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Appendix B

Bridge Classification

Bridge and vehicle classification allows vehicle operators to avoid bridge failure due to overloading. Vehicle operators may drive across without restrictions if their vehicles' class numbers are less than or equal to the bridge class number. This appendix provides a quick method of estimating bridge capacity in the field.

BRIDGE SIGNS

All classified vehicles and bridges in the theater of operations require classification signs. Bridge signs are circular with a yellow background and black inscriptions. Sign diameters are a minimum of 16 inches for one-lane bridges and 20 inches for two-lane bridges. A two-lane bridge classification sign has two numbers, side by side, on its sign (see Figure B-1). The number on the left is the bridge classification when both lanes are in service simultaneously. The number on the right indicates the classification if the bridge is carrying one-way traffic and the vehicles proceed along the centerline of the bridge. For bridges with separate classifications for wheeled and tracked vehicles (dual classification), use a special circular sign that indicates both classifications (see Figure B-1, right side). Classify bridges greater than class 50 as dual-class bridges. Use a separate rectangular sign, if necessary, to show bridge width limitations.

Figure B-1. Bridge classification signs

WIDTH AND HEIGHT RESTRICTIONS

Table B-1 lists width restrictions for bridges. If a one-lane bridge does not meet width requirements, post a rectangular warning sign under the classification sign showing the actual clear width. For a two-lane bridge, downgrade the two-way classification to the highest class for which it does qualify (one-way class is not affected). If the minimum overhead clearance is less than 4.3 meters, post a sign with the limited clearance.

Table B-1. Minimum roadway widths

Roadway Width
(Meters)

Bridge Classification

One-Way

Two-Way

2.75 to 3.34

12

0

3.35 to 3.99

30

0

4 to 4.49

60

0

4.5 to 4.99

100

0

5 to 5.4

150

0

5.5 to 7.2

150

30

7.3 to 8.1

150

60

8.2 to 9.7

150

100

9.8+

150

150

NOTE: The minimum overhead clearance for all classes is 4.5 m.

CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES

Tables B-2 through B-9 and Figures B-2 through Figure B-26 are used to determine the bridge classification of various bridges.

Table B-2. Notations

Variable

Definition

b

stringer width, in inches

bd

concrete slab width, in feet

be

effective slab width, in feet

be1

effective slab width for one-lane traffic, in feet

be2

effective slab width for two-lane traffic, in feet

bR

curb-to-curb roadway width, in feet

d

stringer depth, in inches

df

depth of fill, in inches

di

interior stringer depth (d - 2tf), in inches

fbDL

allowable bearing stress of the stringer, in ksi

L

span length, in feet

Lc

maximum brace spacing, in feet

Lm

maximum span length, in feet

m

moment capacity per stringer, in kip-feet

mDL

dead-load moment per stringer, in kip-feet

MDL

dead-load moment for entire span, in kip-feet

mLL

live-load moment per stringer, in kip-feet

MLL

live-load moment per lane, in kip-feet

MLL1

live-load moment for one-lane traffic, in kip-feet

MLL2

live-load moment for two-lane traffic, in kip-feet

Nb

number of braces

NL

number of lanes

NS

total number of stringers in the span

N1

effective number of stringers for one-lane traffic

N2

effective number of stringers for two-lane traffic

PLC

provisional load class

R

rise of arch, in feet

S

section modulus, in cubic inches

Sb

actual brace spacing, in feet

Sc

section modulus of the composite section, in cubic inches

Ss

center-to-center stringer spacing, in feet

tc

crown thickness, in inches

td

average deck thickness, in inches

teff

effective deck thickness, in inches

tf

flange thickness, in inches

tpl

plate thickness, in inches

tw

web thickness, in inches

tx

thickness factor

T1

one-lane, tracked-vehicle classification

T2

two-lane, tracked-vehicle classification

v

shear capacity per stringer, in kips

vDL

dead-load shear per stringer, in kips

VDL

estimated dead-load shear of span, in kips

vLL

live-load shear per stringer, in kips

VLL

live-load shear per lane, in kips

Ws

stringer weight, in lbs/ft

W1

one-lane, wheeled-vehicle classification

W2

two-lane, wheeled-vehicle classification

Xpl

plate thickness factor

%lam

percent of lamination

Figure B-2. Timber- or steel-trestle bridge with timber deck

Figure B-3. Steel-stringer bridge with concrete deck (noncomposite construction)

