Sustaining the Soldier
Wars are fought and won by soldiers, not by machines. As in past battles, the human element may well decide the outcome of operations fought on future battlefields. Soldiers need to be fed, clothed, and provided individual equipment, shelter, and health and welfare items. The stress of modern warfare and the probability of continuous operations on a contaminated battlefield make it imperative that leaders focus on field services and maintaining the health, morale, welfare, and combat capability of their soldiers.
BARRIERS AND PROTECTIVE FIGHTING POSITIONS
CLOTHING, INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT, AND SHELTER
REEQUIPPING RETURN TO DUTY SOLDIERS
In those areas of the world in which the Army maintains a forward presence, base support is a mission which is performed in peacetime and which continues during hostilities. If required, a base support battalion maybe attached to the rear CSG or to an ASG to provide or coordinate base support missions in support of forward deployed forces. The BSB headquarters (TOE 63636L000) provides the C2 and coordination focus for planning and conducting NEO. The BSB coordinates and supports the reception and stationing of deploying, reinforcing, and relocating units.
In theaters where forces are forward-deployed, noncombatants need to be evacuated before or as hostilities begin. Noncombatants include military dependents and US government employees. NEO relieve forward-deployed soldiers of worrying about their families at the onset of hostilities.
BSB headquarters personnel maintain administrative rosters and evacuation schedules and route plans for US government sponsored citizen evacuees located within or relocated to the BSB's area of responsibility. They execute the NEO notification plan, coordinate the assembly of noncombatants, and maintain accountability of noncombatants. With minimal assistance from personnel from designated units, the BSB provides or arranges for --
- Food, housing and logistics support of noncombatants.
- Community service support.
- Health service support.
- HN vehicular assets.
- Evacuee security and protection.
- Movement of evacuees to designated theater transfer points.
- Storage and transportation of evacuee property.
The BSB provides deployment support to units located within the BSB's AO deploying out of post or station areas. It organizes and coordinates mutual assistance efforts of later deploying units, augmenting the support provided by other CSS units. The BSB may provide laundry, mail, fuel, OCIE, MP, communications, maintenance, and transportation support. Other deployment support may include --
- Deployment route coordination.
- Traffic control support.
- Installation security support.
- Deploying unit facility turnover and inventory functions.
- Securing essential facilities and supplies.
- Coordinating and executing the phase-down.
- Processing military surplus or abandoned equipment and supplies.
- Close-out or conversion of community service.
The BSB provides reception support to soldiers of reinforcing or relocating forces. Battalion personnel coordinate the use of base facilities and base support services. They provide HN liaison or liaison assistance to reinforcing forces. They also provide forward staging area support of transient units during personnel and equipment link-up periods.
As part of its reception support mission, the BSB could set up a force provider complex of sleeping, hygiene, eating, and morale/welfare facilities. The force provider complex can be set-up, operated, and maintained by a staff augmented by temporary duty personnel or local hire.
BARRIERS AND PROTECTIVE FIGHTING POSITIONS
All units require barrier and fortification materials to counter enemy advances and to prepare individual and crew fighting and protective positions.
BARRIER AND FORTIFICATION
Barrier materials help to delay, channel, or stop offensive movement by the enemy. Fortification materials enable corps forces to prepare protective fighting positions and protective shelters. They help our forces to reduce or avoid the effects of enemy weapon systems.
Proposed barrier plans and requirements need to be coordinated with the COSCOM support operations officer and CMCC as far in advance as possible. A preconfigured unit load of barrier material has been developed to facilitate throughput to engineer units supporting the division barrier plan. Corps engineers in the division sector coordinate requirements with the CSG LO at the DISCOM or the CSB LO at the FSBs. LOs assist with distribution coordination.
Engineers may require construction materials initially to repair or build airstrips, landing zones, or low altitude parachute extraction system sites. Subsequent priorities may be to expedite the forward movement of combat resources by repairing or constructing combat roads and trails.
SOURCES OF BARRIER, FORTIFICATION, AND
- DS Supply Company (TOE 42447L000). Attached to a CSB, each DS supply company can receive, store, and issue 29.65 STONs of Class IV items daily. Generally, only limited quantities of certain Class IV items are stored at DS level. Some examples include sandbags, barbed wire, concertina wire, and stakes.
- GS Supply Company (TOE 42418L000). Attached to either a S&S battalion or a forward CSG's CSB, this company can receive, store, and issue 212 STONs of bridging equipment and fortification and construction supplies daily. Preconfigured barrier packages and most Class IV items are stored at the GS level.
- Local Purchase. Local purchase of barrier and construction material reduces requirements placed on distribution systems. CSG HNS branch personnel and contracting staff coordinate purchase requirements with the COSCOM procurement branch and CA elements and HN agencies.
