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CHAPTER 6

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT


CSS begins at the engineer company level. The engineer company has an organic supply section. All other CSS is under the engineer battalion's control. The battalion has the burden of logistics support. This frees the company commander to concentrate on fighting to accomplish the tactical mission.

The engineer company's CSS responsibility is to report and request logistics requirements and to ensure that the supplies and support provided arrive at the company and are properly executed. The XO and 1SG normally perform these functions. They send the personnel and logistics reports and other required information and requests to the rear.

Other than the company supply section, all of the engineer company's CSS support is assigned to headquarters and headquarters company (HHC). Personnel and equipment from the medical section, maintenance platoon, and support platoon are designated to support each engineer company's combat operations.

COMMAND AND CONTROL

The company commander is responsible for integrating CSS into the engineer company. During combat, the XO, the 1SG, and the A&O platoon leader assist the commander with his CSS responsibilities. The XO is the logistics planner and coordinator. During the preparation of the TF order, he anticipates special logistical requirements of the engineer company (for example, extra petroleum, oil, and lubricants [POL] assets for extended fighting-position construction or MICLIC reloads for complex obstacle reduction) and requests these assets from the battalion/TF (depending on the command/support relationship). See FM 71-2 for more information on TF CSS assets and operations.

The XO coordinates with the 1SG to determine what CSS the engineer company requires and ensures that arrangements are made for CSS to support the tactical plan. The XO-

The 1SG is the engineer company's CSS operator. He executes the company's logistical plan and directly supervises and controls the company trains. He receives CSS reports from the platoon sergeants, provides information to the XO, and helps the XO complete CSS preparations and plan and conduct CSS operations. He can be assisted by the A&O platoon, depending on the tactical situation. The 1SG-

The supply sergeant is the engineer company's representative in the battalion field trains. He assembles the company LOGPAC and moves it forward to the LRP under the control of the support platoon leader. The supply sergeant follows the 1SG to the company resupply point and assists the 1SG with LOGPAC supervision. The supply sergeant also-

The MST chief is assigned to HHC but supports each engineer company. He can be attached when required. He-

The medical team is assigned to HHC but attached to the company. They-

COMPANY TRAINS

During combat, the company normally operates with the maintenance and medical teams forward (company combat trains). The remaining CSS assets operate from the TF or engineer battalion combat trains, the UMCP, or the field trains in the BSA. The 1SG is responsible for all of the company trains, but he normally supervises the combat trains if the company is so organized. The supply sergeant is the 1SG's principal assistant and supervises the company's CSS assets that are located in the TF or engineer battalion field trains.

The company trains normally operate between 500 to 1,000 meters (547 to 1,094 yards) (or one terrain feature) behind the engineer company. This allows the 1SG to provide immediate recovery, combat health support, and maintenance support to the company. During defensive missions, the engineer company is typically working across the TF's sector. The 1SG should attempt to locate the company trains where they can best support the platoons as they prepare the barrier and fortification plan.

During battle, the 1SG continually monitors the company command net and sends combat health and maintenance support forward to the platoons. He must have an armored vehicle (wheeled or tracked) with compatible communications to control the company combat trains effectively. He keeps the TF and engineer battalion combat trains command posts (CTCPs) informed on a continuing basis on the engineer company's logistics status.

SUPPLY FUNCTION

The supply sergeant is responsible for obtaining and delivering supplies to the engineer company. He delivers small items and depends on the support platoon to deliver large or frequently expended items (for example, complete Class V unit basic-load replenishment). The company commander, in his estimate of the situation, will set priorities for supply delivery. The company XO will develop the logistics plan, but the combat mission requirements will generally dictate Classes I, III, and V supplies as critical to successful operations. The supply sergeant will also receive and distribute mail as part of the LOGPAC. Generally, he will deliver the incoming mail to the 1SG and return outgoing mail to the field trains.

Class I items are rations and health, morale, and welfare items. Meals, ready-to-eat (MRE) are kept on each company vehicle in a basic load (normally three to five days). MRE and water are delivered daily to the company from the field trains by the supply section. Hot meals should be served whenever the tactical situation allows. Water is delivered in the company water trailer brought forward by the supply sergeant. Water is more critical than food and must be delivered daily. Rations are automatically requisitioned and issued to the engineer company by the S4 based on the previous day's strength reports submitted to the S1. (The command/support relationship determines whether the engineer or the TF CTCP will receive these reports.)

Class II items include clothing, individual equipment, tentage, tools, and administrative equipment and supplies. These items are requisitioned through the S4 based on requirements from the company supply sergeant. The supply sergeant receives these supplies from the field trains and transports them forward with the LOGPAC.

