CSGs face the challenge of supporting corps forces on a modern battlefield where operations are fast paced and resource hungry. They provide the logistics resources to support corps soldiers and to arm, fuel, fix, and move the corps force. Whether CONUS based or part of a forward presence force based abroad, they must be prepared to deploy on short notice for contingency operations in support of joint or combined operations.
To provide responsive support, CSGs task organize and employ their units farther forward than ever before. This includes a task organized corps support battalion which deploys before or with a division task force and employs in the division area. To ensure that support is provided when and where needed and in the quantities needed to weight the corps battle, CSG commanders and staff employ the operational tenetsand sustainment imperatives described in this chapter.
TENETS OF WARFIGHTING DOCTRINE
CSG commanders and staff must anticipate changes in support requirements as tactical plans shift. Since they work closely with tactical planners in developing contingency plans to support variations in tactical operations, they must understand the basics of combined-arms tactical operations. Their success in supporting operations on the nonlinear battlefield depends on their ability to apply the tenets of warfighting doctrine set forth in FM 100-5.
Initiative means setting or changing the terms of battle. It involves taking risks. The willingness of CSG commanders to accept risks associated with employing subordinate units as far forward as possible affects the tempo of battle. In coordination with COSCOM and DISCOM staffs, CSG support operations staffs determine whether tactical plans can be supported.
CSG support operations staffs display initiative and change the terms of battle by --
- Anticipating or forecasting requirements.
- Preplanning support alternatives.
- Tailoring or task organizing subordinate battalions.
- Pushing support forward.
- Changing customer support priorities in response to changes in tactical operations.
- Helping tactical units establish the conditions of battle.
Agility requires a deployable and a tailorable force. CSGs tailor subordinate CSBs and cross-level teams or elements between CSBs. This adds to the deployability of logistics support organizations.
Long lines of supply reduce agility. Moving CSG units forward shortens the distance between supporting and supported units. Enabling CSG units to be as mobile as the maneuver units they support helps to ensure shorter LOCs.
Agility also requires that our officers make decisions quicker than the enemy. Support should be proactive rather than reactive. To act within the window of decision, CSG staff officers have a wealth of current information on hand. CSG support operations staff officers continually assess logistics status reports and CSSCS data to determine trends or problems with support. The interface of CSSCS software with subordinate unit STAMIS will enable CSG S2/3 and support operations staff to make near real time decisions.
Preplanning courses of action for amber or red stock status conditions enables support operations staff to act quickly to correct support problems. The CSG support operations officer shifts support efforts by changing customer support lists. This repositions or reorients support.
The concept of deep attack extends the corps' area of influence from the corps rear boundary to the enemy's second echelon. The corps may occupy an area 100 by 210 kilometers or 21,000 square kilometers. This stretches the lines of supply. To counter this, CSGs employ units farther forward than ever before. CSG units which previously employed in the forward portion of the corps rear area now employ in the division area.
Depth applies not only to space in which to maneuver but to a depth in resources. Resource depth allows CSGs to provide support when and where needed. By maintaining a portion of the corps reserves, CSGs have a depth of resources to support operations and provide reinforcing support to divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs.
Synchronization requires advance planning. For supplies to arrive when and where needed, CSG/CSB support operations staffs coordinate support to occur at the decisive time and place. This requires integration of the transportation and supply assets into responsive distribution systems.
More importantly, synchronization requires coordination between logisticians and tacticians. Logistics plans support tactical plans. The combat force can move and fight only as long as supporting forces supply fuel, ammunition, and weapon systems.
CSG support operations staffs coordinate the operations of subordinate elements based on the corps commander's intent and corps G3/G4 priorities. As necessary, CSGs synchronize and cross-level resources among their subordinate battalions to accomplish their missions.
The sustainment imperatives are anticipation, integration, continuity, responsiveness, and improvisation. Supporting operations on an AirLand Battlefield requires that CSG staff officers --
- Anticipate requirements and forecast future demands.
- Integrate and synchronize logistics support operations.
- Ensure continuous logistics support.
- Respond on short notice.
- Improvise to meet unanticipated emergencies.
As shown by Figure 1-1, sustainment imperatives are not substitutes for the basic tenets of AirLand Battle doctrine set forth in FM 100-5. They complement them. For more information on sustainment imperatives, refer to FMs 100-5 and 100-10.