DISTRIBUTION OF BARRIER AND
Figure 6-1 depicts the distribution of barrier and fortification material. GS supply companies replenish stocks issued by DS supply companies. GS and DS supply companies coordinate issue schedules with the supporting MCT and truck units. battalion staff officers assist subordinate GS supply companies by coordinating with CSG and COSCOM staff for MHE to load bridging or heavy equipment on HETs or rail carriers.
Delivery as close to the barrier sites as possible minimizes handling and facilitates rapid installation of barriers. Whenever possible, truck units throughput barrier and fortification material as far forward as the emplacement site. Large users, such as engineer units, obtain ammunition barrier items at designated ATPs or ASPs.
Other users pick up common usage barrier and fortification supplies at their supporting Class II, IV, and VII supply point. CTA 50-970 authorizes basis of issue allowances. CSG/CSB support operations supply personnel advise supported units of available materials which may be substituted for items not in stock.
Commands may place barrier and bridging materials under controls not applied to other classes of supply. They are often placed on regulated or command-controlled lists. For example, certain stocks can be reserved to support barrier requirements of forward deployed forces for the first days of war. Other Class IV stocks can be reserved to support forces projected from CONUS to bare base environments.
CSG and battalion supply staff officers need to ensure that subordinate units remain aware of which items are on regulated or command-controlled lists. They notify subordinate units when items are placed on controlled lists. CSG supply staff officers check on the quantity of controlled items on hand during their periodic staff visits to supply sites.
Requests for command controlled items flow through channels to the commander who placed the items on the list. Only the commander who initiated the list can approve the request or take the items off the list. The CMMC can then direct issue from a GS or DS supply unit.
Army policy is that soldiers be provided three quality meals per day. DS supply units issue MREs and T Ration meals until conditions become stable enough to introduce B or A Ration components. The Surgeon General has approved continuous feeding of MREs for up to 10 days without ration supplement. Fresh fruit and vegetables need to be provided as soon as feasible.
Supported unit commanders decide which type of ration is best suited, based on unit mission, tactical operations, and relocation requirements. The administrative/logistics plan sets the ration cycle. If group meals (T, B, or A Ration meals) cannot be served because of heavy or moderate levels of commitment, the combat ration becomes the primary ration. For example, MREs are used when the levels of combat become intense or unit activity precludes the use of a prepared group ration. MREs support soldiers in transit, in movement to contact, or in convoy.
Supported units in the corps rear area may transition to B and A Rations earlier than indicated in the Army wartime feeding plan by using peacetime operating stocks. These include TISA stocks, DLA wholesale stocks, or commissary resale stocks. Allied nations normally provide their own subsistence support.
To support feeding of A Ration meals, the support operations officer needs to arrange for ice and refrigeration containers and additional materiel handling personnel at Class I break points. Possible sources for ice and refrigeration assets include the HN, designated commercial sources, logistics civil augmentation program, or engineer constructed ice facilities. In the absence of veterinary personnel, medical and field sanitation personnel may have to inspect ice to ensure that it is safe for consumption.
When possible, rations need to be supplemented with food items obtained by local purchase. CSG procurement personnel process local procurement requests.
The type and quantity of rations required depend on personnel strength, unit locations, the type of operations, and field feeding capabilities. Strength reports serve as the basis for computing requirements for Class I supplies. The CSG subsistence supply supervisor totals authorized TOE strength data to determine the quantities needed at the start of hostilities.
Initial stockage should cover surges in the number of troops supported, including expected number of medical RTD soldiers from DS replacement companies. Actual strength data, available from SIDPERS reports, are used to determine actual support requirements. Actual subsisted strength data can also be used to help compute the stockage for subordinate Class I points.
The following units may be attached to a CSG --
- Quartermaster Supply Company, Direct Support (TOE 4247L000), which can receive and issue 39.91 STONs of Class I stocks each day.
- QM Supply Company, General Support (TOE 42418L000), which can receive, store, and issue 117 STONs of Class I stocks per day. It can also maintain approximately 150 line items of nonperishable Class I items.
CLASS I DISTRIBUTION
If possible, rations are prepositioned in the theater to provide support at the outbreak of hostilities. Initially, GS supply units push Class I supplies forward, based upon authorized strength data and the wartime feeding plan. Transition to a pull system, wherein supported units submit requests to subordinate DS supply units, takes place as soon as tactically feasible and actual strength figures appear in personnel status reports. Maximum use of HNS is desired for Class I receipt, storage, and issue functions in the corps rear area.
Figure 6-2 depicts Class I requisition and distribution flow. FM 10-60 describes the Class I distribution system.
