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CHAPTER 7

Arming the Force

Arming the force presents the most extensive and time-sensitive challenge of the support system. No war can be won without munitions to arm weapon systems. Mission capable weapon systems remain ineffective if not provided with a continuous supply of ammunition.

No matter what intensity of war, the corps force can continue to fight only as long as CSG subordinate units arm the force. CSGs provide corps forces with missiles, munitions (including mines and explosive demolitions), and the transportation required for their movement.

FMs 9-6, 9-38, and 9-13 provide more detailed information on the topics in this chapter.

CONTENTS

CSG AMMUNITION SUPPORT ORGANIZATION

SUPPORT OPERATIONS

SUPPORT OF TACTICAL OPERATIONS

EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE

AMMUNITION CONTROLS

AUTOMATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

NBC CONCERNS

CSG AMMUNITION SUPPORT ORGANIZATION

CSG units supply and distribute the right mix and quantity of munitions to the right place at the right time. The ammunition distribution system calls for munitions as close to the point of weapon systems employment as the tactical situation and transportation system permit. Arming the force may require that forward CSG ammunition and transportation units replenish and deliver 3,500 STONs of ammunition per heavy division sector per day. This requires the synchronization of munitions receipt, reconfiguration, storage, movement, cargo transfer, and forward supply resources.

CONVENTIONAL AMMUNITION SUPPORT
STRUCTURE

Figure 7-1 depicts the CSG conventional ammunition support structure. Appendix A of FM 9-6 covers the organizational structures and missions of conventional ammunition units in greater detail. Based on HNS agreements with similar ammunition, a WHNS ordnance battalion ammunition units could augment the US support structure.

Ordnance Company, Ammunition, (DS)
(MOADS)/(MOADS/PLS)

An ammunition company (DS) (TOE 09483L000/09484L000) is attached to the forward CSG's forward CSB. Basis of allocation is one company per division. The company's mission is to establish and operate three dispersed ASPs and a ATP in the division area.

At full TOE authorized strength, each ammunition company (DS) (MOADS) has a daily lift capability of 2,130 STONs at the three ASPS collectively, and an additional 970 STONs at the ATP. Lift capabilities lessen during hostilities as casualties occur and equipment breaks down. Cross-leveling assets from other locations may be necessary to maintain or expand operations. ASP lifts are divided among the operations of receipt, storage, rewarehousing, reconfiguration, and issue of ammunition. ATP lifts are transload operations.

A medium truck company from the CSB provides transportation support to this unit. The CSG allocates additional transportation assets to support the ammunition company (DS) in the division sector based upon movement priorities, anticipated ammunition consumption, ammunition availability, and other such factors.

DS ammunition companies also perform limited DS maintenance (preservation and packaging) and modification of ammunition, components, and containers. Though the DS companies rely on EOD response teams, their personnel, along with DA civilian quality assurance/ammunition surveillance specialists, perform emergency and routine destruction of unserviceable ammunition.

The units are designed by TOE to be 50 percent mobile with their organic vehicles, not including ammunition stocks on hand. They provide administrative and logistics support of the personnel and equipment located at the ASPs and ATP.

Ordnance Company, Ammunition, (GS)
(MOADS)/(MOADS/PLS)

The ammunition companies (GS) (TOEs 09488L00/09433L000) are assigned to the rear CSG's ammunition battalion, to the S&S battalion, or to a CSB to establish and operate corps storage areas. One or more ammunition companies (GS) are required to operate each CSA established in the corps area. CSA allocation depends upon METT-T and the size of the corps' stockage objective.

Truck companies from the rear CSG's transportation battalion provide transportation support to the ammunition companies (GS). They move ammunition from the CSAs to the ASPs and ATPs. These truck units provide support on an area support basis. Their areas are adjusted based upon the intensity of combat and density of maneuver forces. If the GS company is attached to a CSB, then that CSB's medium truck company provides movement support.

Given its full TOE authorized strength, each ammunition company (GS) (MOADS) has a daily lift capability of about 5,320 STONs of ammunition. This figure assumes a mix of half containerized and half breakbulk ammunition, CSA lifts encompass the operations of receipt, storage, rewarehousing, reconfiguration, and issue of ammunition.

