AA assembly area
AABNCP advanced airborne control platform
AAFIF Automated Airfield Information File
AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials
AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
ABC all-bituminous pavement
ABS acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (plastic)
AC asphalt cement or asphaltic cement
ACC asphalt-cement concrete
ACE armored combat earthmover
ACN aircraft classification number
ADEPT alternating door exit procedures for training
ADR air base damage repair
AF Air Force
AFB Air Force Base
AFCESA Air Force Civil Engineering Support Agency
AFCS Army Facilities Components System
AFESC Air Force Engineering and Services Center
AFI Air Force Instruction
AFM or AFMAN Air Force manual
AFP or AFPAM Air Force pamphlet
AFR Air Force regulation
AFWL-TR Air Force Weapons Laboratory Technical Report
AGL above ground level
AH attack helicopter
AHD average haul distance
AI airfield index
An airfield having, in addition to operational facilities, shelter for personnel and facilities for supply and repair of aircraft.
An area prepared for the accommodation (including any buildings, installations, and equipment), landing, and takeoff of aircraft.
- air base
AM-2 aluminum matting
AMC Air Mobility Command
AML airfield marking and lighting
An accessible and defiladed area having good cover; located at a safe distance from troops, aircraft, and other facilities; and used for storing explosives and ammunition.
Components of the mat system for use with the basic mat to construct the runway and taxiway complex, to replace damaged mat, or to remove mat for repair of the subgrade. The ancillary items are type-classified into a mat set to simplify requisitioning.
- ammunition and explosives storage area
ANG Air National Guard
A small vertical angle measured outward and upward from the end of the flight strip, above which no obstruction should extend within the area of the approach zone. It also indicates the safe descent angle for various types of aircraft and is expressed as a ratio such as 35:1.
- angle, glide
- A compound applied to the top surface of a landing mat during fabrication to provide a skid-resistant surface, especially during inclement weather.
APC armored personnel carrier
A trapezoidal area extending outward from each end of a flight strip, within which no natural or man-made object may project above the glide angle.
A prepared area for loading and unloading personnel and cargo.
A prepared area for parking aircraft while being serviced or repaired.
A prepared area used in place of hardstands for the parking of aircraft. It is also referred to as a conventional apron.
- approach zone
A stabilized or surfaced area used for the assembly or warming up of aircraft, usually located at both ends of the runway adjacent to and with the long axis parallel to the connecting taxiway.
APSB asphalt penetrative soil binder
AR Army regulation
ARIA advanced range instrumentation aircraft
ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers
ASTM American Society of Testing and Materials
ATC air traffic control
Soil plasticity test used to measure soil cohesiveness; that is, cohesive or cohesionless.
- Atterberg Limits
AUTOCAD automated computer-aided drafting and design
av absolute volume
The anticipated average number of vehicle per day that will use a completed facility.
average running speed
The speed expected to be maintained by most vehicles. It is equal to the total traveled distance divided by total time consumed.
- average daily traffic (ADT)
AVIM aviation intermediate maintenance
AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System
AWADS Adverse Weather Aerial Delivery System
AWS Air Weather Service
Soil measured in its natural state.
base course or base
Base course consists of well-graded, granular materials that have a liquid limit less than 25 percent and a plastic limit less than 5 percent. The base course is the most important element in a road structure. It functions as the primary load-bearing component of the road, ultimately providing the pavement (or surface) strength. Therefore, it is made of higher quality material than subbase material.
- banked cubic yardage (BCY)
The ability of a soil to support a vehicle without undue sinkage of the vehicle.
Terracing on a slope.
A raised lip, usually of earth, placed at the top edge of a channel to prevent flow into the channel at places not protected against erosion.
bitumen or bituminous
The most common type of asphalt surface placed in the theater of operations.
- bearing capacity
BOM bill of materials
An excavated area where material has been dug for use as fill at another location.
- borrow pit
BTU British thermal unit
BVM Bays Village of Maryland
C, CL, or C/L centerline
CAD computer-aided design
A measure of the bearing capacity of a soil based upon its shearing resistance. CBR is expressed as a percentage of the unit load required to force a piston into the soil divided by the unit load required to force the same piston the same depth into a standard sample of crushed stone. See Chapter 5, FM 5-430-00-1/AFPAM 32-8013, Vol 1, or FM 5-541.