Class III items include POL. Class III bulk products are delivered with each LOGPAC from the battalion support platoon. The company refuels its vehicles and equipment daily as a minimum. If the engineer company has a fuel tanker attached, it will return to the Class III supply point in the BSA to refuel after the company refuels. During extensive defensive preparations, the company will require additional mission loads of Class III for support fortification construction.

The company normally keeps a basic load of Class III package products (hydraulic fluid, motor oil, and vehicle lubrication) stored on each combat and tactical vehicle. Package products are replenished as they are used from stockage brought forward daily with the fuel tanker during LOGPAC distribution.

Class IV items include construction materials. Combat units normally carry small, basic loads of Class IV materials such as overhead cover material (sandbags and lumber) and concertina wire for individual fighting positions and protective-obstacle construction.

The Class IV/V (barrier material and mines) items for extensive defensive preparations will normally be pushed forward by division or corps transportation assets to a maneuver brigade or TF-controlled supply point. This supply point is managed by the maneuver unit with engineer representation.

Class V items include ammunition. Class V material is based on reported ammunition expenditures submitted to the field trains by the 1SG. The engineer company's ammunition is delivered daily with the LOGPAC. Special-purpose ammunition can be pre- positioned or delivered as part of the company LOGPAC or separately to a predetermined site, depending on the mission (MICLIC reloads for the offense or mines for defensive preparations).

Class VI items include personal-demand items available through the post exchange. These items are requested through the S1 by the 1SG.

Class VII items include major end items. These items are requisitioned through the S4. Crews are assigned and the replacement combat vehicles normally come forward with the LOGPAC. Engineer-specific equipment replacement is normally received through the engineer battalion regardless of the command/support relationship.

Class VIII items include medical supplies. These items are provided by the TF's or engineer battalion's medical platoon, depending on the command/support relationship. Requests for medical supplies to replenish aid bags for the company medics and combat lifesavers are submitted to the TF's aid station by the company senior aidman.

Class IX items include repair parts and documents for equipment maintenance. Repair parts are requested through the prescribed load list (PLL) clerk. They are delivered with LOGPAC or picked up by the MST at the UMCP.

RESUPPLY OPERATIONS

A LOGPAC is a resupply element based on the requirements of the company. Normally, it consists of a POL truck; an ammunition truck (Class IV/V items); and a supply truck that carries rations, water, mail, repair parts, and other requested items and pulls a water trailer. LOGPACs are-

LOGPACs are usually distributed by the service-station method, the tailgate method, or the modified tailgate method or through the maneuver unit. Generally, the service-station method is established by the 1SG in a centrally located and secure site. Sequentially, each platoon moves to the LOGPAC distribution site. Each squad or crew passes through various stations before the final inspection and returns to the work site or position. Normally, the stations include maintenance, fuel (POL), food, water, mail, personnel actions, medics, and other CSS assets as required by the SOP and METT-T. Figure 6-1 shows a graphic illustration of the service-station method.

The tailgate method differs from the service-station method in two major aspects (see Figure 6-2). First, the 1SG brings the LOGPACs to each platoon's general location. Second, the tailgate LOGPACs are usually not as comprehensive as the service-station LOGPACs because the tailgate resupply is more mobile and spends more time in transit. The tailgate method takes more time for the 1SG but interferes least with the platoon work effort. The platoon does not have to spend time moving to the LOGPAC distribution site.

The modified-tailgate method organizes the LOGPAC into separate platoon packages which are picked up at the company resupply point by the platoon sergeants and then delivered to the platoon work sites. This method is particularly effective during defensive preparations because it minimizes platoon travel and allows the soldiers to resupply at their work sites. However, this type of LOGPAC distribution requires special coordination with the S4 and HHC commander to be configured into platoon packages (see Figure 6-3).

The platoons may receive LOGPACs with the maneuver companies/teams as a method of resupply. This method is also effective during defensive preparation, especially for the A&O platoon. The A&O platoon will typically spend a great deal of time in each company BP preparing vehicle and crew-served weapons positions. This method also requires very close coordination to ensure that the engineer platoon is working in the maneuver company/team location when they receive their LOGPAC. Care must also be taken to ensure that the engineer platoon's rations, supplies, ammunition, and fuel are included with the company's LOGPAC.

The LOGPAC can be distributed by a combination of these methods. The company, minus one platoon, may get resupplied through the service-station method while the other platoon may get resupplied through the tailgate method or through the maneuver unit.