GS ammunition companies also perform limited DS maintenance (preservation and packaging) and modification of ammunition, components, and containers, Though these GS companies rely on EOD response teams, their personnel and QASAS perform emergency and routine destruction of unserviceable ammunition.

The units are designed by TOE to be 50 percent mobile with their organic vehicles, not including ammunition stocks on hand. They provide administrative and logistics support of the personnel and equipment located at the CSAs.

CELLULAR LOGISTICS TEAMS

Depending on the theater of operation and HN support agreements, the COSCOM may attach the HHD of a WHNS ordnance battalion to a CSG. This WHNS detachment and its subordinate WHNS ammunition companies collocate with the HN ammunition battalion and HN ammunition companies. As shown by Figure 7-2, they provide the CLT liaison between the CSG, CMMC, and HN ammunition organization.

HHD, Ordnance Battalion, Ammunition, WHNS

This battalion headquarters detachment (TOE 09574LA00) coordinates and manages US-owned Class V stocks received, stored, and issued to US forces by HN ammunition supply companies. It provides command, control, and staff planning for up to nine WHNS ammunition companies. It operates like a conventional ammunition battalion headquarters in that it prepares and disseminates logistics plans and orders. HHD personnel coordinate the --

  • Dissemination of CSR data to HN ammunition companies.
  • Distribution of ammunition stocks.
  • Cross-leveling of US ammunition stocks between HN ammunition supply companies.
  • Stockage objectives for HN units.
  • Surveillance program.
  • Relocation of HN ammunition supply companies and their physical security requirements.
  • Transportation requirements for subordinate ammunition detachments.

Ordnance Company, Ammunition, WHNS

These WHNS ammunition companies (TOE 09574LB00) provide operational control over US owned ammunition stocks which HN ammunition supply units maintain and issue to US combat units. The CMMC tasks HN ammunition supply companies through these WHNS ammunition companies. They serve as the interface between US forces and HN ammunition supply companies. They perform the following functions:

  • Coordinate the distribution of ammunition stocks with HN ammunition supply companies.
  • Coordinate emergency resupply of ammunition stocks.
  • Perform quality assurance/quality control functions, to include inspections and malfunction investigations on ammunition stocks.
  • Coordinate retrograde of suspended or unserviceable stocks.
  • Coordinate DS maintenance support for US equipment operated by HN ammunition supply companies.

Accounting Team, WHNS

These teams (TOE 09574LC00) assist in the accounting of US-owned ammunition handled by HN ammunition supply companies. Up to two accounting teams may be attached to a WHNS ammunition company, depending upon the HN structure and operation. They perform the following functions:

  • Perform stock accountability and stock status reporting of US-owned stocks.
  • Maintain surveillance data on ammunition stocks (to include ammunition interchangeability and substitution data).

SUPPORT OPERATIONS

The CSG and subordinate battalion's ammunition staff officers do not act autonomously with regard to support operations. They act in concert with the munitions and transportation managers at the CMMC and CMCC to coordinate assets, monitor and cross-level stocks, and direct the implementation of COSCOM support operations directives, CMMC taskings, and CMCC/MCT commitments. The CMMC is responsible for ammunition distribution, work loading, and management within the corps.

BATTLEFIELD EMPLOYMENT

Figure 7-3 depicts a sample employment of munitions elements.

Forward Ammunition Transfer Points

Forward ATPs provide ammunition support to their combat brigades and to other units that maybe operating in the brigade area. The FSBs operate the forward ATPs in or near the brigade support areas. The FSB's supply company provides administration and logistics support for the personnel and equipment in the ATP sections.

Although the forward ATPs are manned by elements from the FSBs, the DAO provides mission guidance through a representative located at each ATP. The respective combat brigade commanders establish shipment priorities.

At full authorized strength, forward ATP sections have a daily lift capability of 550 STONs, when organized to support heavy forces. When supporting light forces, this reduces to 350 STONs.