- California Bearing Ratio (CBR)
CAMMS Condensed Army Mobility Modeling System
CAPES Controlled Alternate Parachute Exit System
CARP computed air release point
CBA close battle area
C/C center to center
CCT combat control team
CDS container delivery system
Laboratory compactive effort (CE) accomplished by the impact of 55 hammer blows per layer.
- CE 55
CES civil engineering squadron
CEV combat engineer vehicle
cf cubic feet
cfs cubic feet per second
CG center of gravity
CH inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays
CH cargo helicopter
CI cone index
CL clays, low compressibility (LL< 50)
A rectangular area located adjacent to and outside of the runway shoulders, in which tree stumps are cut close to the ground, boulders removed, and the general area roughly graded to the extent necessary to reduce damage to aircraft in the event of erratic performance in which the aircraft runs off the runway.
- clear area
CMP corrugated metal pipe
cm/sec centimeters per second
A free-draining soil of which more than 50 percent by weight of the grains will be retained on a No. 200 sieve. For trafficability purposes, these are dry beach and desert soils usually containing less than 7 percent of material passing the No. 200 sieve. Gravels are not considered to pose a trafficability problem.
- coarse-grained soil
COMMZ communications zone
A measurement of compacted soil.
Process of mechanically densifying a soil, normally by the application of a moving (or dynamic) load.
compactive effort (CE)
Method used to compact the soil.
cone index (CI)
An index of the shearing resistance of soil. The CI is obtained with a cone penetrometer. The number represents resistance to penetration into the soil of the 30-degree cone with a 1/2-square inch base area (actual load in pounds on cone base area in square inches), using a dial calibrated to produce an index of 300 when 150 lb of pressure are exerted on the handle. The CI reading is normally taken at the 0-inch (base of the cone) and at every 3-inch interval down to 18 inches or until the dial reaches the maximum of 300. A number of tests will be taken and each specified interval reading will be averaged. That average becomes the CI for the inch level.
- compacted cubic yards (CCY)
Usually a covered and enclosed platform for the direction and control of traffic. Depending upon the type of construction authorized, the control tower may be a mobile unit or a selfsupported structure, no higher than necessary to afford an unobstructed view of the entire flight path and taxiways.
- control tower
CONUS continental United States
CPM critical path method
The soil layer that determines the rating cone index (for finegrained soil) or cone index (for coarse-grained soil) of the area considered. Its depth varies with the soil profile and the weight and type of vehicle. Generally, the critical layer for fine-grained soils is 6 to 12 inches below the surface when subjected to passes of a vehicle. For coarse-grained soils, the critical layer is usually from the surface to a 6-inch depth for all vehicular passes.
(1) The difference in elevation between the centerline and the surface edge. The crown expedites surface-water runoff on the road. The amount of crown depends on the surface used. Surfaces such as concrete or bituminous materials require little crown because of their impermeability, but permeable surfaces such as earth or gravel require a large crown. (2) The outside top of the culvert.
- critical layer
CRS Central Radar System
CSS cationic slow setting
CUCV commercial utility cargo vehicle
cu ft cubic foot/feet
An enclosed waterway used to pass water through a structure consisting of an embankment or fill.
cut or cutting
That portion of through construction produced by the removal of the natural formation of earth or rock, whether sloped or level. The terms sidehill cut and through-hill cut describe the resulting cross sections commonly encountered.
The slope from the top of a cut to the ditch line (bottom of ditch). Sometimes it is called the back slope.
cu yd or cy cubic yard(s)
DA Department of the Army
DBH diameter at breast height
DCA dust-control agent
DCP dynamic cone penetrometer
DD Department of Defense
The number of vehicles that a road may typically be expected to accommodate in an hour. The DHV is 15 percent of the ADT.
The speed for which a facility is designed. Pertinent geometric features, such as horizontal curves and grades, may be based on design speed.
The storm of greatest intensity for a given period. For example, a 2-year design storm is a storm expected to be equalled once in 2 years.
