1-2-3 based microcomputer templates available from CASCOM can help ASG S&S branch staff officers calculate supply consumption requirements on a recurring basis. Templates exist to calculate Class III, repair parts usage, and Class I, II, IV, VI, VIII, and water requirements based on standard population data. Consumption data is based on theater of operation, combat posture, and combat intensities. ASGs can send requests for a copy of the current requirements determination templates to--Commander, US Army Combined Arms Support Command and Fort Lee, ATTN ATCL-FSP, Fort Lee, VA 23801-6000.
HN SUPPORT LOGISTICS DIRECTORATE
Directorate personnel coordinate with CA teams in determining the availability of local supplies. They determine the availability of local resources and government economic controls. They work with CA teams in acquiring foreign nation goods to support forces and operations OCONUS. They assist ASG subordinate battalion staff with activating preplanned requests for wartime HNS and with developing ad hoc requests.
Directorate staff coordinates civilian supply activities, to include coordinating the use of salvage and captured supplies for use by dislocated civilians. They also develop plans to prevent black-market activities.
Supplies cannot always best be provided through normal military supply channels. Depending upon time and distance factors, local procurement of subsistence items, fuels and packaged products, and construction materials may be the preferred alternative.
The theater commander establishes a theater contracting agency to provide policy, procedures, and guidance to purchasing and contracting officers. That agency may establish purchasing and contracting teams at the EAC MMC.
ASG procurement personnel need to determine if--
- Local currencies have been authorized for local procurement?
- Local currency acquisition points have been identified?
- Contracting or ordering officers and imprest fund cashiers have received instructions concerning interface and coordination with the servicing finance support command?
- Class X supplies are funded?
- Logistics requirements have been costed?
- An account processing code has been established for contracting support or local purchase?
- There are an adequate number of contracting officers with the proper warrant?
- Finance support is available to the contracting officer?
- Linguists are available to support contracting or local purchase requirements?
Units may require HQDA authorization to receive POMCUS equipment when they deploy from CONUS to the theater of operation. The theater stores and maintains this equipment as operational project stocks near the proposed war base. Units should update their deployment plans upon receipt of their annual POMCUS authorization documents. Deploying units must determine POMCUS shortages before deployment.
OPERATIONAL PROJECT STOCKS
Special operations forces and other units are authorized to use operational project stocks to obtain the required supplies and equipment to support contingency operations and war plans. ASG S&S branch personnel should ensure that these stocks are filled and maintained at acceptable levels. Operational project stocks could be set aside to establish an intermediate staging base. AR 710-1 prescribes procedures for requesting and establishing operational projects.
ARMY RESERVE STOCKS
Army reserve stocks may be tailored in packages for deployment with units. Army reserve stocks include theater war reserves and DA-approved operational project stocks. Army reserve stocks may be maintained afloat adjacent to the theater of operations or in a third country support base.
Sufficient stock must be available to satisfy requirements until resupply can be effected. Units deploy to the AO with their combat PLL. SSAs deploy with their combat ASLs.
Stockage must be consistent with the mission, probable threats, climate, and geography in the AO. Stock levels are determined based upon strength figures, end item densities, and demand history. Demand history is used as a basis for stockage decisions. Criteria used to decide whether to stock a specific item at DS or GS level is contained in AR 710-2. Order and shipping times from CONUS are major factors in determining the amount and location of supplies. Items shipped by air require less stockage in theater than those shipped by sea. Significant changes in the units supported or in their missions necessitate adjustments to the stockage levels.
Theater wartime supply levels are prescribed for categories of stock. By calculating a daily consumption rate for the units in the theater and multiplying it by the required days of supply, a theater stockage objective can be determined. Wartime stockage levels for DSUs assigned to ASGs are prescribed by the theater commander based on assessment of the battlefield environment.
Storage requirements vary depending upon the commodity to be stored.
Storage capacity required for bulk fuels is determined based on consumption rates and stockage objectives. Planning factor criteria are listed in FM 101-10-1/2.
Storage requirements for ammunition are determined based on consumption rates, the square feet per STON of the types of ammunition to be stored, separation distances required for safe storage, and the storage objective.
FM 101-10-1/2 provides general planning factors for determining covered and cold storage facilities for general supplies. However, the storage planning factors should be adjusted based upon warehouse facilities and local consumption rate experience.
The Army obtains supplies from every available source. The EAC MMC sets salvage priorities based on theater needs and supply status. In a mature theater, the DLA conducts reutilization and disposal activities. Abandoned or damaged items can be salvaged for use for their original or similar purpose. Salvage collection includes the recovery of sister Service, allied, and enemy items. Intelligence units establish procedures for disposition of enemy items.
Salvage operations occur throughout an ASG AO. DS supply units and maintenance units set up salvage collection points. Salvage collection points may receive--
- Excess supplies.
- Seasonal turn-ins.
- Worn or damaged equipment.
- Materiel lost, abandoned, or discarded on battlefields and in bivouac areas.
- Captured enemy materiel (less medical).
DS supply unit Class II, IV, and VII supply points set up a salvage collection point for nonmechanical salvage near maintenance collection points. Nonmechanical salvage includes such items as--
- Tentage, canvas, and webbing.
- Individual equipment.
- Field furniture.
- Five gallon gasoline cans.
- Fifty-five gallon drums.
Salvage collection points should not accept toxic agents, ammunition, explosives, radioactive materials, COMSEC equipment, medical materiel, or aircraft. These items must be turned in to units with the specialized capabilities to handle them. Nonmechanical salvage collection points turn over mechanical items to maintenance units for classification and disposition.