DS Ammunition Company ATP

The ATP established by the nondivision ammunition company (DS) supports corps units operating in the division area. This ATP supplies the high-volume, high-tonnage items used primarily by the corps artillery and aviation units. Its daily lift capability is 970 STONs. As a secondary function, it provides reinforcing support to the forward ATPs.

Though manned by an element from the nondivision ammunition company (DS), the ATP receives mission guidance and shipment priorities from the DAO through his representative located at that ATP.

ATPs receive their ammunition loaded on corps transportation assets. The majority of ammunition comes from the CSAs, and the remainder comes from the ASPs. Ammunition should not be downloaded from corps trailers and flatracks for temporary storage at the ATPs. This defeats the ATPs' purpose, which is to provide the combat units a place to transfer pre-positioned, uploaded ammunition onto their unit support vehicles as quickly as possible.

ATPs must be prepared to stop operations and relocate whenever the brigades or divisions move. Moves must be carefully coordinated with the CMMC, DAO, customer units, and ATP parent units so that continuity of support and protection of assets are not compromised.

Ammunition Supply Points

ASPs receive, store, issue, account for, combat configure, and prepare ammunition for ground or aerial transport to the ATPs and units operating in the division area. A nondivision ammunition company (DS) operates three ASPS and a ATP in each division sector. METT-T may necessitate establishing an ASP behind the division boundary. Ammunition companies (DS) provide administration and logistics support of the ammunition supply platoons which run each ASP. The platoons receive their mission work loads and priorities of issue from the CMMC.

Employing three ASPs in a division allows for continuous support to advancing combat forces. One ammunition platoon can relocate to better support the combat forces while the other two continue their ASP operations. Depending upon the tactical situation, simultaneous relocations may be necessary.

Each ASP should maintain a one-to three-day supply of ammunition to meet routine, surge, and emergency requirements. The COSCOM sets the stockage objective based on projected battle intensity, tactical plans, unit types, ammunition availability, LOC vulnerability, and enemy disruption of resupply operations. Requirements to relocate rapidly may limit ASP stockage levels to two days of supply or less.

Under MOADS doctrine, ASPS receive ammunition replenishment stocks on theater and corps transportation assets. Half come from the TSA and port and half come from the CSAs. Once the PLS is fielded, the ASPs receive all of their stocks from the CSAs on corps transportation assets. PLS is to be fielded in corps sets to corps truck units, GS and DS ammunition units, and self-propelled artillery units.

The corps allocates ground and air transportation for ammunition movement to committed divisions for specified periods of time or specific missions. Division transportation assets assist in emergency resupply of ammunition.

When the tactical situation disrupts shipments between the CSAs and the ATPs for 6 hours or more, ASPS ship emergency ammunition to the ATPs on available transportation until CSA operations resume or the MSR is reestablished. Such situations necessitate cross-leveling of personnel, equipment, and transportation assets to ensure that resulting increased work loads at the ASPs do not hinder support to the users.

Corps Storage Area

CSAs provide high tonnage ammunition for the divisions. They receive, store, issue, account for, inspect, combat configure, and prepare ammunition for shipment to the ASPs, ATPs, and units operating in the corps area. The rear CSG's transportation battalion supports ammunition shipments from the CSAs. Its medium truck companies collocate with or near the CSAs.

Depending upon the corps stockage objective and METT-T one or more ammunition companies (GS) operate one or more CSAs from semifixed or field locations in the corps area. CSAs locate at former ASP locations when combat forces advance a significant distance and the former ASP locations facilitate continuous support to the users.

The ammunition companies (GS) are organic to the rear CSG's ammunition battalion, to a CSB, or to a S&S battalion. The parent battalion coordinates the administrative and logistics support of the personnel and equipment in the GS companies. The companies receive their mission work loads and priorities of issue from the CMMC.

A CSA should maintain a 7-10 day supply of ammunition following initial combat drawdown. The COSCOM sets CSA stockage objectives based on the tactical situation, weapon types and densities, storage space, transportation assets, and vulnerability of LOCs from the TSA. In mature theaters of operation, initial CSA stockage comes from breakbulk pre-positioned war reserve stocks. CSAs then receive replenishment stocks on theater transportation assets, half from the TSA and half from the port, in either containerized or breakbulk form.