Units submit requests for rations and ration supplement sundries packs to their supporting Class I point. FM 10-23 prescribes request procedures.
Class I point personnel consolidate and compute total ration requirements. As appropriate, they prepare and forward requisitions to the DMMC or CMMC for rations not available for issue by the Class I point. If the CMMC cannot fill the requisition from within the corps, the CMMC transmits the requisitions to the TAMMC.
The CMMC directs subordinate GS supply units to issue rations to DS supply units. GS supply units request transportation from the supporting MCT to haul rations to DS supply units. GSUs break down rations, complete issue documents, and send the rations to DS supply unit distribution points.
Supported units pick up rations at their supporting DS supply unit Class I point. Corps forces in the brigade area may receive support at a forward logistics element or from the forward Class I point of an FSB supply company. When they move to another division area, they obtain support from the forward Class I point of the FSB responsible for that area. As required, the forward CSB provides reinforcing support. Corps organizations employed in the division rear area may pickup supplies at the MSB main Class I point. The forward CSB/CSG LO at the FSB or DISCOM coordinates support to corps forces.
CSG S&S branch personnel assist in planning and coordinating the subsistence supply, storage, and distribution operations of subordinate elements. S&S branch personnel also --
- Establish liaison with supported units.
- Advise on Class I storage and distribution operations.
- Recommend additional ration break capability to support increased B and A Ration feeding.
- Monitor standard B medical rations to ensure that they are issued only for hospital patients.
- Disseminate distribution instructions for use of captured subsistence.
- Inform units of local requirements relative to trash disposal.
- Coordinate through the CMMC subsistence branch for veterinary inspection service teams to inspect locally procured items and inspect contaminated subsistence at subordinate Class I points.
- Arrange for the contracting management officer to purchase ice and local food items to supplement MREs and operational rations. Veterinary service teams inspect all locally procured food items (milk, bread, fruits, and vegetables).
Subordinate Battalion Responsibilities
Subordinate battalion S4s --
- Monitor replenishment of subordinate unit basic ration loads.
- Monitor subordinate unit food preparation and sanitation.
- Ensure that units follow AR 30-1 in accounting for rations.
Subsistence item packaging provides some protection against liquid and vapor agents. Supplies in open storage need to be covered with NBC protective covers, tarpaulins, heavy plastic sheeting, or other available covering. Coverings reduce contamination from liquid agents and radioactive fallout. Earth cover protects against nuclear contamination, chemical liquids, and aerosols. Storing subsistence in buildings, basements, tunnels, refrigerated warehouses, or trailers provides additional protection.
FM 3-5 lists subsistence decontamination methods. Veterinary service teams inspect food that has been exposed to contamination. They decide how to decontaminate or dispose of contaminated food in coordination with NBC unit personnel.
Fresh bread or bread-like products serve as essential components of T, B, and A Ration meals. During the transition to war, fresh bread requirements maybe filled initially by existing AAFES baked goods, then by the HN or designated commercial source. Pouch bread can supplement MREs and group rations until fresh bread or bread products can be procured from commercial vendors or prepared by field bakery teams.
In a developed theater, bakery products are prepared by a bakery team (TOE 42518LA) augmenting a GS supply company. Bread is transported to a DS supply company Class I point for issue to supported units. The GS supply company coordinates transportation requirements with the MCT in its area. The MCT coordinates with the Class I point to ensure that it can receive the bread.
The CSG's supply and field services personnel --
- Review the adequacy of the quantity of bread baked.
- Coordinate with the HN, when required, to augment fresh bread support.
- Coordinate local procurement of bread.
- Request veterinary service team inspection of locally procured bakery products.
Subordinate Battalion Responsibilities
As applicable, CSB or S&S battalion staff personnel --
- Select the general operating site for the field bakery.
- Review replenishment requests for bread ingredients.
- Recompute bread support requirements.
- Coordinate potable water support.
- Inspect the way baked bread is stored.
- Inspect field sanitation facilities.
- Ensure that bread remains protected during transport.
Field bakeries will not operate in areas where known NBC hazards exist.
Troop health, welfare, and morale depend on a safe water supply. In hot, arid environments, water shortages limit a soldier's ability to accomplish mission tasks. Under severe heat conditions, water shortages can result in heat strokes and an incapacity to perform any work.
The type of environment directly affects water requirements. Other factors which affect water requirements include --
- Type of battlefield and requirement for decontamination.
- Expected duration of operations.
- Troop density.
- Expected number of replacements and medically RTD soldiers.
- Equipment density.
- Theater command policy on ration type.
- Policy on frequency of showers and provision of laundry support.
- Medical treatment requirements.
- Chemical decontamination.
- Engineer construction requirements.