Reparable equipment is recovered through maintenance evacuation channels. Using units turn unserviceable mechanical items into their supporting DS maintenance units. DS maintenance units perform technical inspection and classify the items as either reparable, not reparable this level, or salvage. Maintenance units also obtain unserviceable assets from nonmechanical salvage collection points operated by DS supply units.
Nonreparable items are recovered based upon procedures established by the commander. Items classified as not reparable at the DS maintenance level are evacuated to a designated GS maintenance unit. There, the items are reevaluated. If classified as salvage at the GS level, the GS maintenance unit requests disposition instructions from the EAC MMC. Items classified as salvage are turned over to the unit assigned the salvage mission. The property disposal officer provides disposition instructions.
DLA elements may continue to provide a property disposal service within the ASG AO. However, if DLA civilians do not continue to do so after hostilities begin, ASG DS supply units or maintenance unit personnel may be tasked to provide property disposal services. HN personnel may be used to evacuate materiel destined for property disposal to the ASG AO. Maintenance and supply personnel then inspect and classify the materiel. The MMC coordinates disposal operations to insure that usable materiel is reutilized and not lost from the theater.
Hazardous materials are handled according to DOD Regulation 4160.21-M and per servicing regional DRMO letter of instructions.
Supply points should be close to the MSR and to an airfield or heliport for resupply operations. Separate entrances, exits, and traffic holding areas prevent traffic congestion. The area should be large enough to allow dispersion of equipment and supplies. An area should also be set aside for sling loading supplies.
This section provides a generic overview of supply requisition and distribution flows. Differences in requisition and distribution for the various classes of supply are annotated in the subsequent section.
This section describes the routing and disposition of requisitions.
Forward Presence SSAs
Forward presence SSAs transmit requisitions to the supporting MMC for editing. Based on DA pass and fill logic, when stocks are not available or stock replenishment is required, requisitions are transmitted to a CONUS NICP.
CONUS Based SSAs
CONUS based SSAs pass requisitions to the installation supply division or MMC for editing, funding, and fill according to prescribed fill or pass logic. Requisitions that are passed are sent to the NICP. The NICP item manager then directs shipment from the distribution depot to the installation supply division.
Requisitions from the CMMC
When items are not available within COSCOM GSUs, the CMMC transmits the requisitions to the EAC MMC or CONUS-based ICPs. The EAC MMC conducts a search to determine:
- If the supplies are on hand in a theater-controlled GSU, they are issued to the supporting GSU or DSU.
- If stocks are not on hand, the EAC MMC passes the requisition to the CONUS ICP.
Requests/Requisitions within the COMMZ
At OLS, supported units submit requests to their supporting DS supply point or maintenance unit. If requested supplies are not on hand, the supporting unit transmits a requisition to the EAC MMC. The EAC MMC performs a search. If supplies are not on hand within EAC support command units, the EAC MMC passes the requisition to the CONUS ICP.
During peacetime, forward presence DS and GS supply units are resupplied primarily from the CONUS support base. DS and GS supply activities in CONUS are supported directly from the wholesale depot. Stocks are not authorized at CONUS installations to support DS and GS supply activities. The NICP item manager directs shipment to the requisitioner using surface transportation, SEALOC, or ALOC for Class IX and maintenance related Class II items. The ICP directs release of stocks from CONUS depots. The depot ships the stocks to the CONUS airport or seaport of embarkation. The air or sea port of debarkation receives, reprocesses, and surface-transports stocks to theater GSUs for later issue to EAC MMC/corps GSUs or the consignee.
During the transition to war phase, supplies must be either pre-positioned or carried by the deploying units. Initial units deploy to an AO with sufficient basic loads to sustain them based on the CINC's guidance. Mission, threat, climate, and expected duration of the operation determine the initial basic loads of deploying units.
Without in country or friendly country resources or the capability for initial resupply from pre-positioned stocks afloat, ASG units may be tasked to provide limited GS supply support from a third country support base. Initial limited supply support may include Class II, packaged Class III, and Class IV supplies procured from in-country sources or friendly countries near the AO.
Supply points provide support throughout their area of operation on a unit, area, or task support basis.
- Unit support is that supply support provided to a designated unit or a group of units.
- Area support is provided to all units located within a designated geographic area. Supported units usually pick up their supplies at the supply point. This is called supply point distribution.
- Task support consists of a specified type or amount of a supply unit's support capability provided to designated units or a geographic area to accomplish identified tasks.
Air Lines of Communication
The ALOC system features direct air delivery during peacetime. It does not change when war is declared. EAC MMC continues to requisition from CONUS NICPs. Stocks continue to be flown to the airport in the area of the DSU that supports the requesting unit.
However, airlift capability may be extremely constrained during the initial stages of deployment. Only critical, combat-essential supplies will be airlifted. Air-eligible items are restricted to selected Class VIII, Class IX with Air-Eligible Category Code 1 or 3, and maintenance-related Class II items. In addition, based on aircraft availability, Issue Priority Group-1 shipments may be flown into the AO upon validation of the urgency of need by the Logistics Control Agency.
The ALOC system is used to deliver air-eligible items to units designated to receive ALOC support. Materiel in support of ALOC units is requisitioned directly from CONUS NICPs by requisitioning ALOC-eligible items from the EAC MMC.