TERRAIN REQUIREMENTS

CSG and CSB ammunition staffs coordinate the DS ammunition company's ASP and ATP terrain positioning requirements with the division rear CP. To reduce signature and targeting, ammunition units disperse stocks. Ammunition must be kept distant from other commodities. Units locate storage sites as far as possible from hospitals and airfields, factories, or facilities subject to enemy attacks, Dispersion of stocks at CSA and ASP sites helps to minimize losses. CSG ammunition officers, military inspectors, and QASAS provide technical guidance on explosive safety and quantity-distance factors.

ASP Terrain Requirements

Each ASP may require an area 5 to 6 kilometers square or larger. Depending on METT-T, ASPs may receive up to 60 semitrailer loads of ammunition daily. In addition, an ammunition sling-out area, at least 25 meters square (larger for operations using CH-47 helicopters), needs to be established approximately 550 meters from Class V storage and inhabited areas. The sling-out area provides for limited aerial resupply by rotary wing aircraft.

The distance between ASPs and CSAs should not exceed 100 kilometers. This distance derives from the maximum practical lime-haul distances of supporting medium truck companies.

CSA Terrain Requirements

Terrain requirements of CSAs remain a primary concern of the CSG support operations officer. He coordinates CSA positioning requirements with the area RAOC. The COSCOM support operations officer coordinates CSA positioning requirements with the corps rear CP CSS and operations cells.

Depending on METT-T, CSAs need an estimated 40 square kilometers or more, preferably near primary MSRs or railheads. Road networks need to support up to 250 trailers arriving daily at the CSA. There should be no more than 130 kilometers between CSAs and ATPs. CSG ammunition officers coordinate engineer support to construct storage sites and hardened roads.

AMMUNITION REQUIREMENTS

In wartime, ammunition requirements, not requisitions, arc passed up the chain. Requirements alert commanders and supply channels of planned ammunition expenditures and that certain quantities and types of ammunition are required to support mission changes.

Battalion S4s and S3s work together to consolidate their ammunition requirements and pass them through their brigade or DIVARTY staffs to the DAO. Nondivision units operating in the division area, such as corps artillery, aviation, and engineer units, pass their requirements through their higher headquarters to the DAO as well. The DAO verifies, consolidates, and passes the requirements to the CMMC. He directs the using units to pick up their ammunition from one of the ATPs or ASPS, depending upon METT-T.

Nondivision units operating in the corps area pass their requirements through their higher headquarters directly to the CMMC. The CMMC verifies, consolidates and passes all requirements received from the DAOs and nondivision units to the TAMMC. The TAMMC passes its requisitions, not requirements, for theater ammunition resupply to the NICP.

AMMUNITION SUPPLY

Ammunition supply is based on a continuous fill/refill system. Ammunition is automatically pushed forward from the air and sea ports of debarkation. Figure 7-4 depicts ammunition supply flow.

The TAMMC directs TAACOM MMCs to provide ammunition support to the corps. TAACOM MMCs direct shipment from TSAs to the CSAs and ASPS. When possible, shipments from the port and TSA to the ASPs are palletized to facilitate handling. Munitions managers at the CMMC direct shipments from corps stocks at the CSAs to ASPS and from ASPS to ATPs. Combat configured loads, built at CSAs and ASPs, constitute a majority of those shipments.

To support the continuous, recurring distribution of ammunition, the COSCOM allocates corps transportation assets to CSGs to operate in a DS role. CSGs attach medium truck units to CSBs to provide habitual ammunition distribution system support for DS/GS ammunition units.

CSG and CSB transportation branches coordinate requirements with supporting MCTs to routinely move ammunition from CSAs to ASPs/ATPs and from ASPS to ATPs. The MCT preassigns a block of TMRs to cover continuous, recurring daily movement of ammunition from CSAs to ASPs and ATPs and from ASPs to ATPs. The CSG/CSB transportation branch staff tasks the medium truck company to move ammunition stocks. The medium truck company then coordinates with the supporting MCT for road credit. Supporting MCTs provide the shipping CSA/ASP advanced notice on the mode of transportation and time of arrival. They notify the receiving ASP/ATP about times of departure and arrival and the number and type of truck assets used.