COMBAT HEALTH SUPPORT

The medical team attached to the company provides emergency medical treatment (EMT) and medical evacuation (MEDEVAC). The team provides medical treatment of minor diseases and nonbattle injuries and EMT to stabilize seriously injured or wounded soldiers for evacuation. The combat medic is assisted by the combat lifesaver. Generally, there is one combat lifesaver per squad or section. The combat lifesaver is a nonmedical soldier who has received enhanced first-aid training. The medical team supervises the forward acquisition, treatment, and evacuation of the wounded to the TF or nearest battalion aid station. When numerous casualties are anticipated, patient-collecting points are established to facilitate patient acquisition. The 1SG dispatches the armored ambulance to meet and receive patients being transported by nonmedical vehicles. The 1SG arranges for additional evacuation assets when the number of seriously wounded soldiers exceeds the evacuation capability of the company medical team. Less seriously wounded soldiers can be transported by nonmedical transportation assets to the nearest aid station. Weapons and military equipment are generally not evacuated with the wounded. However, the wounded keep their mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) gear and personal items.

MAINTENANCE

When the TF provides logistical support to the engineers, organizational maintenance support comes from the TF. This causes no particular problem for common equipment. However, no engineer-specific equipment repairers exist in the maneuver unit's maintenance platoon. The engineer company normally receives an MST from the engineer HHC; this alleviates the problems associated with low-density, specialized engineer equipment. When the engineers provide the logistical support, they provide organizational maintenance.

Doctrinally, recovery is the owning unit's responsibility. This becomes virtually impossible for the engineer vehicles working in the TF's area. In the defense, the TF provides recovery support at least back to the UMCP located near the combat trains. If repairs cannot be made at the UMCP and the time and situation permit, the engineer's maintenance team can come forward and recover the disabled vehicle. The engineer battalion should provide further recovery back to the BSA for repairs. The engineer BMO or technician must ensure that each BSA has DS mechanics capable of repairing engineer equipment.

In the offense, the TF recovers the vehicle to the main supply route (MSR). Depending on the situation, the TF either turns the vehicle's recovery over to the engineers or the vehicle is picked up by recovery assets from the BSA. It must be clear in the TF's SOP or OPORD which maintenance team has recovery responsibility for the engineer vehicles. The priority that the TF commander places on the engineer assets determines in what priority they are recovered.

The engineer company's maintenance contact team routinely visits work sites. The communications repairman and armorer accompanies this maintenance team to help anticipate problems and provide support before the mission is jeopardized.

Maintenance starts with preventive maintenance by the vehicle's operator and crew and continues through repair by mechanics. It is a continuous process. The engineer operators must be able to perform preventive maintenance on their equipment at any time and in any situation. This is especially important given the lower densities and higher maintenance levels of specialized engineer equipment.

Maintenance and recovery are initiated by the vehicle's operator and crew. They identify the problem through preventive maintenance. Faults are annotated on DA Form 2404 and submitted to the 1SG daily during distribution before receiving rations. If the MST chief is present during distribution, the DA Form 2404s are submitted to him. Typically, the Unit-Level Logistics System (ULLS) clerk will be forward to support the company. Normally, he will be integrated with the TF UMCP. Maintenance and repair requiring the MST should be performed as far forward as possible.

After the crew identifies a fault, they report to the platoon leader and platoon sergeant the status of the fault, the location of the vehicle, and the circumstances of the fault. The crew and the chain of command make an estimate to determine the maintenance support requirements (self-recovery, fix forward, assistance from nearby vehicles or units, or assistance from the battalion).

If the repairs needed are beyond the crew's ability, the platoon notifies the 1SG. He then notifies and dispatches the MST to the vehicle. If the repair takes longer than two hours, the 1SG requests additional support from the BMO.

If the vehicle cannot be fixed forward, it is evacuated to the TF or engineer battalion UMCP. If the engineer company is attached, the TF attempts to fix the vehicle. If the repair is beyond the TF's capability, the engineer battalion dispatches recovery assets forward to either repair the vehicle in the TF's UMCP or further evacuates the vehicle to the BSA (this is normally required if special tools or parts are required for the equipment).

If the vehicle is unrepairable or cannot be recovered, personal items, radios, crew-served weapons, ammunition, and other serviceable items and parts are removed. The automotive and remaining weapons systems are damaged or destroyed to preclude their use by the enemy. NOTE: The destruction or disabling of friendly equipment is only done on the order of the commander.

The MST, when attached, normally travels to the rear of the engineer company during the offense. If a vehicle becomes disabled, the crew moves the vehicle as far off the march route as possible and guides passing vehicles around. If the crew cannot make repairs, they report and wait for the MST to assist them.

During the defense, the MST normally collocates with the A&O platoon. This ensures that critical engineer equipment is repaired quickly without degradation to the construction of fighting positions.





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