Figure 5-2 depicts supply requisition and materiel flow in support of ALOC designated units. The EAC MMC either directs the issue from an ASG repair parts supply company or passes the requisition directly to a CONUS NICP. Requisitions for ALOC-items that have been designated theater-controlled items would be passed first to the EAC MMC to be either filled by the ASG repair parts company or passed to CONUS.
In CONUS, ALOC shipments are moved from a distribution depot to an aerial port of embarkation. Repair parts and selected maintenance related-Class II are shipped daily by air to ALOC designated maintenance units. They are flown to a predesignated APOD for direct delivery to the maintenance unit or repair parts supply company. Note that ALOC shipments designated for non-ASG DSUs would bypass ASGs.
Consolidated and containerized shipments containing ALOC stocks for multiple customers must first be sent to designated in-theater break-bulk points prior to distribution to individual requisitioners.
Approximately 95 percent of all supplies arrive in the AO through seaports. They are then transported to SSAs. Surface shipments satisfy routine requirements for Class I, II, packaged III, IV, VII, and ALOC-ineligible IX. Nonair-transported materiel is obtained by requisitioning it through the MMC.
When practicable, shipments are throughput from the seaports directly to the requisitioning GSUs/DSUs. Surface shipments for forward presence SSAs are sent to a consolidation or containerization point at an area-oriented depot serving the geographic region. Their stocks are containerized or palletized. An Army transportation port terminal transfer unit transfers supplies and equipment. Automated in-transit visibility allows for tracking and re-routing of shipments as required.
During the sustaining phase, supplies flow from ASCC GSUs to EAC support command GSUs/DSUs. The MMC and MCA maintain in-transit visibility of all cargo. Stocks are diverted as required. Figure 5-3 depicts SEALOC and surface resupply during the sustaining phase of theater operations.
Whenever feasible, surface shipments should be throughput to the consignee. Throughput reduces the off loading and reloading of supplies at intermediate facilities. This reduces shipment time and possible damages. When the consignee is a non-ASG DSU, throughput shipments would bypass the ASG.
S&S and transportation branch staffs must consider all factors when deciding how to route supplies. Due to requirements to be mobile or to organic equipment constraints, some customer units may not be able to handle or store supplies.
The DS supply company's cargo-handling section prepares supplies on pallets and at cargo sites for sling loading at heliports. Section personnel prepare sling loads of supplies and equipment for helicopter lift. FM 55-450-3 details the location of the signaler and hookup soldiers during helicopter sling load operations.
ASG units should conduct sling load training before an operational situation. Units need to train soldiers to rig supplies and equipment, mark landing zones, and use correct hand signals and safety precautions working near helicopters.
NBC contamination of stocks as a result of enemy actions poses a serious threat to the availability of supplies. Contaminated stocks are not normally issued. However, in emergency situations, contaminated supplies may be issued if the contaminated supplies will provide a decisive tactical advantage to the using unit. Contaminated stocks are issued first to units that are similarly contaminated. The decision to issue contaminated supplies must be made jointly by the issuing and receiving commanders.
Items grouped into a class of supply are managed and handled in ways that accommodate the characteristics of those items. This section describes the supply procedures associated with the classes of supply received, stored, and issued by ASG units.
Applicable ASG SSAs receive, store, and issue all classes of supply except Classes V and VIII. Based on existing or established support agreements, ASG SSAs may process general supplies for other US services and combined and coalition forces.
SUBSISTENCE SUPPORT--CLASS I
Class I includes subsistence items and gratuitously issued health and comfort items, Subsistence supplies stored in ASG supply units vary depending upon the level of fighting and resultant opportunities to serve conventional hot meals. Following Army field feeding guidance in FM 10-23 and AR 30-21, Class I supply point personnel receive, store temporarily, and issue Class I supplies to supported units. The types and quantities of rations shipped under the push system are dependent on--
- Personnel strength data.
- Unit locations.
- Type of operations.
- Feeding capabilities.
- Theater field feeding policy.
Initially, commissary stocks are turned over to the theater. Rations are supplemented with subsistence items purchased locally. FM 10-1 prescribes the principles of support. FM 10-23-2 covers the details of subsistence supply and management in theaters of operations.
Commercially prepared pouch bread supplements individual and group rations until commercially available bread can be procured. The assumption is that fresh bread products will be provided by commercial vendors.
Health and Comfort Packs
Initially, soldiers carry 30 days of personal health and comfort items with them. Essential PX stocks may be turned over to the theater supply system to support this initial issue. These initial personal health and comfort items are later supplemented by Class I health and comfort packs containing health, sanitation, and personal demand items issued gratuitously with Class I rations. Health and comfort packs are issued on the basis of one pack per 10 persons per 30 days. Female health and comfort packs provide additional female hygiene and comfort items. These packs are issued on the basis of one pack per 10 females per 30 days.
Available refrigeration determines the amount of A Ration meals that can be provided. A perishable subsistence platoon may be fielded and attached to a GS supply company. Alternatives are for contractor personnel to arrange for refrigeration support or to use assets from the HN or third-country sources.
Ice may be provided through HNS, commercial support, or organic equipment. Preventive medicine personnel inspect ice to ensure that it is safe for consumption.
Consolidated Field Feeding
Under the area feeding concept prescribed by FM 10-23, nondivision separate units with a strength of less than 30 soldiers are not resourced with food service personnel. They must coordinate with nearby feeding units for support. Nondivision separate units with a required strength of from 30 to 99 soldiers are authorized one cook to assist with ration preparation in the feeding units. Supported units provide KP support to offset the increase in sanitation work load associated with group rations.