- Mortuary affairs requirements.
FM 10-52 provides water consumption planning factor tables. Local water requirements can be projected more accurately from data reported on water point daily production and distribution summaries.
At times, command decisions may be needed to determine the best use of available water. First priority must be survival of the force and accomplishment of the immediate mission. Priorities for use include --
- Personnel drinking water.
- Mission essential decontamination.
- Other personnel uses -- medical treatment, food preparation, and personnel hygiene.
- Vehicle and equipment cooling systems.
In nonarid regions, subordinate water producing elements may include --
- DS Supply Companies (TOE 42447 L000) which produce potable water and treat NBC contaminated water. These companies provide water support on an area basis for nondivison forces. Based on the requirement to support corps organizations in the brigade area, forward CSGs could attach personnel and equipment from the water section to operate a water point at a forward logistics element in the BSA. This company can augment the capability of MSB water elements attached to the FSB supply company to provide potable water or treat NBC contaminated water. Refer to Figure 6-3.
- QM Water Purification Teams (TOE 10570L000) and QM Water Purification Detachments (TOE 10469L000) which operate the 3,000-gph ROWPU. These purification elements can be used collectively in one site, or individually at remote locations. They can purify both fresh and sea water, but have limited storage capability.
In arid regions, subordinate water storage and distribution elements may include --
- Water Supply Companies, DS/GS (TOE 10468L000) which establish and operate two tactical water distribution systems, operate up to eight DS issue points in support of divisional and nondivision units, and establish temporary collapsible bulk water storage facilities. Refer to Figure 6-4.
- Water support teams which may be attached to provide potable water and augment bulk distribution capabilities.
FM 10-115 and appropriate MTPs describe the mission operations of water units and teams.
CSG Staff Responsibilities
The CSG's subsistence supply supervisor and water treatment supervisor, under the supervision of the supply and services officer (petroleum supply officer in arid regions) --
- Provide technical advice and assistance on water purification, supply, and distribution.
- Project water requirements.
- Coordinate water support activities with the COSCOM troop support branch and the CMMC's Troop Support Materiel Division's Subsistence Branch and Petroleum Division. (See FM 54-23 for a description of the CMMC's areas of responsibility.)
- Monitor water distribution schedules.
- Recommend that supported customer lists be changed to agree with changing priorities and tactical situations.
- Coordinate quality control surveillance.
- Establish liaison with preventive medical staff personnel and the command surgeon relative to bacteria content in water and the degree of treatment required.
- Coordinates the location of subsurface water sources and well construction with engineer units.
- Coordinates with the MCT for special transport required for TWDS and delivery of water to water points.
- Performs staff site visits.
- Investigates discrepancies between the amount of water pumped and the amount received.
- Ensures that water purification waste water and waste chemicals are isolated from operational areas and disposed of in approved dumps.
- Develops a water conservation program.
- Specifies reporting procedures for subordinate units.
Subordinate Battalion Responsibilities
Subsistence staff personnel assigned to subordinate battalions perform the following water supervisory tasks:
- Select the general operating area for water points, TWDS, hose line, and distribution points.
- Monitor daily requirements and available storage space.
- Develop water consumption graphs to project consumption and deliveries.
- Consolidate and transmit stock status reports to the CSG support operations section and CMMC.
- Review water distribution schedules.
- Ensure that an adequate supply of chemicals is available for water purification.
- Identify sources of potential contamination and deterioration of water.
- Manage the quality surveillance program and monitor sampling and testing procedures for potable water supply.
Since decontamination of personnel and equipment requires large quantities of water, requirements for water increase dramatically on a nuclear or chemical battlefield. Safe drinking water needs to be available to offset dehydration and heat casualties which result from wearing MOPP gear.
The area's water supply can be contaminated by NBC agents. FM 3-5 lists water decontamination methods. FM 10-52 lists contamination detection and treatment procedures.
CLOTHING, INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT, AND SHELTER
Soldiers need to be provided clothing, personal gear, and MOPP gear as well as tentage for shelter. OCIE is required for replacements, return to duty personnel, medical patients, contractors, reporters, essential civilians, EPWs, local nationals, and NEO family members. A subsequent section covers clothing provided through CEB elements.
Requirements for clothing, individual equipment, and shelter items depend on operations in seven climatic zones. CTAs 50-900, 50-909, and 50-970 list basis of issue allowances.
Clothing allowances for contingency plans and mobilization conform to that shown in the mobilization column of CTA 50-900. The theater of operation or contingency force commander designates which items in that column are to be worn or carried and which are transported. This decision affects load plans prepared by S4s.
CTA 50-970 lists initial issue and initial stockage levels for expendable and durable items. Replenishment quantities depend on demands and anticipated requirements.