The storage of water in depressions in the earth's surface.
- design hourly volume (DHV)
DF direction finder
dH pressure altitude
A paved ford used for crossing dry, wide, shallow arroyos or washes in semi-arid regions subject to flash floods.
The slope of the ditch extending from the outside edge of the shoulder to the bottom of the ditch. This slope should be relatively flat to avoid damage to vehicles driven into the ditch and to permit easy recovery.
A ditch used to transport water away from roadways or airfields.
DMA Defense Mapping Agency
DMZ demilitarized zone
DOD Department of Defense
A structure that absorbs the impact energy of water as it falls vertically to a lower level waterway.
DSA division support area
DSN Defense Switched Network
DT ditch time
DZ drop zone
DZC drop zone control
A device used along the sides and ends of the matting to hold the mat in position. Power equipment can be used in driving the anchors. The pneumatic wood-boring drill and posthole digger have both proven effective in this. The average pull required to remove anchors after emplacement is 2,040 pounds.
- earth anchors
EL or elev elevation
EM engineer manual
EM enlisted member
ENE east northeast
EOD explosive ordnance disposal
EPW enemy prisoner of war
The transportation of weathered materials by wind or water.
ESE east southeast
ETAC Environmental Technical Applications Center
EZ extraction zone
EZC extraction zone control
FAA Federal Aviation Authority
FC field circular
Material used to fill a receptacle, cavity, passage, or low place. Using material to fill a cavity or low place.
The incline extending from the outside edge of the shoulder to the toe (bottom) of a fill.
fine-grained soil A silt or clay soil of which more than 50 percent by weight of the grains will pass a No. 200 sieve (smaller than 0.074 millimeter in diameter).
A U-shaped revetment, normally of earth, and hardstand for boresiting aircraft armament and test firing.
- fill or filling
The line connecting successive positions occupied by an aircraft, missile, or space vehicle as it moves through air or space.
Includes area of the runway, shoulders, clear area, overruns, and clear zones.
- flight path
FM field manual
A shallow place in a waterway where the bottom permits the passage of personnel and vehicles.
fpm foot (feet) per minute
fps foot (feet) per second
Processes which affect the ability of soil to support a structure when accumulated water in the form of ice lenses in the soil is subjected to natural freezing conditions.
Soil in which significant ice segregation will occur when the necessary moisture and freezing conditions are present.
- frost action
FSN federal stock number
ft/ft feet per foot
ft/in feet per inch
ft2/yd2 square feet per square yard
An accessible area, having good cover, located a safe distance from troops, aircraft, and other facilities, and used for the storage and dispensing of aviation fuels.
- fuel storage area
G-1 Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1(Personnel)
Large, steel wire-mesh baskets filled with stones, usually rectangular in shape and variable in size. They are designed to solve the problem of erosion.
gal/yd gallon(s) per square yard
gal/lb gallon(s) per pound
GC clayey gravels, gravel-sand-clay mixture
GCA ground-controlled approach
Refers to all visible features of the road such as lane width, shoulder width, and alignment.
- geometric design (geometry or geometric features)
GLE grade-line elevation
silty gravels, gravel-sand-silt mixture
GMRS Ground Mark Release System
poorly graded gravels or gravel-sand mixture, little or no fines
To level off to a smooth horizontal or sloping surface.
An icing whose source of water is from groundwater flow above permafrost.
The upper limit of the saturated zone of free water.
A mixture of cement, sand, and water sprayed from a high-pressure nozzle onto a surface to protect it.
well-graded gravels, gravel-sand mixture, little or no fines
HAARS High-Altitude Airdrop Resupply System
A paved or stabilized area where vehicles are parked. Open ground area having a prepared surface and used for the storage of material.
HM heavy mat
HMMWV high mobility, multipurpose wheeled vehicle
HP high point
HQDA Headquarters, Department of the Army
HSLLADS High-Speed, Low-Level Airdrop System
HVCDS High-Velocity Container Delivery System
HW high water
The slope in feet per foot of a drainage structure.
The continuous process in which water is transported from the oceans to the atmosphere to the land and back to the sea.
- hydraulic gradient
IAW in accordance with
An irregular sheet or field of ice.