Rather than wait to support after receiving demands, support operations staff officers anticipate what demands might be. To ensure that support occurs when and where most needed, support needs to be proactive.
CSG support operations staff officers continuously anticipate requirements in relation to the tactical situation. They need to anticipate possible shifts in demands as operations shift from offensive to defensive or vice versa. Understanding thetactical commander's intent enables CSG support operations staff officers to more accurately anticipate demands and predict resupply requirements.
CSG support operations staff officers integrate the missions of subordinate battalions. They integrate their logistics support plans with tactical and operational plans. HNS branch staff officers plan the integration of HN units or HN resources to augment subordinate unit capability.
Integration of transportation units with conventional ammunition units and petroleum supply units ensures continuous provision of critical supplies by creating distribution systems. Habitual relationships between supply and transportation units and supporting and supported units reduce coordination requirements and increase support responsiveness.
CSGs provide continuous support. They ensure that support exists when and where the maneuvering commander needs it. By dispersing logistics units across the AO to minimize the impact of enemy incursions, CSGs ensure logistics survivability and continuity of support.
As supported units reposition forward, CSG units move the support base forward, shortening ground LOCs. Unless redirected, rear CSG units push bulk fuel, ammunition, and barrier material to the division area. This constant flow of critical supplies helps support divisions in contact. The corps commander can weight the battle by directing that CSGs preposition or rechannel critical supplies to support tactical operations in another sector.
The principles of CSS in night operations remain the same as those used during the day. However, CSG units need to employ the following practices to offset the effects of darkness and ensure continuity of support:
- Prepare and load supplies on trucks during the day for night delivery to forward supply points.
- Perform maintenance in permanent or temporary shelters or in darkness using night vision devices.
- Plan resupply activities in relation to the kind of illumination that can be used.
- Anticipate increased demand for shelters, batteries, and replacement night vision devices.
- Practice supporting during hours of darkness.
CSGs anticipate and respond to increased demands on short notice, giving priority of support to critical operations. The ability to task organize subordinate battalions enables CSGs to more easily transition to support contingencies. This also allows CSGs to adapt to changing requirements and tactics with a minimum of turbulence.
The CSG support operations officer serves as the single point of coordination for customer units. Instead of coordinating with four to six separate functional battalions, supported units resolve support problems with the CSG support operations officer.
For responsive support, CSGs accept the risk of employing subordinate units farther forward than in the past. Maintenance teams repair as close to the breakdown site as possible. Employing a CSB and subordinate units in the division area reduces transportation turnaround time for corps units in the division rear which do not have to go back to the corps rear area for support. Forward employment increases the responsiveness of support to corps elements in the division area. PLS and ammunition packaging further decrease terminal transfer time.
To provide responsive support, CSG support operations staff officers need to challenge routine support methods and relationships. For example, why should a nondivision unit employed near a division DS supply point send a supply truck miles back into the corps rear area to obtain support from a corps supply point? Responsiveness can be improved by arranging for the MSB or FSBs to provide support to non-divison units, such as corps artillery and engineer battalions, operating in division and brigade AOs.
CSG support operations staff officers capitalize on resources in the area, exploiting unusual sources of supplies and transportation. Civilian vehicles, buses, or tactical vehicles may be used to transport supplies. Battle damaged equipment in uncommitted units provides critically needed parts. For unexpected surges in demands, COSCOM/CSG support operations officers can suspend normal operating procedures and reduce reporting channels.
CSGs are the primary source for logistics support for corps forces. They may serve as part of the forward presence of forces, or they may form part of those forces deployed from a CONUS base. Their units provide rations, clothing, and organizational equipment as well as the field services necessary to support soldier morale. They arm the soldier and his weapon systems; fuel tanks, aircraft, and vehicles; evacuate and repair or exchange damaged items; and transport supplies, equipment, and soldiers across the battlefield. Chapters 6 through 10 describe the soldier sustainment, arm, fuel, fix, and move mission support provided by CSGs.
The COSCOM OPORD lists specific CSG missions. In general, CSGs provide command, control, staff planning, and supervision for three to seven subordinate battalions. Basic missions vary depending on whether the CSG employs in the forward or rear portion of the corps rear area.