Ammunition support to corps forces is by supply point distribution from the nearest ATE ASP or CSA. Normally, unit organic vehicles with onboard MHE pick up ammunition at supporting ATPs. However, based on distances and customer lists, some units pick up their ammunition from the nearest ASP or CSA in their support area.

Corps units, such as corps artillery, ADA, and engineers, employed in the brigade area pick up their ammunition at the forward ATPs. However, ammunition requirements need to be precoordinated with the DAO to determine that stocks exist at those forward ATPs. Most of the ammunition these type units use are easy-to-manage CCLs.

To support one or more corps FA battalions, often requiring a different caliber munition, forward ATPs must be augmented by the forward CSG. Forward CSG LOS at the DISCOM arrange for reinforcing support from the forward CSB's nondivision ammunition company, DS. Forward CSGs may cross-level ASP personnel, MHE equipment, and supporting transportation assets to augment ATP and ASP lift capabilities.

When corps artillery and engineer units move from one division to another within the same corps, they receive support from the new division's ATPs. Until the CSA to ATP resupply loop can be established for the additional ammunition support requirements, it maybe necessary to use aviation assets to transport ammunition from the previously supporting CSA/ASPs to the new ATPs. The COSCOM munitions support branch coordinates this continued support from out-of-sector CSAs and ASPs. They also coordinate the transfer of support responsibilities between units.

IMPROVED AMMUNITION
HANDLING SYSTEMS

Improved ammunition handling systems result in a more responsive ammunition supply and distribution system. They provide an improved capability to support changing tactical requirements. Techniques to reduce handling, conserve transportation, and streamline the resupply system
include --

  • Prepositioning high-demand ammunition.
  • Establishing CCLs for each type of combat unit.
  • Unit positioning of small stocks near battle positions.

MOADS-PLS

MOADS-PLS enhances current MOADS doctrine by incorporating the use of PLS flatracks and self-loading trucks. It expedites relocation of ammunition stocks because the ammunition is loaded on flatracks which slide directly on and off PLS trucks in one lift. A single PLS truck driver can drop off or pick up a loaded flatrack in a matter of minutes. Faster ammunition transfers decrease the amount of time trucks remain in the area. They also reduce the target signatures of the ASPs and ATPs.

Combat-Configured Loads

CCLs are preplanned, matched packages of ammunition, in complete round configuration, that can be transported as single units. CCLs improve the efficiency of DS and GS ammunition company operations at the storage sites. Storage personnel can build the standard CCLs continuously and routinely instead of preparing unique loads for each resupply mission. CCLs can be easily transported by PLS trucks and flatracks. They facilitate loading units' supply vehicles with a minimum breakdown of ammunition.

CCLs simplify planning and coordination for wartime ammunition resupply. To enhance wartime readiness, CCL planning occurs in peacetime. Corps staffs define from 15 to 20 corps standard CCLs to support their different units, weapon systems, and missions. It is faster and simpler in wartime for DAOs to call the CMMC for the required CCLs than for supported units to request each component of those CCLs.

ASP DECEPTION DECOYS

The logistics base decoy package contains two and three dimensional decoys which replicate ASPs. Their employment depends on the deception plan developed by the corps G3 and published in the OPORD. The corps deception section determines which decoy devices support the deception story. The CSG S2/S3 coordinates decoy positioning.

SUPPORT OF TACTICAL OPERATIONS

Arming the force depends upon METT-T. It may require forward CSGs to cross-level their ammunition personnel and equipment and transportation assets to support increased or emergency work loads at the ASPs or ATPs. This occurs when CSGs reinforce forward ATPs to support one or more additional corps artillery battalions in the brigade sector.

To successfully support tactical operations, CSG ammunition officers need to analyze munitions support options and how those options change to support tactical operations. Table 7-1 lists support planning considerations and actions which they can recommend or implement to weight the battle with respect to arming the system.

EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE

The arm function encompasses all types of ammunition, to include mines and demolition munitions. Mines and demolition munitions enhance the mobility, countermobility, and survivability of corps forces. They enable freedom of movement on the battlefield relative to the enemy.

MINES AND OBSTACLES

For offensive operations, corps forces require mines and explosives to breach enemy minefield and obstacles. Mines and explosives enable the force to maintain its mobility by removing or clearing enemy minefield and breaching obstacles such as antitank ditches.

During defensive operations, demolition obstacles help restrict or channel enemy movement. They may be used to slow or stop an enemy advance, deny terrain to the enemy, or enhance a kill zone.

EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL

The proliferation of munitions increases the risk to soldiers and to operations. EOD response teams reduce the hazards of unexploded ordnance. They detect, identify, render safe, recover, evacuate, and dispose of unexploded US and foreign ordnance. They assess explosive hazards and advise commanders on protective measures to reduce hazards and risks. They also provide supplemental hazard recognition training to soldiers. FM 9-6 describes the EOD support structure.

Ammunition company personnel assist EOD response teams with routine destruction of unserviceable conventional ammunition. If required, they can perform emergency destruction of unserviceable conventional ammunition.

AMMUNITION CONTROLS

Ammunition controls depend on ammunition stocks available, consumption rates, and tactical priorities. Basic loads enable units to support themselves for a short period without resupply. Required and controlled supply rates enable commanders to control the use and allocation of ammunition stocks.

AMMUNITION BASIC LOAD

An ABL is the quantity of ammunition authorized and required by a unit to support itself until resupply can be effected. The ABL must be capable of being carried in one lift by a unit's personnel and organic equipment along with other commodity basic loads.

A unit's ABL can be expressed in terms of its number of required combat loads/battalion loads. A combat load, or battalion load for artillery systems, is the quantity of ammunition carried by each deployable weapon system and its directly associated munitions carrier. For example, a unit's ABL may consist of 1.5 combat loads.

As a major part of the peacetime planning process, the theater commander determines the size and composition of the ABL for the entire theater, depending on the mission, enemy, and types of units. During this planning process, commanders at all levels analyze the directed ABL and recommend changes as required.

For a deployed corps, units maintain their ABLs uploaded on organic transport whenever possible. If this is not possible, they secure them in accessible areas. Battalion S2/S3s need to ensure that the basic load plans of subordinate units are workable.

REQUIRED SUPPLY RATE

The RSR is the quantity of ammunition a combat commander estimates will be needed to support tactical operations, without ammunition expenditure restrictions, over a specific time period. The RSR is based on threat and mission analyses. As these change, RSRs change to reflect revised ammunition forecasts.

At each level, S3s coordinate with S2s and S4s in estimating the RSR. RSRs are expressed as rounds per weapon per day or as a bulk allotment per day or per mission. If no assessment of the enemy exists, S3s may initially use FM 101-10-1 planning factors and expenditure rates to develop gross planning requirements. Requirements are later adjusted based on experience factors and actual consumption rates.

Division G3s provide the corps G3 with their RSRs. The corps G3 consolidates these RSRs and passes the corps RSR to the corps G4. The corps G4 passes requirements and guidance to the COSCOM support operations officer to determine if stocks can support requirements.

The CMMC, in coordination with the COSCOM support operations officer, passes current stock status and availability information with a supportability assessment to the corps G4. The corps G4 recommends a suitable distribution. The corps G3 reviews the recommendation in light of the corps' tactical situation and current and future corps operations.

CONTROLLED SUPPLY RATE

The CSR is the amount of ammunition that can be allocated over a specific time period. This limits the amount of ammunition that units are authorized to request. Allocation depends on the availability of ammunition and transportation assets. CSRs are expressed in the same terms as RSRs.

Combat commanders use CSRs to allocate the flow of ammunition to their subordinate units engaged in combat and to those held in reserve. They withhold some key ammunition assets to meet unexpected requirements or for use as reserve assets. Limited availability of new types of ammunition may result in commanders allocating a specific number of rounds for a specific operation, mission, or period of time.