IFR instrument flight rules
ILAS Instrument Landing Approach System
IMC instrument meteorological conditions
The absorption of rainwater by the ground on which it falls.
in/hr inches per hour
INS Inertial Navigation System
in situ Soil in its natural (undisturbed) state.
The holding of rainfall in the leaf canopy of trees and plants.
JCS PUB or Joint Pub Joint Chiefs of Staff publication
kip kilopound (1,000 pounds)
kph kilometers per hour
The type of flow that occurs when viscosity forces predominate and the particles of the fluid move in smooth, parallel paths.
A very general term designating an area of land prepared for the takeoff and landing of aircraft.
A prefabricated, portable mat so designed that any number of planks (sections) may be rapidly fastened together to form surfacing for emergency runways, landing beaches, and so forth.
- laminar flow
LAPES Low-Altitude Parachute Extraction System
An area (transitional surface) located between the runway clear area or runway edge when no clear area is provided and the clearance lines limiting the placement of building construction and other obstacles with respect to the runway centerline. The slope of the transitional surface is 7:1 outward and upward at right angles to the runway centerline.
- lateral safety zone
lin ft linear foot/feet
LIP length in place
LL liquid limit
LM light mat
LOC lines of communication
LP low point
LZ landing zone
MAC Military Airlift Command
MACOM major Army command
MAJCOM major command
Earthwork volume plotted on graph paper, showing cut and fill operations.
- mass diagram
The maximum continuous towing force in pounds a vehicle can exert. It is expressed as a ratio or percentage of vehicle weight.
- maximum towing force (T1)
MCPB Mapping and Charting Program Branch
An object, real or imaginary, not within the specified glide angles and clearance lines, but in the vicinity of the airfield, which constitutes in the mind of the pilot a hazard to the safe operation of aircraft in landing or taking off.
- mental hazard
inorganic silts, micaceous or diatomaceous fine sandy or wilty soils, elastic silts
MIL-STD military standard
inorganic silts and very fine sands, rock flour, silty or clayey fine sands or clayey silts with slight plasticity
MM medium mat
MO maximum offset
A number that results from a consideration of certain vehicle characteristics.
- mobility index (MI)
MOPP mission-oriented protective posture
MOS military occupational specialty
mph mile(s) per hour
MS medium setting
MSR main supply route
MTOE modified table of organization and equipment
Slipperiness symbol meaning not slippery under any conditions.
NA or N/A not applicable
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NAVAID navigational aid
NBC nuclear, biological, chemical
NCO noncommissioned officer
NCOIC noncommissioned officer in charge
NEACP National Emergency Airborne Command Post
NGR National Guard regulation
NM nautical mile(s)
NNE north northeast
NNW north northwest
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NP number of pipes
NRMM NATO Reference Mobility Model
NRS naval radio station
NSN national stock number
NVG night-vision goggles
OD outside diameter
OH observation helicopter
OL order length
ONC operational navigation chart
A graded and compacted portion of the clear zone, located at the extension of each end of the runway, to minimize risk of accident to aircraft due to overrun on takeoff or undershooting on landing. Its length is normally equal to that of the clear zone and its width is equal to that of the runway and shoulders.
Slipperiness symbol meaning slippery when wet.
PAPI precision approach path indicator
PBS prefabricated bituminous surfacing
PC Portland cement
PC point of curvature
pcf pounds per cubic foot
pci pounds per cubic inch
PCN pavement classification number
PECS prepackaged expendable contingency supply
Constantly frozen ground.
PFS partially frost-susceptible
PI plasticity index
PI point of intersection
PL plastic limit
PO post office
POI point of impact
POL petroleum, oils, and lubricants
The accumulation of water at the upstream end of a culvert.
PRF penetration resistance factor
Prime BEEF prime base engineer emergency forces
psf pounds per square foot
psi pounds per square inch
PSP pierced steel plank
PT point of tangency
PVC point of vertical curvature
PVC polyvinyl chloride
PVI point of vertical intersection
PVT point of vertical tangency
QSTAG Quadripartite Standardization Agreement
RACON radar beacon
The measured cone index multiplied by the remolding index (RCI = CI x RI). The RCI expresses the soil-strength rating of a soil area subjected to sustained traffic.