Forward CSG Mission
Forward CSGs serve as the source of logistics (less medical) for all corps organizations in their area of operations. This includes corps forces in the division forward area and the ACR area during covering force operations. Figure 1-2 depicts forward CSG mission areas. Forward CSGs
- Support to nondivision forces operating in a division area. Support is provided on an area basis. However, with prior arrangement, corps artillery, air defense, ACR. Depending upon the task organization of engineer, MP, signal, and chemical units may receive support from FSB/MSB units reinforced by CSB units to enable them to support corps forces.
- Corps assets to augment or reinforce the FSBs providing support to nondivision units, such as corps FA, ADA, and engineer battalions, operating in the brigade area of operations. The CSG LO in the DISCOM headquarters coordinates support for corps units operating in the division area. The CSG LO uses CSB LOs in the FSBs to assist in coordinating support to corps elements in the brigade AO.
- GS supply to the division, separate brigades, or the CSG and subordinate CSBs, this may include GS level ammunition, petroleum, and general supplies.
- Area support to units in the CSG's area of responsibility behind the division's rear boundary. Area support requirements will vary as units move into and out of the CSG's area.
- Reinforcing DS maintenance and field services support to the division, separate brigades and ACRs. The amount of reinforcing support required varies depending on the type of division, with the greatest amount required by light infantry divisions.
Rear CSG Mission
Figure 1-3 depicts the rear CSG's mission. The rear CSG provides --
- Area support to units employed in or passing through its AO. This includes divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs held in reserve. For example, the rear CSG would provide support to the support squadron of an ACR operating out of an assembly area. The rear CSG would also support hospitals and replacement units which normally operate in the rear of the combat zone.
- Reinforcing support to the forward CSGs. The rear CSG's subordinate units maintain the bulk of the corps' GS supply base from which to resupply forward CSG GS and DS units.
- Corpswide support of petroleum, ammunition, transportation, AVIM, airdrop, and mortuary affairs. GS supply units assigned to the rear CSG's functional battalions provide supplies to DS supply units. Trucks may throughput bulk Class III, Class IV, and Class V from the corps rear area to the DSA. Water may also be pushed forward to support chemical unit requirements in the division AO.
The CSG's support operations officer provides supported customers with a single point of coordination. This reduces their communications span and increases responsiveness to supported customers. Since CSGs support primarily on an area basis, supported customers consist of units employed in or passing through the CSGs area of responsibility. The CSG's support operations section develops and updates the customer list. There is no standard CSG organizational structure. The COSCOM tailors CSGs to meet the needs of supported forces. The number, type, and mix of subordinate battalions, companies, teams, and detachments vary depending on the --
The CSG's support operations officer provides supported customers with a single point of coordination. This reduces their communications span and increases responsiveness to supported customers. Since CSGs support primarily on an area basis, supported customers consist of units employed in or passing through the CSGs area of responsibility. The CSG's support operations section develops and updates the customer list.
There is no standard CSG organizational structure. The COSCOM tailors CSGs to meet the needs of supported forces. The number, type, and mix of subordinate battalions, companies, teams, and detachments vary depending on the --
The COSCOM commander task organizes CSGs based on support requirements and the scheme of maneuver established by the corps G3. Through continuing coordination with the corps staff, the COSCOM maintains a sensitivity to changing requirements of divisions and other corps forces and is able to proactively plan to satisfy all requirements. Figure 1-4 depicts a sample organization for forward CSGs and a rear CSG. As the number and type of supported units change, CSGs change the way in which their subordinate battalions organize to provide support. Thus, the organization of a forward CSG supporting corps units operating in a heavy division AO differs from that of a CSG supporting corps units in a committed air assault division sector.
Area support is the most efficient and affordable way to provide support. CSGs provide area support to all customers located in or transiting their area of responsibility. Their capability to provide area support must grow commensurate with growth of the supported force. When EAC forces are assigned, attached, or placed OPCON to the corps, they will be supported on an area support basis.
Area support options to corps forces employed in the division sector include --
- Establishing forward logistics elements to operate forward logistics bases, normally in a maneuver brigade AO.
- Coordinating support to corps forces from FSBs and MSBs. FSBs and MSBs are the CSS operators in the brigade and division area. They support within their capability and then must be augmented by the CSB. With this support directed in the corps administrative logistics order, the source of support should be transparent to the supported unit.
- Augmenting FSBs and MSBs with corps as sets when logistics work loads generated by corps unit requirements exceeds FSB/MSB capabilities.