Figure B-4. Concrete steel-stringer bridge (composite construction)

Figure B-5. Concrete T-beam bridge with asphalt wearing surface

Figure B-6. Concrete-slab bridge with asphalt wearing surface

Figure B-7. Masonry-arch bridge

Table B-3. Properties of timber stringers

Rectangular Stringers

Rectangular Stringers

Nominal
Size
(b x d, in)1

m
(kip-ft)2

v
(kips)3

Lm(ft)4

Nominal
Size
(b x d, in)1

m
(kip-ft)2

v
(kips)3

Lm(ft)4

4 x 6

4.80

2.40

7.14

16 x 16

136.50

25.60

19.10

4 x 8

8.53

3.20

9.50

16 x 18

172.80

28.80

21.50

4 x 10

13.33

4.00

11.90

16 x 20

213.00

32.00

23.80

4 x 12

19.20

4.80

14.30

16 x 22

258.00

35.20

26.20

6 x 8

12.80

4.80

9.50

16 x 24

307.00

38.40

28.60

6 x 10

20.00

6.00

11.90

18 x 18

194.40

32.40

21.50

6 x 12

28.80

7.20

14.30

18 x 20

240.00

36.00

23.80

6 x 14

39.20

8.40

16.70

18 x 22

290.00

9.60

26.20

6 x 16

51.20

9.60

19.10

18 x 24

346.00

43.20

28.60

6 x 18

64.80

10.80

21.50

Round Stringers (Nominal Size is Diameter)

8 x 8

17.07

6.40

9.50

8 x 10

26.70

8.00

11.90

8

10.05

5.70

9.50

8 x 12

38.40

9.60

14.30

9

14.31

7.20

10.70

8 x 14

52.30

11.20

16.70

10

19.63

8.80

11.90

8 x 16

68.30

12.80

19.10

11

26.10

10.60

13.10

8 x 18

86.40

14.40

21.50

12

33.90

12.70

14.30

8 x 20

106.70

16.40

23.80

13

43.10

15.00

15.50

8 x 22

129.10

17.60

26.20

14

53.90

17.40

16.70

8 x 24

153.60

19.20

28.60

15

67.50

20.20

17.80

10 x 10

33.30

10.00

11.90

16

80.40

22.60

19.10

10 x 12

48.00

12.00

14.30

17

98.20

26.00

20.20

10 x 14

65.30

14.00

16.70

18

114.50

28.60

21.50

10 x 16

85.30

16.00

19.10

19

137.10

32.40

22.60

10 x 18

108.00

18.00

21.50

20

157.10

35.40

23.80

10 x 20

133.30

20.00

23.80

21

185.20

39.60

24.90

10 x 22

161.30

22.00

26.20

22

209.00

42.70

26.20

10 x 24

192.00

24.00

28.60

23

243.00

47.60

27.30

12 x 12

57.60

14.40

14.30

24

271.00

50.80

28.60

12 x 14

78.40

16.80

16.70

25

312.00

56.20

29.70

12 x 16

102.40

19.20

19.10

26

351.00

60.80

30.90

12 x 18

129.60

21.60

21.50

27

393.00

65.60

32.10

12 x 20

160.00

24.00

23.80

28

439.00

70.50

33.30

12 x 22

193.60

26.40

26.20

29

487.00

75.60

34.50

12 x 24

230.00

28.80

28.60

30

540.00

81.00

35.70

14 x 14

91.50

19.60

16.70

31

595.00

86.40

36.80

14 x 16

119.50

22.40

19.10

32

655.00

92.10

38.00

14 x 18

151.20

25.20

21.50

33

718.00

98.00

39.20

14 x 20

186.70

28.00

23.80

34

786.00

104.00

40.40

14 x 22

226.00

30.80

26.20

35

857.00

110.20

41.60

14 x 24

269.00

33.60

28.60

36

933.00

116.60

42.80

1 If d > 2b, bracing is required at the midspan and at both ends.
2 Moment capacity for rectangular stringers not listed is bd2/30. Moment capacity for round stringers not listed is 0.02d3.
3 Shear capacity for rectangular stringers not listed is bd/10. Shear capacity for round stringers not listed is 0.09d2.
4 Maximum span length for stringers not listed is 1.19d.