The mobile field kitchen authorized the ASG company headquarters is designed to enable authorized food service personnel to prepare and serve the full range of rations for up to 300 personnel. This includes A Rations if refrigeration storage capability is available.
During the initial period of force deployment, forecasts may serve as a requisition. In the initial stages of conflict, rations are pushed to supply points based on strength reports. As the system stabilizes, supported units submit daily ration requests several days in advance of their ration pickup at the supporting Class I supply point. Class I supply points consolidate the requests and submit a consolidated requisition to the Class I section of the EAC MMC.
DS supply units order replenishment stocks from the EAC MMC. For other than unitized rations, DS supply units must include line item requisitions. CMMCs submit daily strength reports to the EAC MMC. The EAC MMC then computes and transmits Class I replenishment requirements to the applicable NICP.
DLA prepares an MRO directing release and shipment of depot stocks. Class I supplies are shipped from CONUS to the theater GS supply unit. That unit issues Class I supplies to corps GS supply units. These units break down rations for issue to the Class I supply points of supported DS supply companies. Their Class I supply points support consuming units on an area support basis.
Water is required for personal health and comfort. Water is required for personal hygiene, centralized hygiene, laundry, food preparation, and treatment of heat injuries. It is also required for vehicle coolant, engineer construction operations, aircraft washing, sanitation, firefighting and chemical decontamination. Water support requirements depend on--
- Battlefield environment (whether temperate, tropic Arctic or arid).
- MOPP levels.
- Expected duration of hostilities.
- Size of the force.
- Command policy for rations, frequency of showers, and laundry service.
Time-phased water requirements can be estimated using consumption planning factors in FMs 10-52 and 101-10-1/2. Water supply planners must consider seasonal variations that may increase or decrease water requirements. The MMC monitors water priorities and allocations.
During the deployment phase, prepackaged potable water may be provided from offshore or nearby third country support bases. Bottled water may be purchased from local businesses but only after prior certification by preventive medicine personnel.
During the lodgment phase, in temperate, tropic, and Arctic regions, nonpotable water requirements can be met by raw water sources and establishment of an in-country water supply system. Large amounts of potable water do not need to be stored. However, in areas where potable water is not readily available, it becomes a high-priority, critical commodity. Potable water must be stored for all requirements.
Local water sources are used whenever available and usable. In industrialized areas, fresh surface and subsurface water may be readily available. Water points set up operations near a medically approved water source. Possible water sources include ground water, existing piped systems, wells, streams, lakes, ponds, rivers, and sea water.
In temperate, tropic, and Arctic environments, DS supply companies attached to an ASB or S&S battalion can meet user requirements for water. During the buildup phase, each company can set up four water points to provide water support on an area basis. Water supply points normally collocate with Class I supply points. Each water point can produce 60,000 gallons of potable water per day. Water supply points purify and disinfect water and store potable water in collapsible fabric bags and drums. Preventive medicine personnel from the supporting medical organization monitor the quality of water.
In arid regions, water points are augmented with additional storage and distribution equipment. Augmenting arid operations teams may be attached to the ASB or S&S battalion's DS supply company. When the magnitude of the water mission requires large scale water capability, a water supply battalion may be attached to the petroleum group to coordinate the large scale operation of water purification, storage and distribution facilities. The petroleum group provides command and control of all GS water assets. FM 10-52 describes water point operations in arid and nonarid environments.
Engineer units locate well sites for ground water development. They not only detect subsurface water, but also drill, construct, repair, and maintain water facilities. They can also help prepare the water point by preparing individual tank sites, removing underbrush from distribution areas, clearing parking areas for trucks, and building an improved road through the site.
Units in the area drive to the DS supply company's water point to obtain potable water. They use organic 400-gallon water trailers or 250-gallon fabric drums to transport potable water to unit locations.
Water supply impacts on transportation requirements. Water points may use S&P tractor trailers to haul the SMFT to deliver water to large consumers that have no organic water transport capability. Deliveries to major users, such as hospitals, necessitate using the 3,000-gallon SMFT. FMs 10-27-2 and 10-115 provide details on water storage and distribution system layout. Locating major water users, such as MA sections, near water points' makes distribution easier. Five-ton cargo trucks can haul the FAWPSS, which can also be airdropped to isolated units in an emergency. When available, USAF C-130 aircraft and Army helicopters may be used to resupply water.
ORGANIZATIONAL EQUIPMENT, CLOTHING, AND INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT SUPPORT-CLASS II
Class II includes expendable and consumable items and secondary items of equipment authorized in allowance tables. This includes--
- Individual equipment.
- Tool sets and tool kits.
- Administrative and housekeeping supplies and equipment.
The using unit determines a requirement and requests the item from the supporting DS supply unit's Class II, IV and VII supply point. If stocks are on hand, the supporting DS supply unit fills the request.
If stocks are not on hand, the DS supply unit consolidates the requests and forwards a requisition to the EAC MMC. If stocks are available within the GS supply company or heavy materiel supply company, the EAC MMC cuts an MRO to release the items. As required, the EAC MMC requisitions replenishment stocks from the applicable NICP.
In the COMMZ, the EAC MMC manages unclassified maps. It determines map-stockage levels and submits initial and replenishment requisitions through Defense Mapping Agency channels. The DMA remains the source of standard map supply.
Units order standard maps from their supporting DS supply company. In the future they will use a specified document identifier code and a DMA number similar to a manufacturer's part number. Units request classified maps through intelligence channels.