The TA commander publishes the CSR to the corps commanders based on each corps' mission, objectives, priorities, anticipated threat, and ammunition availability. Each combat commander then publishes a CSR to his subordinate commanders through the G3s/S3s. CSRs can be published in OPORDs, fragmentary orders, service support annexes, or fire support annexes.

At each level, G3s/S3s, in coordination with the G4s/S4s, may need to adjust the CSR to better allocate or prioritize ammunition assets. At each level, G4s/S4s ensure that units' requirements do not exceed the CSR. The ammunition managers at the CMMC and the DAOs enforce the CSR.

QUALITY ASSURANCE

The COSCOM closely monitors the ammunition supply quality assurance program within its command. The program includes inspection/malfunction investigation procedures and reports. COSCOM munitions support branch personnel and CSG ammunition staff conduct technical visits and evaluate program implementation by subordinate ammunition units.

In DS and GS ammunition companies, implementation of quality assurance and ammunition surveillance programs rest with military ammunition inspectors and QASAS. However, QASAS may not be in theater at the company level at the start of hostilities. Military inspectors would then perform all of the functions of the program without interrupting the flow of ammunition to the users.

AUTOMATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Arming and rearming combat or CS units during periods of intense combat comprises the most time sensitive support task logisticians face. SAAS provides timely stock records, stock control, and asset visibility over Class V stocks. It supports receipt, storage, issue, and release operations. Its interface with CSSCS provides CSG and battalion support operations staff asset visibility of critical stocks.

STANDARD ARMY AMMUNITION
SYSTEM

SAAS is the standard automated management information system designed to provide uniform procedures for ammunition management and accountability at all levels. SAAS standardizes Class V status reporting and provides visibility of ammunition requirements and stock status. Figure 7-5 depicts objective SAAS usage by corps elements.

SAAS has three subsystems tailored to the specific requirements of the organizational level at which they are used --

  • SAAS-DAO standardizes and automates the divisions' ammunition management and logistics functions. It provides visibility of division ammunition assets to the DAO.
  • SAAS-4 automates accounting at the ASPS, CSAS, and TSAs. Supply personnel in nondivision DS and GS ammunition companies use SAAS-4 software to record ammunition receipts, issues, and stock adjustments. Storage personnel in ASPs and CSAs use SAAS-4 to keep track of ammunition by stock number, lot number, DOD identification code, date of manufacture, and inspection data. Both transmit stock status data as input to SAAS-1/3 programs run on the CTACS-II at the CMMC.
  • SAAS-1/3 provides ammunition managers at the CMMC, TAMMC, and TAACOM MMC asset visibility and management data at corps and theater levels. SAAS-1/3 enables munitions commodity managers at the CMMC to maintain status on stocks on order or in transit. It computes authorized levels and CSA and ASP stockage objectives. SAAS-1/3 enables CMMC commodity managers to assess requirements and monitor allocations. As a result, CMMC commodity managers and COSCOM munitions support branch personnel recommend redistributing stocks as necessary among ASPs and CSAs.

At time of publication, there were no automated interfaces between the ammunition and transportation managers in the theater, nor the DAO and the ATPs, nor the DAO and the users. These deficiencies should be corrected by planned SAAS modernizations and the fielding of DAMMS-R and ULLS-S4. The objective interface between SAAS and DAMMS-R shown on Figure 7-5 allows for data on ammunition movements to flow between the CMMC and CMCC, the CMCC and MCTSs and the MCTs and ASPs and CSAs.

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT CONTROL
SYSTEM

CSSCS supports planning and decision making at COSCOMs, CSGs, and subordinate battalions. Its interface with SAAS provides support operations staff with supply status data on Class V stocks at CSAs, ASPS, and the CBS's ATPs. CSSCS software allows CSG, CSB, and ammunition battalion staffs to monitor RSR, CSR, ABL, quantity on-hand, and movement requirements data. When necessary, CSG ammunition officers recommend to the COSCOM munitions support branch that the CMMC divert intransit ammunition stocks based on the tactical situation in their area.

NBC CONCERNS

CSAs, ASPS, and ATPs are prime targets for NBC attacks. To continue operations in an NBC environment, ammunition supply elements need to employ the contamination avoidance and resupply measures outlined in FMs 3-3 and FM 9-38. Procedures to guard against the effects of NBC attack should be integrated into daily ammunition operations.