- rating cone index (RCI)
RAM raised angle marker
RC rapid curing
RCL recognition control light
REDCOM Readiness Command
rapid engineering deployable heavy operational repair squadrons, engineering
- RED HORSE
A poorly drained, coarse-grained soil, usually containing 7 percent or more material passing a No. 200 sieve. Poor internal drainage increases the water content greatly influencing the trafficability characteristics and permitting the remolding test to be performed. When wet, these soils react to traffic in a manner similar to fine grained soils and are more sensitive to remolding.
The changing or working of a soil by traffic or a remolding test. The beneficial, neutral, or detrimental effects of remolding may change soil strength.
remolding index (RI)
The ratio of remolded soil strength to original strength. Soil conditions that permit the remolding test to be performed with ease will usually result in a loss of strength.
- remoldable sand
req'd or reqd required
The force in pounds required to tow an operable, powered vehicle on level terrain.
Usually a mound or wall of earth, masonry, timber, sandbags, or other suitable material erected as a protection for aircraft against small arms or artillery fire, bomb splinters, or blast.
- required towing force (T2)
RI remolding index
Rocks or rubble placed in the bottom and on the sides of a ditch to prevent soil erosions.
An icing formed along rivers or streams and adjacent areas having a source of water above or below the riverbed.
RL real length
A two-way road, normally improved, connecting the air base or airfield with the existing road system of the vicinity.
The entire width of surface on which a vehicle may stand or move. The roadbed consists of both the traveled way and the shoulders.
road classification system
An organized list of four road types based on the number of vehicles each is designed to accommodate in a 24-hour period. Road characteristics are based on average daily traffic.
A road connecting the access road and the bomb and fuel storage areas with all hardstands and aprons for the purpose of refueling, rearming, and servicing aircraft.
The entire width within the limits of earthwork construction and is measured between the outside edges of cut or fill slopes. Roadway width does not include interceptor ditches if they fall outside the slopes. The roadway width varies from section to section depending on the height of cut or fill, depth of ditches, and slope ratios.
A strip of landing mat equal to one panel length and extending longitudinally (parallel to the direction of traffic) for the entire length of the runway or taxiway.
- road, access
R/R recoilless rifle
RRR rapid runway repair
RS rapid setting
RT road tar
RTCB road-tar cutback
RTO radiotelephone operator
A strip of mat equal to one panel width and extending transversely (perpendicular to the direction if traffic) across the entire width of the runway, taxiway, or roadway.
A defined rectangular area of an airfield, prepared for the landing and takeoff run of aircraft along its length.
RW real width
Slipperiness symbol meaning slippery at all times.
S2 Intelligence Officer (US Army)
S3 Operations and Training Officer (US Army)
SAAF small austere airfield
A honeycomb shaped geotextile measuring 20 feet by 8 feet by 8 inches deep when fully expanded. It is used to develop a beachhead for logistics-over-the-shore operations. It is also useful in expedient revetment construction.
- sand grid
SC clayey sands, sand-clay mixture
SC supply catalog
SC slow curing
SCIP scarify and compact in place
SEATO Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
SF standard form
SFC sergeant first class
(1) That part of the top surface of an approach embankment, causeway, or cut immediately adjoining the roadway that accommodates stopped vehicles in emergencies and laterally supports base and surface courses. (2) A graded and compacted area on either side of the runway to minimize the risk of accident to aircraft running off or landing off the runway.
These may be the same as the traveled way, but usually they are greater because shoulders are more pervious than the surface course.
sight distance restriction factor
The percent of the total length of the road on which the sight distance is less than 1,500 feet.
SKE station keeping equipment
The low traction capacity of a thin soil surface owing to its lubrication by water or mud without the occurrence of significant vehicle sinkage.
The inclined surface of an excavated cut or an embankment.