A map supply platoon, assigned to the GS supply company, stores standard maps at EAC support command map storage sites. Distribution of unclassified map products is through standard Class II supply channels. The DS supply units issue maps according to established distribution schedules or at the direction of the EAC MMC.
US Army Corps of Engineers topographic battalions produce special maps and terrain-related products and services. They retain the ability to produce limited quantities of standard maps in theater. Requests for special maps and terrain related products must be submitted through engineer channels.
BULK FUEL SUPPORT--CLASS III
The Army's ability to move depends upon its supply of bulk fuel. Bulk fuels can makeup over 50 percent of the tonnage moved in a developed theater. In industrialized areas where storage tanks and pipelines are already in place, initial supplies of bulk fuels can be obtained locally. Subsequent bulk fuels are shipped by tanker ships. In undeveloped areas, initial fuels are brought in by tanker ships.
FM 101-10-1/2 provides formulas and tables for computing combat consumption rates and requirements when the end item density is known. It also lists bulk fuel usage factors by equipment category.
The Army sets up an integrated bulk fuel distribution system to provide bulk fuel to sister Services and allies, if required. FM 10-67 describes bulk fuel supply in theaters of operations. The Class III supply point of DS supply companies attached to a subordinate S&S battalion or ASB operates bulk petroleum storage and issue points. Following procedures in FM 10-69, Class III supply points issue bulk fuels to units operating in the COMMZ. Supported units drive organic trucks to the Class III supply point. Class III points may have to provide some unit distribution.
The petroleum supply battalion assigned to the ASG provides GS level bulk fuels. The petroleum supply companies of this battalion provide the interface between the petroleum group's pipeline or terminal loading facilities and the DS supply companies that issue bulk fuels. A mobile laboratory team may be attached to the petroleum supply battalion to monitor the quality of bulk fuels. FM 10-72 describes laboratory teams.
Class III Site
In towns, Class III supply points may setup operations in warehouses, service stations, and similar facilities. In the field, the site should be on an MSR or have direct access to the MSR. To reduce traffic problems, traffic flow should be one way.
S4s provide a short-range fuel forecast to the supporting DSU. The forecast outlines estimated bulk fuel requirements based on known and projected mission requirements.
Bulk fuel is centrally managed and allocated. As shown by Figure 5-4, the CMMCs and EAC MMC submit forecasted requirements for the following three days to the MMC. The MMC consolidates the forecasts and sends them to the joint petroleum office. Forecasts are then sent to the defense fuel supply center that purchases bulk fuels and schedules delivery to petroleum supply companies.
The petroleum supply battalion transmits requirements for resupply through the EAC MMC. The MMC Class III section passes requirements to the theater petroleum group. The petroleum group directs the petroleum pipeline and terminal operating battalion and supporting truck companies to provide resupply fuel to ASG petroleum supply companies.
Receipt and Storage
DS supply company Class III points may receive fuel resupply from the petroleum supply company via pipeline, line haul truck, or bladder bird. The EAC MMC informs the DS supply company Class III point of the types and quantities of fuel it will be receiving. It also tells the supply point the estimated date and time the fuel will arrive at the supply point. The DS supply unit Class III point stores fuel in the 20,000-gallon collapsible tanks of the FSSP. AR 710-2 sets the stockage policy. FM 10-69 prescribes procedures to follow during the receipt and storage of bulk fuel.
Bulk Fuel Issue
The Class III supply point issues bulk fuel on an area support basis based on priorities established by the theater commander and directives from the EAC MMC. Units with tank vehicles obtain their bulk fuel supply by supply point distribution. Class III supply point personnel transfer fuel from the 20,000-gallon collapsible tanks to fuel-hauling vehicles. Other units may refuel vehicles from mobile filling stations set up in their vicinity. Tank and pump units distribute fuel to units that have no organic tank vehicles.
Supporting medium truck companies (petroleum), attached to the transportation battalion, use semitrailers to transport fuel forward from petroleum supply company Class III points to supported units. Tank trucks/semitrailers and hose lines perform local haul resupply. Tank trucks/semitrailers, pipelines, rail tank cars, and barges are used in line haul resupply operations.
Class III supply point also fills 500-gallon collapsible drums, 55-gallon drums, and 5-gallon cans to be airlifted to supported units. They may need to prepare drums and cans for delivery by sling load FMs 10-68 and 10-69 both provide details on bulk reduction and sling load operations.
Planes or helicopters may be used to expedite delivery. The FARE may be used to refuel aircraft. FM 10-68 prescribes aircraft refueling procedures.
Mobile Filling Stations
When the volume of traffic through the area justifies the requirement, Class III supply points may use their organic tank and pump unit or FARE system to provide a mobile roadside gas station-type service operation.
PACKAGED PRODUCTS SUPPORT--CLASS III
Packaged products include lubricating oils, greases, hydraulic fluids, and specialty items normally packaged by the manufacturer. They are stored, transported, and issued in containers of 55-gallon capacity or less. Packaged products also include bulk fuels which, because of operational necessity, are packaged and supplied in containers of 5 to 55-gallon capacities. Fuels in collapsible containers of 500-gallons or less are also considered as packaged fuels. FM 101-10-l/2 tables list combat consumption rates for packaged petroleum products.
DS supply companies provide packaged III supplies. For user convenience, some packaged petroleum products may be issued at bulk fuel supply points.
The general supply company provides GS packaged products to DS supply companies and to corps general supply companies.
