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A2C2   Army airspace command and control
AADC   area air defense commander
ABMOC   air battle management operations center
ACCP   Army Correspondence Course Program
active air defense   Direct defensive action taken to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action. It includes such measures as the use of aircraft, air defense weapons, weapons not used primarily in an air defense role and electronic warfare.
AD   air defense
ADA   air defense artillery
ADO   air defense officer
ADR   air defense reticle
ADW   air defense warning
air defense (AD)   All defensive measures designed to destroy attacking aircraft or missiles in the earth's envelope of atmosphere, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack.
air defense warning (ADW)   Measures used to communicate levels of air threat to all subordinate units and soldiers. Key words are: Red 3/4 attack by hostile aircraft or missiles is imminent or in progress; Yellow 3/4 attack by hostile aircraft or missiles is probable; and White 3/4 attack by hostile aircraft or missiles is improbable.
air guards   Personnel assigned the duty of aerial search and scan for aerial platforms or aircraft of any type.
AO   area of operations
APOD   aerial port of debarkation
APDS-T   armor-piercing discarding sabot-tracer
APFSDS-T   armor-piercing, fin-stabilized, discarding sabot with tracer
ARTEP   Army Training and Evaluation Program
ATGM   antitank guided missile
BC   Bradley commander
BSFV   Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle
C3I   command, control, communications, and intelligence
cal   caliber
CAS   close air support
CBU   cluster bomb unit
chaff   Thin, narrow metallic strips of various lengths and frequency responses used to reflect electronic echoes for confusion purposes on radar screens.
CIS   Commonwealth of Independent States
close air support (CAS)   Air action by fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft against hostile targets which are in proximity to friendly forces and which require detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of those forces.
CM   cruise missile
COA   course of action
DA   Department of the Army
DEW   directed early warning
directed early warning (DEW).   Early warning given to a specific unit or area of the battlefield about impending air attack
DZ   drop zone
FARP   forward arming and refueling point
FFAR   free-flight, air-to-air
FLOT   forward line of own troops
FM   field manual
FOB   forward operations base
FW   fixed-wing
G-2   intelligence staff officer (division or higher staff)
GTA   graphic training aid
HEI-T   high-explosive incendiary-tracer
hostile criteria   Description of conditions under which an aircraft or vehicle may be identified as hostile for engagement purposes.
IPB   intelligence preparation of the battlefield
LADW   local air defense warning
LNO   liaison officer
local air defense warning (LADW)   Measure used by ADA units to communicate the level of air threat to specific units and to recommend specific countermeasures.
LZ   landing zone
MANPADS   man-portable air defense system
mm   millimeter
MTP   mission training plan
NATO   North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NBC   nuclear, biological, and chemical
O/I   operations and intelligence
OP   observation post
passive air defense   All measures, other than active air defense, taken to minimize the effects of hostile air action. They include cover, concealment, camouflage, dummy positions, dispersion, and protective construction.
pop-up point   The location at which aircraft quickly gain altitude for target acquisition and engagement. This point occurs at the end of low-level terrain flight to avoid detection or prevent effective engagement by the enemy.
pull-up point The point at which an aircraft must start to climb from a low-level approach to gain sufficient height from which to execute the attack or retirement
QSTAG   Quadripartite Standardization Agreement
RISTA   reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition
ROE   rules of engagement
rules of engagement (ROE)   Directives of the force headquarters that delineate the circumstances under which US forces will initiate and continue combat engagement with other forces encountered. In air defense, directives that delineate the circumstances under which weapons can fire at an aircraft. The right of self-defense is always preserved.
RW   rotary-wing
S2   Intelligence Officer
SALUTE   size, activity, location, unit, time, equipment
SEAD   suppression of enemy air defenses
SHORAD   short-range air defense
SOI   signal operation instructions
SOP   standing operating procedure
SPOD   seaport of debarkation
STANAG   Standardization Agreement (NATO)
TASM   tactical air-to-surface missile
TBM   tactical ballistic missile; theater ballistic missile
terrain flight The tactic of employing helicopters in such a manner as to use the terrain, vegetation, and man-made objects to degrade the enemy's ability to visually, optically, or electronically detect or locate the helicopter. This tactic involves a constant awareness of the capabilities and positions of the enemy weapons and detection means in relation to available masking terrain features and flight routes. Terrain flying involves flight close to the earth's surface and includes the following flight techniques:

  • Contour flight. Flight at low altitude conforming generally to, and in the proximity of, the contours of the earth. It is characterized by varying airspeed and altitude as dictated by vegetation, obstacles, and ambient light.

  • Low-level flight. Flight generally carried out above obstacles but at an altitude where detection by a threat force is avoided or minimized. It is, therefore, at a constant indicated altitude and airspeed.

  • Nap-of-the-earth flight. Flight at varying airspeeds as close to the earth's surface as vegetation, obstacles, and ambient light will permit while generally following contours of the earth.
THAAD   Theater High-Altitude Area Defense
TOC   tactical operations center
TOT   tracer on target
TOW   tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided (missile)
TRADOC   United States Army Training and Doctrine Command
TSOP   tactical standing operating procedure
UAV   unmanned aerial vehicle
WCS   weapon control status


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