Supply point distribution is the norm. As appropriate, supported units travel to their supporting DS supply unit to load up rations, sundry packs, water, Class II items, packaged III products, bulk fuel, and Class IV, V and VII items. Supported units also travel back to a supporting DS maintenance unit to obtain repair parts and have DS level maintenance performed. They travel to a prearranged CEB point or MA collection point to receive field services support.
FORWARD LOGISTICS ELEMENT
Forward logistics elements provide a responsive means to get critical support to corps forces. They may be used to help shape the battle as corps forces employ forward of the division. Establishing forward logistics elements in a staging area supports pursuit and onward movement. Forward logistics elements can also form the basic core of a task force tailored to accompany corps forces, such as a corps FA brigade, operating in a non-US Army corps or supporting an ally or sister Service.
After coordinating with the division, forward CSGs may task the CSB in the division area to send a forward logistics element to setup a forward logistics base. This lead element allows the CSG to echelon support assets. During the first stages of an operation, the forward logistics element can prepare the forward logistics base to become the CSB support area. The forward logistics element could then move forward in support of fast-moving offensive operations.
The composition of the forward logistics elements varies based on METT-T and requirements of supported forces. The CSG or CSB staff coordinates reinforcing requirements with the DISCOM and supporting FSB.
Forward logistics elements may issue MREs, water, bulk fuel, and repair parts. The COSCOM surgeon may also arrange inclusion of medical treatment and evacuation assets.
Based on personnel and equipment density lists provided by supported units, the CSG support operations officer recommends changes in the strength, composition, and location of forward logistics elements. A CSB support operations staff officer should accompany the forward logistics element to coordinate support operations and communicate changing requirements to the CSB.
Forward CSG/CSB areas of concern that affect synchronized support and movement of nondivision elements supporting in the division sector include terrain positioning, MSR use and priorities, and rear area security. The CSG/CSB support operations officer coordinates the positioning and security of the forward logistics base with the FSB S3 and further with the maneuver brigade S3/S4. Forward logistics elements must be integrated into the defense plan for the BSA. Their internal security plans include responsibilities for perimeter defense.
The CSG/CSB support operations officer coordinates the number and location of forward logistics element bases with the S3/S4 of supported corps organizations. He keeps their staffs informed of actions being taken by the forward CSB, DTO/CTO, DISCOM, and COSCOM to resolve logistics support problems.
Though CSBs have the ultimate responsibility for supporting corps units, FSBs and MSBs will provide support to non-divison units, such as corps FA, ADA and engineer battalions, located in their AO. When the number of personnel and items of equipment to be supported is small enough and their presence does not create a significant work load, FSBs and MSBs support corps forces on an area basis. However, if the numbers are substantial or dispersion taxes the FSB or MSB assets, as in the case of supporting corps FA, ADA, and engineer battalions, forward CSGs augment or reinforce FSBs and the MSB, normally from the CSB in the division area. Refer to Figure 1-5.
The administrative logistics order directs that the DISCOM's FSBs and MSB provide support to designated corps organizations providing support in the brigade AO and division rear area. It directs that the forward CSG provides reinforcing or augmenting personnel, equipment, and supplies (less Class VIII and mission oriented Class IX provided by accompanying MSTs) to the FSBs or MSB. The CSG/CSB LO at the DISCOM/FSB determines initial augmentation/reinforcing requirements in coordination with DISCOM, MSB, and FSB support operations staff.
With publication of the corps administrative logistics order, the support provided to corps units in brigade and division rear areas should be transparent to them. That support maybe provided solely by FSB, MSB, or CSB elements or by a combination of any or all. What is important is that the corps forces in the division sector be provided a single point of coordination, the FSB support operations section in the brigade AO, or DISCOM support operations staff in the division rear area, which can direct them to the source of support.
Under the reinforcing support option, the forward CSB places supply personnel and assets in the brigade area with the applicable forward supply point. Teams or reinforcing personnel and equipment from CSB units enable FSBS to provide support to corps forces. While in the brigade AO, reinforcing personnel or teams from a CSB are attached to the FSB and placed under the command and control of the supporting company.
When large corps organizations move to another area, these teams and personnel, with the exception of MSTS which habitually support FA organizations, usually return to their parent CSB.
Support in the New AO
Before the FA organization leaves the sector they are in, they coordinate with the supporting FSB, MSB, or CSB to either take the currently assigned MST or to contact the supporting maintenance unit in the newly assigned sector for maintenance support.