CONTAMINATION AVOIDANCE
MEASURES

To minimize enemy targeting and the effects of nuclear and chemical weapon strikes and to maximize survivability, DS and GS ammunition units need to properly employ contamination avoidance measures.

Active Measures

Active measures include contamination control; detection, identification, and marking of contaminated areas; issuing contamination warnings; and relocating or rerouting units to uncontaminated areas.

To increase survivability and supportability once NBC weapons are used, ammunition units use alarm and detection equipment; overhead shelters; NBC-hardened shielding materials and protective covers; chemical agent resistant coatings; and NBC reconnaissance and intelligence assets.

Passive Measures

Passive measures include the use of cover, concealment, dispersion of stocks. It also includes deception measures to reduce the enemy's ability to use NBC weapons against US units and to minimize damages caused by NBC weapons, if used.

Dispersion

Ammunition stocks should be kept dispersed within storage sites to minimize NBC effects and to interfere with the enemy's ability to target the sites. Dispersion also prevents all of one type of ammunition from becoming contaminated. Ammunition should be stored separately from other commodities, kept as mobile as possible, and resupplied at night as often as possible.

PROTECTIVE OVERWRAP

Containers with protective overwrap reduce the effects of radiological fallout and chemical agents. They also facilitate decontamination. Outer packaging protects individual rounds from becoming contaminated while in storage and during unpacking. If ammunition lacks special protective overwraps, tarpaulins, plastic sheets, and other such available coverings provide some protection from contamination and facilitate decontamination efforts. Protected stocks should be stored on pallets or flatracks that can also be decontaminated.

CONTAMINATED AMMUNITION
RESUPPLY

Ammunition units must try to issue uncontaminated ammunition to using units. Their priority of effort is to use contamination avoidance measures. Normally, contaminated stocks are not issued, but segregated from clean stocks until they can be fully decontaminated. FM 9-38 provides more detail.

Ammunition unit SOPs address the following critical NBC concerns as a matter of peacetime planning prior to wartime execution.

Decontamination Concerns

If uncontaminated stocks are unavailable for issue, the priority of decontamination goes to those stocks being sent to clean environments. Since ammunition units do not possess extensive decontamination capabilities, decontamination procedures must be preplanned and understood prior to the need for their execution. Refer to FMs 3-5 and 3-100. When possible, simple weathering should be sufficient to reduce contamination to acceptable levels.

Issue Concerns

Ammunition units issue contaminated stocks only as a last resort and only if the combat commanders deem that it would provide a decisive tactical advantage to the receiving unit. They try to issue contaminated stocks to those units similarly contaminated. Only under the most extreme conditions would uncontaminated units receive contaminated ammunition. It is crucial that every attempt be made to avoid the spread of contamination and that contaminated stocks are clearly marked with standard NBC markers.

The decision to ship contaminated stocks occurs jointly between the issuing and receiving commanders. The decision depends on the tactical situation, item criticality, type and extent of contamination, and resources available for decontamination. Once issued, the receiving units decontaminate stocks as necessary.

Transportation Concerns

Transportation of contaminated ammunition must be carefully coordinated and conducted, with the utmost flexibility given to routing, marshaling, serializing, and communicating. The potential danger to the surrounding terrain, population, and other vehicles as a result of dust and vapor clouds caused by the transportation of contaminated stocks must be considered. Ways to reduce these hazards include:

  • Placing NBC protective covers on all contaminated loads.
  • Coordinating movement of contaminated stocks with the MCTs, CMCC, and supporting transportation units.
  • Requesting specific routes from the MCTs/CMCC for transporting contaminated stocks.

CHEMICAL MUNITIONS

Chemical munitions are provided through the conventional Class V distribution system. Release of chemical munitions occurs through command channels and starts at the National Command Authority level. Conventional ammunition units involved in the distribution of chemical munitions must be concerned with their proper protection and security, as well as with the need for the potential decontamination of these munitions in the event of an accident or incident.



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