SUPPORTING UNITS AND TEAMS
Supporting units and teams include the --
- DS supply company (TOE 42447L000), which can provide 33.95 STONs of Class II items per day in support of 18,500 nondivision soldiers. When employed in the division area or behind the division boundary, stocks from this company can augment the ability of an FSB supply company to support nondivision forces in the brigade area.
- GS supply company (TOE 42418L000), which can provide 101 STONs of Class II items per day.
- Quartermaster renovation teams (TOE 1053 OLA-LC) and canvas and webbing repair teams (TOE 42560 LA-LE), which augment field services companies to repair clothing, canvas, and web items.
- Replacement companies (TOE 1256033F), which provide replacements and medically RTD soldiers released from Level III and IV medical treatment facilities with clothing and equipment.
The CSG's supply and field services personnel --
- Monitor demand satisfaction and customer wait time.
- Monitor MOPP gear stocks and establish priorities for issue.
- Publish a repair policy on cost effectiveness of textile repairs.
Class II includes NBC-related items. Protective clothing and filters may be in high demand. DS supply units expedite issue through the use of preconfigured push packages. The CSG supply and field services operations officer and NBC officer provide advice and assist subordinate DS supply units in planning push package support.
Storage techniques offer limited protection from nuclear blast and thermal effects. FM 3-5 lists decontamination methods for removing chemical, biological, and nuclear agents from clothing and textile items.
HEALTH AND COMFORT ITEMS
Health and comfort items allow soldiers to maintain personal hygiene. They also help relieve the stress of soldiers subjected to continuous operations. A few health and comfort items maybe issued when soldiers report to a reception station. Initially, health and comfort items may be limited to those items which soldiers carry with them. Initial requirements are met with bulk Class VI supplies until sundries packs can be provided. Sales teams provide another source until AAFES provides an exchange service. Depending on the area of operations, many personal demand items can be purchased through HN or contract support.
Ration supplement sundries packs contain the hygiene and comfort items authorized by AR 700-23. Sundries packs are designed to support 100 soldiers for 30 days. A supplement containing health and comfort items for female soldiers supports 25 female soldiers for 30 days. Sundries packs are issued with Class I rations.
The CSG support operations officer confers with COSCOM troop support branch Class I staff on initial and follow-on requirements. The CSG/CSB LO at the DISCOM or FSB alerts CSG supply and service staff of requirements to augment stocks of sundries packs at forward and main Class I points. FSBs and the MSB can then provide sufficient sundries packs to corps forces operating in the brigade and division areas.
COSCOM troop support branch personnel coordinate with AAFES representatives to ensure that an interim supply of health and comfort items is available to support troops until the supply system adjusts to demands.
Until PX support can be provided, units request sundries packs using DA Form 2058-R. Supporting Class I points issue sundries packs with Class I items on DA Form 3294-R.
In the early stages of war, stocks in PXs in the COMMZ and corps area are turned over to the theater supply system. Until AAFES provides an exchange service, the corps G1 has responsibility for exchange operations manned by military personnel.
When health, comfort, and personal demand items cannot be obtained by AAFES exchange, sales teams BP and BQ (TOE 2951 OH) may be authorized. These teams may be attached to a CSB DS supply company or field services company.
Sales team BQ can provide once-a-week retail sale of personal demand items for up to 10,950 soldiers. Light-medium truck units provide trucks to move supplies to the sale sites. Work details need to be available to load and unload supplies.
CSG supply staff coordinates requests for exchange service with COSCOM troop support branch staff. The supporting MCT coordinates transportation support. Since exchange items remain highly subject to pilferage, battalion S4s arrange storage security.
CLOTHING EXCHANGE AND BATH
CEB helps maintain soldier health, morale, comfort, and welfare. These services are provided as soon as the tactical situation permits.
CEB points set up either in the supported unit's area or in a location central to several units. Clothing exchange is normally provided at bath points or decontamination facilities. CEB teams can also provide delousing services. When possible, HNs provide CEB functions in the corps rear area.
For hygienic and morale purposes, CSG supporting units should attempt to meet the Surgeon General's directive of a bath and exchange of clothing at least once a week for each soldier. Battalion S4s schedule unit rotation with the CSB's supply and field services officer to meet this requirement. Supported units provide ration, water, and fuel support to CEB teams. They also provide detail personnel to assist in the setup, operation, and breakdown of shower equipment.
Operation orders establish CEB priority, based on the tactical situation and mission support tasking. Normally, priority of support is as follows:
- Personnel decontamination stations. (CEB teams can set up a personnel decontamination station upon direction of the CSG headquarters.)
- Rest areas and troop staging areas.
- Troop units.