Table B-4. Properties of steel stringers
(Fy = 36 ksi, fb = 27 ksi, fv = 16.5 ksi)

Nominal
Size

d
(in)

b
(in)

Tf
(in)

tw
(in)

m
(kip-ft)

v
(kips)

Lm
(ft)

Lc
(ft)

W39x211

39.250

11.750

1.438

0.75

1,770

450

100

12.4

W37x206

36.750

11.750

1.438

0.75

1,656

425

95

12.4

W36x300

36.750

16.625

1.688

0.94

2,486

520

94

17.6

W36x194

36.500

12.125

1.250

0.81

1,492

431

93

12.8

W36x182

36.375

12.125

1.187

0.75

1,397

406

93

12.8

W36x170

36.125

12.000

1.125

1.06

1,302

381

92

12.7

W36x160

36.000

12.000

1.000

1.06

1,217

365

92

12.7

W36x230

35.875

16.500

1.250

0.75

1,879

421

91

17.4

W36x150

35.875

12.000

0.937

0.62

1,131

350

91

12.7

W36x201

35.375

11.750

1.438

0.75

1,545

402

90

12.4

W33x196

33.375

11.750

1.438

0.75

1,433

377

85

12.4

W33x220

33.250

15.750

1.250

0.81

1,661

392

85

16.6

W33x141

33.250

11.500

0.937

0.62

1,005

313

85

12.1

W33x130

33.125

11.500

0.875

0.56

911

300

85

12.1

W33x200

33.000

15.575

1.125

0.56

1,506

362

84

16.6

W31x180

31.500

11.750

1.312

0.75

1,327

327

80

12.4

W30x124

30.125

10.500

0.937

0.68

797

273

77

11.1

W30x116

30.000

10.500

0.875

0.62

738

263

76

11.1

W30x108

29.875

10.500

0.750

0.56

672

255

76

11.1

W30x175

29.500

11.750

1.312

0.56

1,156

304

75

12.4

W27x171

27.500

11.750

1.312

0.68

1,059

282

70

12.4

W27x102

27.125

10.000

0.812

0.68

599

217

69

10.6

W27x94

26.875

10.000

0.750

0.50

546

205

68

10.6

W26X157

25.500

11.750

1.250

0.50

915

237

65

12.4

W24x94

24.250

9.000

0.875

0.62

497

191

62

9.5

W24x84

24.125

9.000

0.750

0.50

442

174

61

9.5

W24x100

24.000

12.000

0.750

0.50

560

173

61

12.7

S24x120

24.000

8.000

1.125

0.50

564

286

61

8.4

S24x106

24.000

7.875

1.125

1.18

527

224

61

8.3

S24x80

24.000

7.000

0.875

0.62

391

183

61

7.4

W24x76

23.875

9.000

0.687

0.50

394

163

61

9.5

W24x153

23.625

11.750

0.250

0.43

828

217

60

12.4

S24x134

23.625

8.500

1.250

0.62

634

283

60

9.0

S22x75

22.000

7.000

0.812

0.81

308

168

56

7.4

W21x139

21.625

11.750

1.187

0.50

699

198

55

12.4

S21x112

21.625

7.875

1.187

0.62

495

238

55

8.3

W21x73

21.250

8.250

0.750

0.75

338

148

54

8.7

W21x68

21.125

8.250

0.687

0.50

315

140

54

8.7

W21x62

21.000

8.250

0.625

0.43

284

130

53

8.7

S20x85

20.000

7.125

0.937

0.37

337

195

51

7.5

S20x65

20.000

6.500

0.812

0.68

245

132

51

6.9

W20x134

19.625

11.750

1.187

0.43

621

177

50

12.4

W18x60

18.250

7.500

0.687

0.62

243

115

46

7.9

S18x86

18.250

7.000

1.000

0.43

326

184

46

7.4

W18x55

18.125

7.500

0.625

0.37

220

108

46

7.9

S18x80

18.000

8.000

0.937

0.50

292

133

46

8.4

W18x50

18.000

7.500

0.562

0.37

200

99

46

7.9

S18x55

18.000

6.000

0.687

0.50

199

126

46

6.3

S18x122