The CMMC is responsible for integrating maintenance and supply support actions. It shifts maintenance work loads among nondivision maintenance units and issues materiel release orders for repair parts to cover increased maintenance and shifts in repair parts requirements and reinforces the capability of FSBs and MSB to support corps forces in the new AO.
The CSG LO at the DISCOM coordinates with the DISCOM support operations staff on reinforcement to MSB units to enable the MSB to support corps forces in the DSA. CSG LOS gather and pass information to CSB LOS in FSBs. The CSB LO at each FSB coordinates logistics support to nondivision units in the brigade AO. The CSG/CSB LO, DISCOM support operations officer, and FSB support operations officer determine the most effective way to support corps units in the division area. The CSG/CSB LO --
- Coordinates logistics support missions between the corps organizations, DISCOM/FSB support operations staff, and supporting CSG/CSB units.
- Coordinates with CSB/CSG support operations staff on logistics support of supported corps forces.
- Provides advice on site requirements within the BSA/DSA.
- Coordinates with the FSB S2/3 on security arrangements of CSB forward logistics elements.
- Maintains contact with corps brigade S4s on support requirements and concerns.
- Receives supported units' personnel and equipment density and location reports and forwards this information to the CSG support operations officer for planning.
- Keeps the CSG support operations officer informed on corps brigade tactical plans.
SUPPORT TO CORPS FORCES
IN A NEW DIVISION AREA
When corps forces move to a new division within the same corps, the CSB in the new division's area assumes the support mission. COSCOM and forward CSG support operations staff officers cross-level assets among the losing and gaining CSBs to best accommodate the requirements of corps nondivision customers.
The FSBs in the new division area will provide support within their capability. Corps forces in the brigade AO coordinate logistics support with FSB support operations staff. In their role of providing support to nondivision units, the FSBs and MSB of the new division will be augmented by the CSB in the new division sector. Refer to Figure 1-6.
Depending upon support assets within the new division area, assets from the previously supporting CSB may move with corps forces. COSCOM and CSG support operations staff officers determine which assets from the losing CSB or CSG will accompany corps forces. Artillery oriented MSTs for example, will accompany a nondivision FA battalion moving from one division area to another. The NCOIC of the MST continues to track the status of work orders in conjunction with the maintenance unit shop officer. If required, the job order will be closed out and reopened with the new supporting maintenance unit.
The CMMC diverts parts due in to the new supporting maintenance unit. As necessary, the COSCOM cross-levels maintenance resources and repair parts among its subordinate CSGs.
The COSCOM may also redirect the flow of MLRS or 155 munitions to compensate for changes in armament densities. It may make other adjustments based on density of weapon systems in the new division AO.
In a multicorps theater, when the Army commander cross attaches corps brigades among corps, area support continues to be the prevailing method of support. The OPORD or FRAGO which directs the detachment and consequent attachment of corps forces alerts the COSCOMs of both corps of changing support requirements. Based on support coordination, assets may be moved between corps.
When a nondivisional corps organization moves to a new corps area, a new FSB and supporting CSB assume the support mission. As required some assets from a CSB may accompany the brigade. Refer to Figure 1-7.
The brigade S4 identifies support requirements to the CSG/CSB support operations officer. The CSB LO at the FSB which picked up the support mission phones requirements to the support operations officer of the forward CSG supporting the new corps area.
The brigade S4 also coordinates with the DISCOM or supporting CSG to ensure that FSBs/CSBs along the route of march provide support en route. Support may include refuel-on-the-move and maintenance and recovery assistance. See Figure 1-7.
When corps nondivisional organizations are attached to another corps or assigned to support a sister Service or ally outside of the Army's sector, a forward CSG provides, through one of its CSBs, a task force with a corps slice of support assets. Refer to Figure 1-8.
A CSB task force assigned a mission to support corps organizations, such as the corps FA brigade, can unburden the brigade of the task of coordinating support in each new area. A forward logistics element could form the core of this task force. FSBs/CSBs provide support along the route of march. The order directing the support mission must detail the command relationship, whether OPCON, attached, or direct support.
When Corps Forces Support a Sister Service
Operations in support of another Service will normally be in support of the Marine Corps, although support to the Air Force or Navy could be required. The Marine Corps could provide Class I, III, IV, and selected II and V However, repair parts and mechanics skilled in repairing FA weapon systems would be extremely limited. Agreement and commitment must be clear and unequivocal as to what and how much support will be provided by the host service.