Field Services Companies, DS (TOE 42414L000), provide CEB support on an area basis to division as well as nondivision soldiers. Augmentation CEB platoons (TOE 42507LB) can offset the CEB capability lost when S&S companies transition to DS supply companies.
FM 10-280 covers CEB support operations, to include setup, processing, delousing, and displacement of the CEB point. Appendix A of that FM provides a sample SOP for CEB elements. If units become responsible for providing bath and clothing exchanges, the supporting DS supply unit provides appropriate supplies to the unit.
The CSG's supply and field services personnel oversee the CEB support provided by field services units. They --
- Provide technical expertise on CEB.
- Recommend changes to supported unit lists.
- Coordinate CEB site locations with the sector RAOC.
- Coordinate CEB site location with the CSG/CSB LO in the DISCOM and FSB, as appropriate.
- Coordinate with water supply unit staff to ensure that a source of water exists for bath points.
- Arrange for medical personnel to test the water.
- Coordinate with engineers to construct soakage pits for waste water.
- Coordinate bath requirements with CSG HNS branch personnel and the HN or contractor, if required.
Subordinate Battalion Responsibilities
The CSB's supply and field services officer --
- Recommends the general field site area.
- Determines the availability of water to support CEB operations in the CSB's geographic area.
- Notifies supported units of CEB location, operation times, and unit requirements to provide guards for personnel effects at dressing stations.
- Passes down orders and information on changes in bath schedules.
- Arranges for CEB personnel to subsist with the supported unit, if necessary.
- Ensures that a prescribed stock of clothing exists for emergency replacement of contaminated items.
- Submits support statistics to the CSG support operations section.
- Ensures that waste water runoff has been disposed of following Army policy and local requirements
At the bath point, contaminated soldiers are separated from noncontaminated personnel. Contaminated soldiers decontaminate themselves following procedures in FMs 3-5 and 10-280. Bath water needs to be monitored for contamination. Towels and conventional clothing are taken to the nearest field laundry to be decontaminated.
LAUNDRY AND RENOVATION
Field laundry and renovation aid in maintaining soldier health, comfort, and morale. These secondary field services are provided as soon as the tactical situation permits. Field services units provide these services on an area or mission support basis.
Field laundries normally employ in the rear of the corps area to reduce battlefield clutter in forward areas. HNS may also provide laundry services in the corps rear area.
FM 10-280 describes mobile field laundry operations, to include field setup, laundry supplies and records, laundry processing, and operations in an NBC environment. FM 10-27-2 describes DS laundry elements.
Laundered serviceable clothing is returned to supported organizations. Clothing washed in support of CEB operations is returned to stocks within the field services company.
Renovation services support CTA 50-900 clothing and equipment, military clothing, and lightweight washable textiles. Renovation services include sewing, patching, and darning individual equipment (such as sleeping bags, shelter halves, and blankets). They also include attaching buttons, zippers, and snaps to field packs, pistol belts, and load carrying slings. FM 10-267 covers general repair of clothing and textiles. FM 10-27-2 covers supporting unit operations.
Though HNs may provide laundry and renovation services in built-up countries, Army units provide these services in many contingency areas.
Field Services, DS Companies (TOE 42414L000), can launder 7.2 pounds of laundry per soldier per week in support of approximately 18,500 troops. They support organizational laundry and CEB laundry requirements.
The CSG's supply and field services personnel --
- Provide technical expertise to subordinate units.
- Reduce service so that field service unit personnel can help supply unit personnel meet priority support surges.
- Coordinate with CSG HNS branch personnel and the HN element or designated contractors for laundry support, if such support exists in the theater.
- Coordinate laundry supply requirements with the CSG's procurement personnel and CA teams, if required.
- Coordinate with engineer units to ensure that a source of water exists for laundry support operations.
- Arrange for medical corps personnel to test water.
- Cross-level work load from supporting laundry element to help reduce backlogs resulting from laundry equipment failures.
Subordinate Battalion Responsibilities
The CSB's supply and field services personnel --
- Recommend the general laundry field site in the CSB's AO, after assuring that water requirements can be met.
- Arrange for shipment of water to laundry sites, if an adequate supply does not exist.
- Ensure that field laundry sites set up downstream from water points, as required for sanitation.
- Notify supported units in the CSB's AO when unit details are needed to help setup tents and laundry equipment.
- Arrange for mobile laundry personnel to subsist with supported units.
- Submit data on laundry work loads and backlogs to the CSG support operations section.
The following concerns occur with laundry and renovation support --
- The support operations officer needs to obtain permission from HNs or higher headquarters to use soakage pits. His staff ensures that units follow environmental restrictions.