CONSTRUCTION AND FORTIFICATION/BARRIER MATERIAL SUPPORT--CLASS IV
Class IV includes material used for unit defensive barrier and fortifications as well as construction material used for base development. Requirements depend upon the intensity of conflict, the type of battle, and the maneuver commander's initiatives in employment of Class IV.
Requests for Class IV items normally require command approval. The MMC controls selected Class IV construction material in coordination with the senior engineer commander.
PERSONAL DEMAND ITEMS--CLASS VI
Class VI consists of AAFES items sold to troops and authorized individuals. They are made available through local procurement or through requisition on CONUS AAFES. As the theater matures and conditions permit, mobile exchange sales teams may sell PX type personal demand items to specified units or troop concentrations from mobile or freed facility sites. Personal demand items include nonmilitary sales items such as candy, cigarettes, soap, and cameras that may be purchased through HN or contract support. The theater commander exercises control over the availability and variety of Class VI supplies provided through AAFES operations. Shipping space impacts on allocations.
MAJOR END ITEMS SUPPORT--CLASS VII
Class VII supplies are nonexpendable items of equipment referred to as major end items. They are normally controlled through command channels. Requests must be based on TOEs or other authorization documents. The MMC manages all Class VII items.
All requisitions for Class VII are routed through the MMC. For example:
- If stocks are not on hand within the corps, the CMMC passes the requisition to the EAC MMC. Based on command guidance on priority and quantities to be issued, the MMC either directs issue from a theater heavy materiel supply company to a corps heavy materiel supply company or forwards the requisition to the applicable CONUS ICP. The EAC MMC submits a daily report for major items used from stocks to replace battle losses. CMMCs submit requisitions to the EAC MMC to request replacements for items turned-in to GS maintenance.
- If stocks are not on hand within the COMMZ, the EAC MMC passes the requisition to the CONUS ICP. The ICP directs release from the appropriate depot. At the air or sea port of debarkation, items are reprocessed and moved by surface transport to the theater heavy materiel supply company for issue to the corps or throughput directly to the consignee.
Major end items are configured by the shipper to minimize in-country processing. ASG heavy materiel supply company personnel should deploy early to deprocess weapon systems from CONUS. Weapon systems are then transported to a forward support area where they are made ready for issue. Vehicles are fueled. Basic issue items are placed aboard. However, no ammunition is loaded aboard.
Replacement weapon systems are controlled by a weapon systems manager. During moderate-sized deployments, the EAC MMC assumes management of all Class VII items.
REPAIR PARTS AND COMPONENTS SUPPORT--CLASS IX
Class IX is demand supported. Requirements depend upon the equipment of the forces supported and on maintenance repair policy. DA Pamphlet 710-2-2 describes procedures for establishing initial stockage and determining retention of stocks. The availability of Class IX repair parts can directly affect the readiness of major weapon systems.
During the transition to war phase, initial repair parts requirements can be met through controlled exchange and cannibalization. Deploying units perform quick-fix, combat-essential maintenance with emphasis on assembly replacements. The use of cent rolled exchange must be intensively managed to prevent misuse.
The EAC MMC manages Class IX supply for OLS units in the COMMZ. It computes Class IX stockage based on the PLLs of units to be supported.
When stocks of noncontrolled repair parts are not on hand within the corps, the CMMC transmits the requisition to the CONUS ICP. For theater-controlled Class IX items, the CMMC passes untilled requirements to the EAC MMC. Refer to Figure 5-2. For example:
- If stocks are on hand, the EAC MMC sends an MRO to a theater-controlled repair parts supply company. The theater repair parts supply company then issues the items to the corps repair parts supply company or consignee.
- If stocks are not on hand, the EAC MMC transmits the requisition to the CONUS ICP.
Within the COMMZ using units request required repair parts from their supporting DS maintenance unit. For example:
- If noncontrolled repair parts are on hand, the supporting DS maintenance unit issues the repair parts. The EAC MMC adjusts its stock records.
- If the parts are not on hand, maintenance units forward a requisition to the EAC MMC. The EAC MMC transmits requisitions to the ICP for air shipment to ALOC designated units.
The EAC MMC manages the release, receipt, storage, and issue of all repair parts except marine and rail peculiar repair parts managed by marine maintenance and railway equipment companies.
If the requisition is for a high priority repair part and the part is on hand, the EAC MMC directs the issue and shipment from a repair parts supply company. The repair parts supply company is the GS source of supply for Class IX items in the COMMZ. It maintains a combat ASL of parts to backup the ASL lines of supported maintenance units. The range of that ASL is controlled initially by wartime expected usage and thereafter by suitable wartime demand criteria.
NONMILITARY PROGRAMS SUPPORT--CLASS X
Class X items support nonmilitary programs such as agriculture and economic development. Requirements depend upon the technological capabilities of the country involved, the population to be supported, and the geographic location. If resources in the AO are inadequate to support the civilian population, DS supply units attached to an ASB or S&S battalion may be tasked to store and issue Class X nonmilitary, humanitarian assistance supplies to civil agencies or charitable organizations. FM 41-10 provides details on civil affairs supply.
Supply management is performed by the EAC MMC. The EAC MMC is the theater control center for supply management.
THE EAC MMC
The EAC MMC is the principal supply management organization for the theater. It provides theaterwide materiel management for all items except Class VIII items. It maintains theaterwide asset visibility for--
- Army reserve stocks.
- Class III bulk fuels.
- Class V ammunition, guided missiles, and large rockets.
- Class VII major end items.
- Class IX theater level reparables.