In most instances, the COSCOM arranges for a slice of corps support to accompany the brigade. The composition of the accompanying support element varies with the requirements and the range and depth of support agreed upon by the host Service. MSTs with custom shop stocks form the core of the support element. The CMCC must establish a reliable LOC to ensure that supplies reach the support element.
When Corps Forces Support an Ally
Less support can be expected from an ally than from a sister Service, due to a greater dissimilarity between equipment and munitions. Therefore, the accompanying task organized support element or corps slice will probably be larger, to include medical evacuation assets. The ally could provide rations and fuel, but even this support must be carefully considered and detailed. The range and degree of coordination will be greater. The greatest challenge may be in establishing LOCs and a responsive transportation network.
ALLOCATION AND EMPLOYMENT
The basis of allocation of forward CSGs is one per division. Unusual METT-T requirements might justify additional allocation. Forward CSGs provide area support to units operating in the forward portion of the corps rear area. They also support nondivision troops in the division sector. Depending upon task organization, forward CSGs provide GS petroleum, GS ammunition, and GS general supplies as well as reinforcing DS maintenance and field services support to division MSBs/FSBs, separate brigades, and ACRs. In mature theaters, close and continuous support relationships develop between forward CSGs, their CSBs, and the units they support.
Rear CSGs are allocated on the basis of one per corps support command. The rear CSG provides area support to units in or passing through the rear portion of the corps rear area. It provides GS supplies, and corpswide transportation, AVIM, and field services support to divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs as well as reinforcing support for the forward CSGs.
AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY
The COSCOM commander assigns forward CSGs an area of support responsibility along the corps' frontage. The area encompasses the support area behind the committed division's rear boundary and extends forward through the BSA. Figure 1-9 depicts this area of responsibility. The COSCOM commander adjusts this area of responsibility based upon the density of supported units, intensity of combat, and forward or rear movement of division boundaries.
The COSCOM commander also assigns an area support sector to the rear CSG. That sector normally encompasses an area from the rear of the forward CSGs to the rear boundary of the corps.
SUPPORT FROM THE CORPS/COSCOM
Figure 1-10 depicts elements of the corps and COSCOM which provide support to CSGs.
Support from the Corps
The corps provides CSGs --
- Personnel, morale, legal, and administrative service support. These soldier support services are provided by Personnel Service Companies (TOE 12467L100-600), assigned to the corps Personnel Group (TOE 12402L000). FM 12-6 prescribes this support doctrine.
- Pay and other area finance support. This support is provided by Finance Support Commands (TOE 14403L000), assigned to the corps Finance Group (TOE 14402L000). FM 14-7 describes finance support operations.
- Area signal support, to include over-the-counter record traffic. This support is provided by the supporting Corps Area Signal Company (TOE11617L000). (This company provides record traffic support until the CSG is authorized organic assets.)
- NBC reconnaissance, decontamination, and smoke support. This support is provided by chemical companies assigned to corps chemical battalions or chemical brigade. FM 3-101 describes these companies.
- Rear operations and ADC support. This is provided by the corps rear CR supporting RAOC, and engineer, MP, MI, ADA, artillery, and aviation units. CSGs remain OPCON to the corps rear CP for rear operations functions. These include terrain management, sustainment, security, and tactical movements.
- Support from the EOD control team and EOD detachments. These elements are tasked by the corps rear CP.
Support from the COSCOM
The COSCOM provides CSGs --
- Integrated materiel management. This is provided by the CMMC (TOE 63433L000). FM 54-23 describes CMMC management functions.
- Movement control, highway regulation, transportation planning, and movement programming. These are provided by the CMCC (TOE 55604L000). FM 55-10 describes these functions.
- Hospitalization, medical services, medical evacuation, and stress control. These HSS functions are provided by the COSCOM medical brigade's area support medical units and stress teams. FM 8-10 covers HSS in a theater of operations.
- Chemical unit and CA activities support. A CA battalion and chemical units can be attached to the corps or to the COSCOM. FM 3-101 describes chemical unit support. FM 41-10 describes CA activities.
WEIGHTING THE BATTLE
The rear CSG's functional battalions and general supply base enable the corps commander to weight the battle. Subordinate GS units maintain the corps' general support base. GS conventional ammunition and bulk fuel stored in forward as well as rear CSG units form the combat multipliers which the corps commander can use to achieve his objectives.