- An adequate water supply needs to be available, since a laundry section uses about 500 gallons of water an hour. The CSB laundry NCO needs to arrange for shipment of water to support operations. Collapsible fabric drums can be used in lieu of water trailers to support the need for water.
- Mobile field laundry personnel require subsistence and billeting support from supported units. The CSB's S4 officer arranges for this support.
Laundering provides the primary method for removing contamination from clothing and textiles. Field laundries set up a separate receiving and storage area for contaminated clothing. Laundry transported through a contaminated area needs to be monitored for contamination. FM 10-280 specifies laundry formulas and decontamination procedures.
Heavily contaminated items need to be burned or buried. However, burning contaminated laundry could create a possible downwind vapor hazard. Permission to burn or bury heavily contaminated items needs to be obtained from the CSG S2/S3.
Water used in decontaminating clothing and textiles should drain into a soakage pit prepared by engineer personnel. The CSB's supply and services officer and engineers select the soakage pit site. The site must be marked with the standard NBC marker. Its location should be reported to CSG S2/S3 and supply and field services operations officer.
REEQUIPPING RETURN TO DUTY SOLDIERS
Support of replacement operations can put an enormous strain on DS supply companies to provide rations, sundry packs, water, and clothing and equipment. DS replacement companies can process up to 400 replacements per day, to include return to duty soldiers. FM 12-6 describes the Army's replacement operations.
Soldiers released from Level III and IV medical treatment facilities return to their original unit unless emergency battlefield requirements dictate otherwise. Level III and IV MTFs provide minimal basic uniform items and, if required, MOPP gear to medical RTD soldiers to protect them during transit to replacement companies. Level III and IV MTFs request minimal Class II supply items authorized for issue to RTD soldiers.
After discharge from Level III and IV MTFs, RTD soldiers obtain the balance of their clothing and equipment, to include their weapon and ammunition, from the personnel group's DS replacement companies. Replacement companies reequip RTD soldiers using existing manpower, borrowed manpower from replacement operations, HNS, and contracting. Backup support is provided from the DS supply company providing area support in the AO.
It remains a basic tenet of faith that the Army always take proper care of soldiers who lose their lives in the service of our nation. Mortuary affairs support helps to maintain soldier morale by ensuring --
- Search for and recovery of remains.
- Evacuation and escort of remains out of the combat area.
- Prompt and accurate tentative identification of remains in the theater.
- Recovery, inventory, and return of personal effects to the next of kin.
A Quartermaster Mortuary Affairs Company (TOE 10497L000), allocated on the basis of one -per corps, provides MA support to corps forces. Division forces are supported through active and reserve component augmentation teams.
The four collection sections of the collection platoon operate collection points in support of units in the corps area. The cemetery/evacuation platoon operates a central collection point for remains processed through the corps (both from the collection points in the corps area and from those in the divisions and separate brigades). Remains are evacuated from the corps collection point to the theater evacuation point operating in the COMMZ area for further evacuation to the mortuary.
Collection points locate where they can be concealed from operating areas and passing traffic. The CSG/CSB support overlay identifies the location of collection points and temporary interment sites. The support overlay is provided to organizations, units, and teams when they first check in with the area RAOC or division rear CP.
Company commanders are responsible for the recovery and evacuation of battlefield dead in their areas of responsibility to a designated collection point or for their burial when circumstances preclude evacuation. To shorten the distance units travel to deliver remains and personal effects and hasten evacuation of the deceased, collection points are employed as far forward as possible in brigade-size organizations.
During intense fighting or a surge, collection personnel may go forward to the division area to help evacuate remains and personal effects. They form search and recovery teams to locate and recover remains and personal effects not recovered during combat operations or as a result of a large air crash or artillery strikes.
POLICY AND PROCEDURES
FM 10-63 prescribes mortuary affairs doctrine and describes procedures for search and recovery, evacuation, burials, and disinterments. The services paragraph to the administrative/logistics plan provides guidance on evacuation procedures and handling of personal effects. The services paragraph identifies the mortuary affairs equipment with which units are to deploy. In addition to outlining actions which occur at each point that remains change custody, it provides guidance relative to burials and contaminated remains.
Unit commanders are responsible for the search, recovery, and evacuation of deceased personnel to a collection point. When a unit leaves an area prior to the recovery of all remains, MA personnel perform post-combat search and recovery missions. FM 10-63 lists search and recovery team responsibilities.
All efforts must be made to recover and evacuate remains from the theater. Burials occur only when authorized by the theater commander. If the tactical situation makes it impossible to evacuate remains to collection points, temporary isolated burial procedures are used to inter the remains for recovery and evacuation at the earliest possible time. Whenever possible initial identification must be established before isolated burial and the site coordinates and pertinent facts reported to the support operations or S4 staff. To assist with later identification, personal effects are buried with the remains in emergency war burial sites.