The EAC MMC allocates items of supply following priorities established by the theater commander. This ensures that limited assets are put to the best use. The EAC MMC has the ability to evaluate and compare the needs of the entire theater. It controls critical items in short supply to ensure the optimum use of those assets. The EAC MMC consists of eight materiel management directorates that exercise day-to-day integrated materiel management of assigned commodities. These directorates interact closely with the commodity commands of the CONUS-based AMC, DLA, and GSA.
The EAC MMC is the primary interface with CONUS NICPs. It manages all theater stockage lists supplies except-
- Class VI.
- Class VIII.
- ALOC Classes II and IX requisitioned by the EAC MMC and CMMCs.
- Classified maps.
- Certain COMSEC equipment.
The EAC MMC controls materiel that has been designated theater-controlled stock. Other materiel is managed by the EAC MMC and CMMCs in conformance with theater directives. The EAC MMC exchanges information continuously with CMMCs.
The EAC MMC is responsible for the supply requirements for a geographic area within the COMMZ. This includes local procurement to support demands. The EAC MMC provides centralized control and management for GS stocks that are theater assets. Supplies stored in DS SSAs are dropped from EAC MMC stock record accountability. They are not included in theater asset balances. The EAC MMC also manages the supply of theater stocks that may be stored and distributed by theater units.
The EAC MMC determines the quantities and types of items to be stored at supply points. It issues MROs to release stock to COMMZ DSUs. To satisfy urgent demands, it may laterally transfer stocks or redirect the distribution of stocks from supply points that have an excess on hand.
The theater regulated items program or a senior command element may regulate items within the ASG DSUs. The EAC MMC passes requests for regulated items to the theater headquarters or regulating senior command element for approval or disapproval. If approved, requests are returned to the EAC MMC for normal processing.
Class II, IV and VII regulated items are introduced early in the flow. However, they are stocked in very small quantities. Initial preplanned supply support packages provide the means for initial stockage to DSUs.
The EAC MMC transmits requisitions for supplies to support operations. ALOC designated Class IX and maintenance-related Class II items that are not theater-controlled are the exception. The EAC MMC transmits requisitions from ALOC units for Class IX and maintenance related Class II ALOC to the appropriate CONUS NICP.
The EAC MMC performs a search of the area. If the supplies are not on hand, or if the supply point is not authorized to release them, it transmits the requisitions to the ICP. For example:
- If the supplies are available within the area, the EAC MMC cuts an MRO directing their issue. The MRO identities the type and quantity of supplies and who requested them. The EAC MMC coordinates transportation requirements with the theater MCA. The EAC MMC informs the SSAs of the type and quantity of supplies due in and the shipment arrival time.
- If the supplies are not available within the AO, the EAC MMC transmits a requisition to the ICP.
The S&S battalion and ASB use SARSS-1 programs to facilitate receipt, storage, and issue of Class II, packaged III, IV, and VII supplies. Subordinate DS supply units use SARSS-1 programs to monitor stock on hand and to transmit requisitions to the EAC MMC. As a backup procedure, couriers may carry floppy disks of SARSS-1 to the EAC MMC.
The interface of SARSS-1 with CSSCS at ASGs provides ASGs with asset visibility data on command tracked items. CSSCS uses SARSS-1 data to project probable supply status on command tracked items in 24, 48, and 72 hours increments.
SARSS 2A/2B programs provides the EAC MMC with asset visibility. The EAC MMC uses SARSS 2A/2B programs to--
- Analyze demands.
- Compute requirements.
- Perform lateral issue.
- Control critical stocks.
- Make management exception decisions.
Commanders at all levels must guard against unnecessary expenditures and accumulation of nonessential stocks. Supplies that are saved become supplies which are available when critically needed. To ensure that supplies will be available, support operations staff officers at group and battalion level need to--
- Monitor asset visibility reports.
- Determine realistic expenditure rates.
- Implement supply priorities.
- Ensure stocks can be moved as required.
- Ensure prompt evacuation of excess supplies or unserviceable equipment.
- Use HN resources to the maximum extent possible.
Supply support of operations is situationally dependent. It depends on the forces deployed, on the infrastructure in the AO, and on the expected duration of the operation. In general, normal supply support procedures apply, whether the support is required by combat forces or civilian agencies which request domestic support. Support differs only in the quantity of supplies required and in the size of the ASG element tasked to provide or to assist in providing that support.
DOMESTIC SUPPORT OPERATIONS
In supporting domestic operations, the focus is on life sustaining functions required by the population in the disaster area. Subordinate DS supply units, platoons, or detachments can issue individual rations, ration components for hot meals, potable water, clothing, and shelter items. They can also provide construction materials required by engineer units tasked to construct temporary "life support centers" and electrical and plumbing facilities and provide structure repairs that enable civilian communities to recover from natural disasters. DS supply units can provide a wide variety of OCIE items, ranging from tents to clothing and tools. Attached water teams can purify and distribute potable water when commercial purification plants are unable to meet requirements.
Normally, civilian agencies handle donated goods. However, elements from DS supply units could also be tasked to set up for the receipt, storage, and distribution of donated goods. This includes personal hygiene, comfort, and welfare items and incoming supplies donated for disaster relief victims, rescuers, and contractors.
Personnel from a subordinate petroleum supply battalion and companies can be tasked to respond to oil spills. Together with ASG fire fighting teams, they may assist in the containment and clean-up of oil spills. Petroleum battalion staff officers need to prepare spill prevention, control, and countermeasure plans and spill contingency plans.