Pushing ammunition and fuel from GS units behind the division rear into the BSA enables US forces to gain the initiative in close operations. Retaining that initiative forces the enemy to react when and where the corps commander chooses. The CSG's GS base enables the corps to continue supporting close operations.
CSG units provide only minimal resupply during the movement to contact. The CSG support operations officer reorients DS assets to support the corps commander's intent. However, the momentum of deliberate attacks allows resupply only of critically needed items, such as MLRS, fuel and ammunition.
In coordination with the CMMC, CMCC, and COSCOM support operations staff, CSGs redirect the flow of fuel and ammunition based on corps priorities and the course of the battle. Subordinate DS supply companies set up refuel-on-the-move sites to refuel reserve forces moving to support close operations. Corps artillery units in the division AO obtain ammunition from FSB ATPs or the nondivision DS ammunition company ATP, depending upon directions from the DAO. The ATP operated by a conventional DS ammunition unit supports corps artillery units and other units in the area.
Normally CSGs help support deep operations by resupplying corps artillery and aviation units. The CSG commander may attach MSTs to the ground maneuver task force to repair critical weapon systems on site. He positions a DS supply company and an ATP or an ASP even farther forward to reduce the length of the LOC.
To prevent enemy capture of reparable weapon systems, CSG maintenance units provide recovery assistance. This allows task force trains to continue their forward momentum. If the LOC cannot be secured, forward CSG units prepare critical supplies for airlift.
The area RAOC coordinates logistics requirements for a tactical combat force with the CSC support operations officer. CSG units need to redirect and push supplies to the TCF, despite interruptions in communications or disruption of MSRs.
The CSG support operations officer receives information copies of rear operations situation reports of incursions and strikes from subordinate units to plan logistics support to or around areas where fighting is taking place. Subordinate battalion S2/S3s coordinate ADC efforts to minimize disruption of logistics support. The area RAOC plots committed forces and those on alert in the CSG AO.
CONTINGENCY SUPPORT CHALLENGE
The probability that CSGs will provide a corps slice of logistics in support of short duration, limited objective, contingency operation remains high. Forward deployed CSG forces will likely have an out of sector contingency mission. Operating separately from the COSCOM, CSGs task organize subordinate units to support a separate infantry brigade, theater defense brigade, or contingency task force. FM 100-15 covers contingency operations. FM 100-20 describes low-intensity conflicts. FM 63-3 describes CSS support of LIC.
Deploying combat and CS forces require sufficient logistics support to be echeloned into an AO with them. Appendix B provides a useful deployment planning checklist.
During deployment or mobilization, CSG subordinate units may support a force whose requirements far exceed their TOE design capabilities. In a bare base environment, CSG subordinate CSB or S&S battalions may set up a force provider complex designed to improve the quality of life for soldiers in austere environments. This life support complex may consist of billeting tents, shelters, field kitchens, and laundry and sanitation facilities.
CSGs may have to defer some mission support until the situation stabilizes. To better match corps priorities, CSGs cross-level subordinate resources and realign their existing work force. FM 54-40 provides additional information on tailoring support groups to support units in different geographic zones. CSG S2/S3s may find that CA teams have files of intelligence data on the potential AO.
COSCOM support operations staff and CMMC and CMCC staff plan requirements for logistics support. The base development plan forms an essential element of the OPLAN. The plan specifies the base facilities and support functions required and provided.
HOST-NATION/LOCAL CONTRACT SUPPORT
Requirements for CSG support elements depend upon the nature of the contingency area, expected duration, and availability of HN or contracted support. Where HNS exists, the CSG can reduce its support structure. Local resources offset immediate requirements for fuel, Class IV barrier or construction materials, and secondary field services.
CSG procurement personnel and HNS branch personnel need to be among the first to arrive in the AO. The CSG contracting officer and procurement personnel provide contingency contracting support to the division. They can appoint/ supervise an ordering officer network. This prevents competition for local resources by unit ordering officers. Depending on the local economy, CSG contracting personnel may locally purchase --
- Field ration supplements (fresh fruits and vegetables, bread, milk, and ice).
- Bulk fuels and packaged products.
- Rough terrain vehicles.
- Construction materials.
CSG contracting personnel coordinate with CA teams to assist in securing goods and services, for example local transportation, labor, supplies, services, fuel delivery, trash disposal, and utility support. FM 41-10 describes CA teams which specialize in HN liaison and languages.