17.750

11.750

1.062

0.56

648

145

45

12.4

S18x62

17.750

6.875

0.750

0.37

238

100

45

7.3

S18x77

17.750

6.625

0.937

0.62

281

163

45

7.0

W16x112

16.750

11.750

1.000

0.56

450

136

42

12.4

S16x70

16.750

6.500

0.937

0.62

238

146

42

6.9

W16x50

16.250

7.125

0.625

0.37

181

94

41

7.5

W16x45

16.125

7.000

0.562

0.37

163

85

41

7.4

W16x64

16.000

8.500

0.687

0.43

234

106

40

9.0

W16x40

16.000

7.000

0.500

0.31

145

75

40

7.4

S16x50

16.000

6.000

0.687

0.43

155

105

40

6.3

W16x36

15.875

7.000

0.437

0.31

127

74

40

7.4

W16x110

15.750

11.750

1.000

0.56

345

127

40

12.4

S16x62

15.750

6.125

0.875

0.56

200

129

40

6.5

S16x45

15.750

5.375

0.625

0.43

150

104

40

5.7

W15x103

15.000

11.750

0.937

0.56

369

121

38

12.4

S15x56

15.000

5.875

0.812

0.50

173

110

38

6.2

S15x43

15.000

5.500

0.625

0.43

132

93

38

5.8

W14x101

14.250

11.750

0.937

0.56

344

114

36

12.4

S14x40

14.250

5.375

0.375

0.37

119

83

36

5.7

S14x51

14.125

5.625

0.750

0.50

150

104

36

5.9

S14x70

14.000

8.000

0.937

0.43

204

87

35

8.4

S14x57

14.000

6.000

0.875

0.50

153

101

35

6.3

W14x34

14.000

6.750

0.437

0.31

121

78

35

7.1

W14x30

13.875

6.750

0.375

0.25

109

61

35

7.1

W14x92

13.375

11.750

0.875

0.50

297

96

34

12.4

S14x46

13.375

5.375

0.687

0.50

126

99

34

5.7

S13x35

13.000

5.000

0.625

0.37

85

72

33

5.3

S13x41

12.625

5.125

0.687

0.37

108

104

32

5.4

W12x36

12.250

6.625

0.565

0.31

103

56

31

7.0

S12x65

12.000

8.000

0.937

0.43

182

73

30

8.4

W12x27

12.000

6.500

0.375

0.25

76

44

30

6.9

S12x50

12.000

5.500

0.687

0.68

113

120

30

5.8

S12x32

12.000

5.000

0.562

0.37

81

62

30

5.3

S12x34

11.250

4.750

0.625

0.43

81

72

28

5.0

W11x76

11.000

11.000

0.812

0.50

202

67

28

11.6

S10x29

10.625

4.750

0.562

0.31

67

48

27

5.0

W10x25

10.125

5.750

0.437

0.25

59

38

25

6.1

S10x40

10.000

6.000

0.687

0.37

92

53

25

6.3

S10x35

10.000

5.000

0.500

0.62

65

88

25

5.3

S10x25

10.000

4.625

0.500

0.31

55

46

25

4.9

W10x21

9.875

5.750

0.312

0.25

48

36

25

6.1

W10x59

9.250

9.500

0.687

0.43

132

56

25

10.0

S9x25

9.500

4.500

0.500

0.31

51

43

24

4.8

S9x50

9.000

7.000

0.812

0.37

103

45

23

7.4

S8x35

8.000

6.000

0.625

0.31

65

34

20

6.3

S8x28

8.000

5.000

0.562

0.31

49

35

20

5.3

W8x31

8.000

8.000

0.437

0.31

61

33

20

8.4

W8x44

7.875

7.875

0.625

0.75

81

40

20

8.3

W7x35

7.125

7.125

0.562

0.37

58

37

18

7.5

W6x31

6.250

6.250

0.562

0.37

45

31

16

6.6

Table B-5. Dead-load moment and shear

L
(ft)

Timber Stringer/Timber Deck

Steel Stringer/Timber Deck

One-Lane

Two-Lane

One-Lane

Two-Lane

MDL
(kip-ft)

VDL
(kips)

MDL
(kip-ft)

VDL
(kips)

MDL
(kip-ft)

VDL
(kips)

MDL
(kip-ft)

VDL
(kips)