Supply support of PKOs depends on resources available in the AO and the extent of civilian contractor, allied, and HN resources. Depending upon whether initial stocks exist as prepositioned war reserves or operational project stock forward or afloat, GS supply units may be tasked to preconfigure packages for sustainment of initial deploying peacekeeping forces.
Petroleum products may be procured from indigenous sources or through other agencies outside the supported nation. Contracts may provide for storage, distribution, and quality surveillance of bulk fuels within or outside the AO.
MMC teams should deploy early. This allows follow-on demands to be placed on the CONUS supply system for timely shipment by SEALOC. Major end items may need to be shipped to replace destroyed or inoperable items. Heavy equipment units could provide end items to allied forces or in response to Security Assistance programs.
Barrier and construction materials may be required early for development of base camps for US and coalition forces. Engineers require construction supplies to rebuild or improve roads, airfields, and bridges. Construction supplies may also be needed to build transient centers or camps for refugees or to repair or build hospitals, schools, or orphanages. Because of their bulk, whenever possible, construction supplies should be procured within the AO.
While units deploy with their PLL, repair parts are required to support US military equipment. They may be shipped to support compatible equipment within the supported nation. Local procurement is required when equipment is leased within the AO. Refer to FM 100-23.
Theater dependent, an ASG BSB may have an attached MP unit and EOD detachment that focus on combating terrorism in the AO. These elements may require unique supplies and equipment to combat terrorism or assist local law enforcement agencies in combatting terrorism.
CONUS ASGs may direct that subordinate DS supply companies provide the FBI with barrier materials, protective masks, and protective clothing. Approval from the Secretary of the Army or his representative is required to provide arms and combat or tactical vehicles.
INSURGENCY OR COUNTERINSURGENCY
ASG elements may provide food, water, and equipment for indigenous resistance forces or SOFs. Food support must align with the dietary habits, customs, and traditions of indigenous forces. Depending upon equipment deployed, bulk fuels and packaged products may be provided via contract from either the HN or a third country. However, remote aviation refueling sites may be needed. Major end items could be provided to the insurgent force as part of Security Assistance program. If the resources of the country are inadequate, US forces may provide Class X civilian relief supplies and economic aid to the civilian population. Civilian relief supplies, which might be managed and/or distributed by ASG units, include food, clothing, and shelter items.
Regeneration requires large scale replacement of supplies to rebuild attrited units to the desired level of combat effectiveness commensurate with mission requirements. Depending upon time and distance factors, and the availability or nonavailability of secure regeneration sites in the corps or division area, ASGs may provide supplies and personnel to assist a division, corps, or EAC support command-level regeneration task force. If time and distance factors influence the RTF to select a site within a forward CSG AO, the rear CSG and ASG could provide backup supply support. The ASG could be tasked to throughput bulk fuels and supplies to the regeneration site. Once the RTF and attrited units reach the regeneration site, supply support is similar to normal supply support operations. Support differs only in the large quantity of supply support required to bring attrited units to combat effectiveness and the time available to provide that support.
Initially, the ASG could arrange to have DS supply companies set up refuel-on-the-move sites at multiple link-up points on the line of march to the regeneration site. Then, depending upon bulk fuel requirements and prioritized shipping instructions from the EAC MMC, the petroleum supply battalion can ship bulk fuel by rail or bulk carriers to the Class III point set up at the regeneration site.
Replacement End Items
Based on early status reports from the attrited units, the heavy materiel supply company could process critical weapon systems and end items for immediate shipment via HET or rail car to the regeneration site. Weapon systems need to be prepared as "ready for issue." They are to arrive at the site fueled and with ammunition on board.
Rations and Health and Comfort Packs
Hot meals with fresh bread and pastries should be provided at the site as soon as possible. Depending upon the field feeding capability, a DS supply company or general supply company may ship group ration components together with health and comfort packs to the regeneration site. They should also prepare to ship individual and group rations to replenish unit basic loads. The RTF may contract for ice from HN resources.
With showers considered an essential morale factor, a water point from the DS supply company could be among the first elements tasked to move to the regeneration site, even if that site were set up in the corps rear area. The DS supply company could then ship potable water to the regeneration site to support requirements for hot showers, ration preparation, drinking water, and medical treatment requirements.
Construction and Fortification Materials
Depending upon local facilities at the regeneration site, a DS supply company or general supply company may ship construction and fortification materials to the regeneration site for engineer construction of required facilities. Due to time factors, it may be more efficient for procurement personnel to purchase prefabricated facilities or construction materials from the HN or local building suppliers.
Individual and Organizational Clothing and Equipment
Based on the tactical environment, chemical defense equipment may have to be prepackaged in preplanned push packages for immediate priority shipment to the regeneration site. MOPP gear, M291 Skin Decontamination Kits, M295 Decontamination Kit, individual equipment, and bulk decontamination supplies may be required at the initial rest site. Uniforms are provided through laundry team support operations at the site. Though not a priority, replacement OCIE could also be prepackaged to replace lost or damaged equipment. Assessment teams should have identified requirements for replacement of lost or damaged OCIE.
Early status reports from the attrited units and the type of MSTs sent to the regeneration site can alert ASG S&S branch personnel to the requirement for unique AVIM or missile repair parts. The repair parts supply company can package common repair parts to restock unit PLLs.
PX Exchange Items
Based on the existence of AFFES tactical field exchanges in theater, PX exchange items could be sold to soldiers to help raise their morale and reduce some of the stressors of combat.
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