The COSCOM support operations officer prioritizes the use of HN resources. COSCOM procurement support branch personnel coordinate HNS procurement. Upon their deployment, COSCOM contracting personnel establish an area procurement section. CSG contracting personnel then become field agents of the COSCOM. CSG and COSCOM contracting personnel coordinate payment and related legal requirements with corps finance group personnel and the corps staff judge advocate.
Essential CSG elements deploy as soon as assault forces land. If possible, logistics elements which support corps combat and CS units set up in an area near the conflict area, before deployment of the entire task force. They may set up a force provider complex to provide initial reception support, billeting, hygiene, and field feed. Other elements arrive once the base support area has been secured.
Depending on the mission, AO, and size and composition of the task force, initial elements may include --
- CSG HNS branch and support operations section personnel, to coordinate initial logistics support.
- CSB headquarters personnel, for C2 of initial deployed logistics teams, detachments, and units.
- Materiel management team from the CMMC, to provide an interface between the DMMC and the CONUS based CMMC. A CMMC representative requires a current DODAC list to help expedite shipments from ports to units.
- Air terminal movement control team, to coordinate movement requirements and commit transportation assets for port clearance.
- Movement control team, to coordinate movement requirements, commit transportation assets, and provide convoy clearance.
- DS supply company elements.
- Transportation truck units, depending upon the availability and type of HNS assets.
- Transportation cargo transfer companies, to discharge, backload, and tranship cargo at air, rail, and motor terminals.
- Watercraft companies, to transport supplies from ships to shore, if the AO requires LOTS.
- AVIM repair teams.
- Conventional DS ammunition company, to establish three ASPs and an ATP.
- Petroleum platoon from the petroleum supply company, depending on the availability of bulk petroleum in the host country.
- Water purification and distribution teams, if potable water does not exist in the area.
- Forward collection platoon, to coordinate processing of initial combat losses.
- Maintenance support teams, for battle damage assessment and repair and rapid modular replacement of components.
- Maintenance elements for lighterage water crafts, if required.
- Remaining CSG HHC elements, phased in during the transition to a mature theater.
Though CSG units normally arrive with follow-on forces, they may accompany assault forces. The initial objective may be to set up the lodgment area at a port or airfield. For a bare base environment, CSG elements comprise a significant portion of early sorties.
Sufficient supplies accompany the early sorties to enable the force to support itself until resupply begins. The task force commander may limit accompanying supplies to unit basic loads and combat PLLs, plus limited quantities of critical supplies. Conventional CTA water purification items, lister bags, and 50 and 250 gallon water bags should be included in accompanying supplies. Tool kits need to accompany all mechanics.
The contingency force may have to depend on ALOC/SEALOC resupply from an intermediate third country area. Supplies may even be stored offshore on cargo ships. Initial resupply should be predetermined, then pushed and adjusted as needed. Critical supplies may be airdropped.
Once initial forces secure an airfield or seaport, truck units can be introduced as part of the follow-on force to establish resupply operations. If HN transport does not exist, the COSCOM time-phases truck units into the contingency area ahead of supplies. COSCOM transportation support branch personnel ensure that adequate MHE and cargo handling equipment is phased ahead of supplies to support cargo transfer missions.
CSG transportation branch personnel review road nets and restrictions on size and weight. This prevents subordinate units from shipping vehicles which exceed local road net capabilities.
Where established road nets do not exist, or when geographic features limit ground transport, resupply may have to be by air. FM 55-40 describes theater airlift operations.
The contingency AO may require terminal service and watercraft units employed in logistics over-the-shore operations. FM 55-60 describes water and air terminal operations.
CSG units deploy with an ASL adjusted to the contingency mission. Only essential maintenance is performed. Repair teams assess battle damage and fix forward by exchanging components. Emphasis is on recovery and reparable exchange. OPLANs set cannibalization policy.
FIELD SERVICES SUPPORT
Requirements for field services depend on the duration of the mission. Initially, the CSG may provide only primary services, to include mortuary affairs and airdrop. CEB and laundry services are provided when the situation stabilizes. The contingency plan specifies whether the Army provides field services support for allies or other services taking part in joint or combined operations.
In developed areas, procurement personnel may contract with local nationals for--
- Shower facilities.
- Laundry support.
- Bakery products.
- Trash disposal.
- Vector control.
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