70         649.26 37.10 1,133.13 64.75
65         538.68 33.15 937.42 57.69
60         441.00 29.40 765.00 51.00
55         355.44 25.85 614.45 44.69
50         281.25 22.50 484.38 38.75
45         217.69 19.35 373.36 33.19
40         164.00 16.40 280.00 28.00
38         145.12 15.28 247.85 26.03
36         127.66 14.18 217.08 24.12
34         111.55 13.12 189.30 22.27
32         96.77 12.10 163.84 20.48
30 91.13 12.15 160.88 21.45 83.25 11.10 140.63 18.75
28 76.24 10.89 134.06 19.15 70.95 10.14 119.56 17.08
26 63.04 9.70 110.36 16.98 59.83 9.20 100.56 15.47
24 51.41 8.57 89.57 14.93 49.82 8.30 83.52 13.92
22 41.26 7.50 71.51 13.00 40.90 7.44 68.37 12.43
20 32.50 6.50 56.00 11.20 33.00 6.60 55.00 11.00
18 25.03 5.56 42.85 9.52 26.10 5.80 43.34 9.63
16 18.75 4.89 31.87 7.97 20.10 5.02 33.28 8.32
14 13.57 3.88 22.88 6.54 14.99 4.28 24.75 7.07
12 9.40 3.13 15.70 5.23 10.73 3.58 17.64 5.88
10 6.13 2.45 10.13 4.05 7.25 2.90 11.88 4.75
9 4.80 2.13 7.89 3.51        
8 3.66 1.83 5.98 2.99        

Table B-6. Profile factors

Serial No

Span-to-Rise Ratio

Factor

Remarks

1

Up to 4

1.0

For a given load, a flat arch of steeper profile
(although it has a very large rise) may fail due
to the crown's action as a smaller, flatter arch.
2 Over 4 See Figure B-9  

Table B-7. Arch factors

Material Factors

Serial No.

Type of Material

Factor

1

Granite, white stone, or built-in course masonry

1.50

2

Concrete or blue engineering bricks

1.20

3

Good limestone masonry and building bricks

1.00

4

Poor masonry or any kind of brickwork

0.70 - 0.50

Joint Factors

Serial No.

Type of Joint

Factor

1

Thin joints, 1/10 inch or less in width

1.25

2

Normal joints, width to 1/4 inch, pointed mortar

1.00

3

Normal joints, mortar unpointed

0.90

4

Joint over 1/4 inch, irregular good mortar

0.80

5

Joint over 1/4 inch, mortar with voids deeper than 1/10 of the ring thickness

0.70

6

Joints 1/2 inch or more, poor mortar

0.50

Deformations

Serial No.

Condition

Adjustment

Note

1

The rise over the
affected portion is
always positive.
Discard profile factor already
calculated and apply span-to-
rise ratio of affected portion
to whole arch.
Arch ring deformation may be
due to partial failure of the ring
(usually accompanied by a sag
in the parapet) or movement at
the abutment.

2

Distortion produces a
flat section of profile.
Maximum MLC = 12.

3

A portion of the ring is
sagging.
Maximum MLC = 5 only if fill at
crown > 18 inches.

Abutment Size Factors

Serial No.

Type of Abutment

Factor

Note

1

Both abutments satisfactory

1.00

An abutment may be regarded
as inadequate to resist the full
thrust of the arch if--

  • The bridge is on a
    narrow embankment,
    particularly if the
    approaches slope
    steeply up to the bridge.
  • The bridge is on an
    embanked curve.
  • The abutment walls are
    very short and suggest
    little solid fill behind the
    arch.

2

One abutment unsatisfactory

0.95

3

Both abutments unsatisfactory

0.90

4

Both abutments massive but a clay fill suspected

0.70

5

Arch carried on one abutment and one pier

0.90

6

Arch carried on two piers

0.80

Abutment Fault Factors

Serial No.

Type of Fault

Factor

1

Inward movement of one abutment

0.75 - 0.50

2

Outward spread of abutments

1.00 - 0.50

3

Vertical settlement of one abutment

0.90 - 0.50

Crack Factors

Serial No.

Type of Crack

Factor

Note

1

Longitudinal cracks within 2 feet of the
edge of the arch; if wider than 1/4 inch and
longer than 1/10 of the span, in bridges.

  • Wider than 20 feet between
    parapets.
  • Narrower than 20 feet between
    parapets.
  

1.00

0.90 - 0.70

Due to an outward force on the
spandrel walls caused by a
lateral spread of the fill.