The relative steepness of the slope expressed as a ratio of horizontal distance to vertical distance. Thus, a 2:1 slope ratio signifies that for every 2 feet horizontally there is a rise or fall of 1 foot. The value of the slope ratio used in construction depends on the properties of the soil and the vertical height of the slope. Ditch slopes may also be governed by the amount of water to be drained and the possibility of erosion.
silty sands and poorly graded sand-silt mixture
SOCOM special operations command
SOF special operations forces
SOLL special operations low-level
SOP standing operating procedure
poorly graded sands or gravelly sands, little or no fines
An icing whose source of water is from subpermanent levels.
sq ft square foot/feet
sq in square inch(es)
sq yd square yard(s)
SS slow setting
SSE south southeast
SSG staff sergeant
SSW south southwest
STANAG Standardization Agreement
The ability of a soil to adhere to the vehicle undercarriage or running gear.
A structure used to protect the culvert outlet against erosion.
STOL short takeoff and landing
Describes the in situ soil on which a road, airfield, or heliport is built. The subgrade includes soil to the depth that may affect the structural design of the project or the depth at which climate affects the soil.
Water beneath the surface of the land.
- subbase or subgrade
The transverse downward slope from the outside to the inside of the traveled way on a curve. It is usually expressed in inches of drop per horizontal foot or foot-drop per horizontal foot.
The surface course provides a smooth, hard surface on which the traffic moves. It may be constructed from asphalt or tar products, concrete, gravel, or compacted earth with certain types of binders. The surface course should be all-weather and should provide for the rapid urnoff of water. The use of treated surfaces is limited to roads that have a long design life. A divisional road with a life expectancy of 6 months or less will receive only an earth or gravel surface.
- surface course
SUSV small-unit support vehicle
well-graded sands, gravelly sands, little or no fines
T1 maximum towing force
T2 required towing force
TA Theater Army
TACAN tactical air navigation
The distance traveled by an aircraft along the runway before becoming airborne.
A specially prepared or designated path on an airfield for the use of taxiway aircraft.
- takeoff ground run (TGR)
TBM temporary bench mark
TC training circular
TDF total depth of fill
TH thickness x height
The time it takes for an entire drainage basin to begin contributing runoff to a drainage structure.
- time of concentration (TOC)
TM technical manual
TN air transport
TO theater of operations
TOE table(s) of organization and equipment
That portion of the beginning of the runway normally used by aircraft for primary contact of wheels on landing.
- touchdown area
TP transition point
The ability of soil to resist the vehicle tread thrust required for steering and propulsion.
The traffic lane consists of the road surface over which a single lane of traffic will pass.
- traction capacity
The process by which water that has traveled from the ground through the plant's system is returned to the air through the leaf system.
The road surface upon which all vehicles move or travel. For a single-lane road, the traveled way is the same as one traffic lane. For a multilane road, the traveled way is the sum of the traffic lanes. If a surface course is provided, it normally extends only across the traveled way.
The type of flow that occurs when viscosity forces are relatively weak and the individual water particles move in random patterns within the aggregate forward-flow pattern.
- turbulent flow
U unsurfaced soil with or without mat
UAV unmanned aerial vehicle
UH utility helicopter
UHF ultrahigh frequency
UHFDF ultrahigh frequency direction finder
US United States
USAASO United States Army Aeronautical Services Office
USAE United States Army Engineer
USAES United States Army Engineer School
USAF United States Air Force
USCS Unified Soil Classification System
UXO unexploded ordnance
VASI visual approach slope indicator
VC vitrified clay
The index assigned to a given vehicle that indicates the minimum soil strength in terms of rating cone index (or cone index for coarse-grained soil) required for one pass (VCI1 ) or other passes (VCIn )of the vehicle. Usually one and fifty passes are used as extremes.
- vehicle cone index (VCI)
VFR visual flight rules
VGSI Visual Glide Scope Indicating System
VMC visual meteorological conditions
VTOL vertical takeoff/landing
W1 weight of towing vehicle
W2 weight of a towed vehicle
WES Waterways Experiment Station
WF waste factor
A long fabric cone open at both ends, used to indicate the wind direction to an airborne pilot.
A T-shaped device for indicating landing direction to pilots.
- wind sock
WNW west northwest
wp wetted perimeter
W.R.C. wire rope cable
WSW west southwest
WT weight type
ZM zone marker
< less than
< less than or equal to
> greater than
> greater than or equal to
G change of grade
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