The CSG supply and field services operations officer supervises the conduct of MA activities in the CSG's area. Assisted by the mortuary affairs NCO, he provides staff supervision of and maintains liaison with MA activities throughout the group's AO. He also --
- Changes supported unit lists to agree with area requirements for mortuary affairs.
- Prepares a remains evacuation flow diagram.
- Recommends general locations for collection points.
- Determines the location and coordinates real estate for interment sites with the sector RAOC, CSG S4, civil authorities, and civil affairs personnel.
- Monitors MA records and reports.
- Arranges for aerial reconnaissance of search areas.
- Arranges for security of remains and personal effects.
- Requests additional covered vehicles for recovery and evacuation operations.
- Coordinates MA support requirements with the AG casualty section, S2/S3, chaplain, civil affairs teams, and other Services and allied forces.
Subordinate Battalion Responsibilities
The S&S or CSB battalion's support operations officer supervises the overall operation of mortuary affairs collecting points. Field services personnel --
- Relay consolidated casualty report data to the CSG S1 section.
- Notify MA personnel of areas known to be mined.
- Arrange for a security force to protect search and recovery teams when hostile forces appear to be operating in the area.
- Assign collection point coordinates or sites. In urban areas, the collection point may be established in a building. Good examples of suitable buildings include warehouses, preferably with cold storage capability, a morgue or building with enough open room to establish operations, such as a large hall.
The Mass Fatality Field Information Management System is used throughout the evacuation channel to account for and track the remains from the first collection point to the port of entry mortuary in CONUS. Computers are distributed throughout the theater evacuation channels for this system as required.
Remains found in a contaminated area are considered to be contaminated. These remains can only be evacuated to a collection point after they have been decontaminated. The CSG NBC officer provides advice on containment procedures, protective gear, and decontaminants. If the remains cannot be decontaminated, they must be temporarily interred as a last resort. This is accomplished following the procedures in FM 10-63.
Procedures exist for the decontamination of re mains. If it is determined that the tactical situation permits, a MA collection point-decontamination will be established following prescribed procedures for the theater/AO.
Controls include adjustable basic loads and stockage levels and status reports on supply and field services.
Basic loads of Class I and II supplies enable units to support operations in combat for a prescribed number of days. If required the CSG support operations officer recommends that the basic load be adjusted to reflect mission changes.
WARTIME STOCKAGE LEVELS
Though AR 710-2 prescribes stockage levles the CMMC establish stockage levels or days of supply to be stocked at CSG DS and GS supply units. The number of days of supply required depends on the responsiveness of the supply system.
Supply levels and estimated troop strengths to be supported are listed in group OPLANs or OPORDs. Class I and II stockage levels need to be recomputed as troop strength data and the density of supported units change. Stockage levels also depend on --
- Order and ship time.
- Seasonal changes.
- Supply route vulnerability.
- Probability of local procurement or HN support.
- Requirements to feed or clothe civilians or PWs.
Group and battalion supply and field services staff officers need status data submitted in a standard format. Table 6-1 provides a sample field services status report.
Supply points report on the following areas:
- Class I point personnel report the rations on hand and due in.
- Class II, IV and VII point personnel report on controlled stocks on hand or due-in Class II point personnel also report on possible shortages of MOPP gear.
- Water point personnel report the gallons on hand or due in and storage capacity problems.
CSG supply and field services staff officers compare status data with projected requirements and recommend courses of action to resolve problem areas. Analysis of status data enables them to recommend reassigning work loads to alleviate backlogs and to reschedule support to work around troops committed to tactical operations.
AUTOMATED SUPPLY SUPPORT
The Class I distribution system is manual.
SARSS-1 programs facilitate receipt storage, and issue of Class II, packaged III, IV, and VII supplies. Refer to Figure 6-5. DS supply units use SARSS-1 programs to keep track of issues from stock on hand and to transmit requisitions to the CMMC.
Subordinate DS supply units transmit requisitions electronically over the data network or by telephone modems. As a backup, couriers may carry floppy disks of SARSS-1 unfilled supply requests to the CMMC.
The interface of SARSS-2A programs with CSSCS provides CSGs, CSBs, S&S battalions, and the CMMC asset visibility on command tracked items. CSSCS projects supply status of these tracked Class II, IV and VII items at 24, 48, 72, and 96-hour time frames.
SARSS-2A provides the CMMC asset visibility. The CMMC uses SARRSS-2A/2Bprograms to analyze demands, compute requirements and control critical stocks SARSS-2A/2B programs also enable the CMMC to perform lateral issue and to transmit disposition instructions for excess stocks.
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