2

Longitudinal cracks in middle third of the
ridge with--

  • One small crack under 1/8 inch
    wide and shorter than 1/10 of the
    span.
  • Three or more small cracks as
    above.
  • One large crack wider than 1/4
    inch and longer than 1/10 of the
    span.
  

1.00

0.50

0.50

Due to varying amount of
subsiding along the length of
the abutment; large cracks are
danger signs which indicate
that the arch ring has broken
up into narrower independent
rings.

3

Lateral and diagonal cracks less than 1/8
inch wide and shorter than 1/10 of the
arch width

1.00

Lateral cracks, usually found
near the quarter points, are due
to permanent deformation of
the arch, which may be caused
by partial collapse of the arch
or by abutment movement.
Diagonal cracks, usually
starting near the sides of the
arch at the springing and
spreading toward the center of
the arch at the crown, are
probably due to subsiding at
the sides of the abutment.

4

Lateral and diagonal cracks wider than 1/4
inch and longer than 1/10
of the arch width: Restrict load class to 12 or to the
calculated class using all other applicable
factors, whichever is less.
 

5

Cracks between the arch ring and
spandrel or parapet wall greater than 1/10
of the span due to fill spread

0.90

Cracks indicate that the bridge
is in a dangerous condition due
to spreading of the fill pushing
the wall outward or movement
of a flexible ring away from a
stiff fill, so that the two act
independently. The latter type
of failure often produces cracks
in the spandrel wall near the
quarter points.

6

Cracks between the arch ring and
spandrel or parapet wall due to a dropped
ring: Reclassify from the nomograph,
taking the crown thickness as that of the
ring alone.
 

Table B-8. Section moduli for composite steel stringers

Nominal
Size

d
(in)

b
(in)

Sc
(cu in)
td = 3"

Sc
(cu in)
td = 4"

Sc
(cu in)
td = 5"

Sc
(cu in)
td = 6"

Sc
(cu in)
td = 8"

W36x300 36.750 16.625 1,105 1,264 1,323 1,380 1,489
W36x230 35.875 16.500 835 972 1,018 1,061 1,145
W36x194 36.500 12.125 663 805 847 887 961
W36x182 36.375 12.125 621 757 796 833 902
W36x170 36.125 12.000 579 709 745 779 844
W36x160 36.000 12.000 541 667 701 733 794
W36x150 35.875 12.000 502 624 656 686 744
W33x220 33.875 15.750 740 868 910 951 1,031
W33x200 33.625 15.750 669 789 828 865 938
W33x141 33.250 11.500 446 555 585 612 666
W33x130 33.125 11.500 404 509 536 561 612
W30x172 30.500 15.000 528 630 663 694 757
W30x124 30.125 10.500 354 449 474 497 546
W30x116 30.000 10.500 327 419 442 464 511
W30x108 29.875 10.500 299 387 409 429 473
W27x161 27.625 14.000 455 537 566 595 655
W27x102 27.125 10.000 267 342 362 381 423
W27x94 26.875 10.000 243 315 333 350 390
W27x84 26.750 10.000 213 279 295 311 347
W24x94 24.250 9.125 222 288 306 323 364
W24x84 24.125 9.000 196 258 274 290 326
W24x76 23.875 9.000 176 233 247 262 295
W21x73 21.250 8.250 151 203 216 231 263
W21x68 21.125 8.250 140 189 202 216 246
W21x62 21.000 8.250 127 172 184 197 224
W18x60 18.250 7.500 108 149 160 173 201
W18x55 18.125 7.500 98 137 147 159 184

W18x50

18.000

7.500

89

124

134

145

168

Table B-9. Deck thickness factors for allowable live-load moment

td (in)

tx

td (in)

tx

4

1.00

8

1.20

5

1.05

9

1.25

6

1.10

10

1.30

7

1.15

   

Figure B-8. Timber-deck classification

Figure B-9. Profile factors for arch bridges

Figure B-10. Live-load moment for a 12-inch reinforced concrete strip

Figure B-11. Masonry arch PLC

Figure B-12. Bridge class

Figure B-13. Live-load moment for wheeled vehicles

Figure B-14. Live-load moment for tracked vehicles

Figure B-15. Live-load shear for wheeled vehicles

Figure B-16. Live-load shear for tracked vehicles



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